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Resultados  1-10 de 187.211
1.

Aspectos éticos de la informática médica: principios de uso y usuario apropiado de sistemas computacionales en la atención clínica/ Ethical aspects of medical informatics: principles for use and appropriate user of computational systems in clinical health care/ Aspectos éticos da informática médica: princípios de uso e usuário apropriado de sistemas computacionais na atenção clínica

Autor(es): Suárez-Obando, Fernando; Ordóñez Vásquez, Adriana
Fuente: Acta bioeth;18(2): 199-208, nov. 2012. .
Artículo Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: La Informática Médica (IM) estudia la intersección entre la tecnología computacional, la medicina y la influencia del uso de la historia clínica electrónica y los sistemas inteligentes de apoyo diagnóstico en la toma de decisiones clínicas. El uso inadecuado de la tecnología puede desviar los propósitos de la IM hacia su aprovechamiento impropio por terceros involucrados en la atención clínica, tales como administradores de salud o agentes aseguradores. Se plantea que los principios de “uso y usuario apropiado de la aplicaciones en IM” sean los fundamentos con los cuales se maneje adecuadamente la tecnología computacional en salud. El desarrollo de estos principios debe basarse en la evaluación de las propias aplicaciones, recalcando que ésta debe realizarse con las mismas consideraciones de otros tipos de intervenciones médicas o quirúrgicas.(AU)
Medical Informatics (MI) studies the intersection among computer technology, medicine and the influence of electronic clinical history and the intelligent systems for diagnosis support in clinical decision making. The inadequate use of technology may divert the purposes of MI towards an inadequate use by third ...
2.

Análise comparativa entre os códigos de ética odontológica e médica brasileiros/ Análisis comparativo de los códigos brasileros de ética médica y dental/ Comparative analysis of Brazilian medical and dental ethics codes

Autor(es): Carvalho de Melo, Allan Ulisses; Jacinto Gonçalves, Suzane Rodrigues; Ferreira Ribeiro, Cyntia; Santos, Thiago de Santana; Ribeiro de Santana, Augusto Tadeu
Fuente: Acta bioeth;18(2): 257-266, nov. 2012. tab.
Artículo Idioma(s): Portugués
Resumen: Os códigos de ética profissional são normas jurídicas (resoluções de autarquias federais) elaboradas pelos membros das mais diversas categorias de trabalhadores com o intuito de orientar a condutas desses profissionais no que diz respeito à ética na relação com os pacientes, com seus pares e com a sociedade. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma análise comparativa entre os Códigos de Ética Odontológica e Médica. Observou-se que as diferenças entre estes documentos deontológicos surgem muito mais em virtude das particularidades de cada profissão do que por abordagens distintas frente a problemas similares. Concluiu-se que os Códigos de Ética Odontológica e Médica apresentam muito mais pontos em comum do que diferenças, mas seria interessante que os Conselhos de classe ao propor atualizações e modificações dos seus atuais códigos observassem o que as outras profissões da saúde contemplam em suas normas deontológicas, com o intuito de levar em consideração aspectos que também poderiam ser importantes para sua classe profissional de modo a engrandecer os códigos tornando um pouco mais fácil para os médicos e cirurgiões-dentistas a tomada d ...
3.

Vigilancia de brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en Chile/ Foodborne disease outbreaks surveillance in Chile

Autor(es): Olea, Andrea; Díaz, Janepsy; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vaquero, Alejandra; García, Maritza
Fuente: Rev Chilena Infectol;29(5): 504-510, oct. 2012. ilus, tab.
Artículo Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: Background: Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. Aim: To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Method: Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. Results: There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropolitan region. The group aged 15 to 44 years old, was the most affected one. Sixty four percent of the outbreaks had the food involved registered, of which fish and fishery products reached 42%. An 81% of the ou ...
4.

Prevalencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual en mujeres embarazadas atendidas en un hospital público de Chile/ Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in pregnant women attending a public hospital in Chile

Autor(es): Ovalle, Alfredo; Martínez, María A; de la Fuente, Felipe; Falcon, Nicolás; Feliú, Felipe; Fuentealba, Felipe; Gianini, Romina
Fuente: Rev Chilena Infectol;29(5): 517-520, oct. 2012. .
Artículo Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: Introduction: The epidemiologic rates of gonorrhea have declined steadily in Chile, while the incidence of infections with Trichomonas vaginalis and Chlamydia trachomatis is not well known. Aim: Since these sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and perinatal infections, this study aimed to update their prevalence in a public hospital in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. Patients and Methods: Between April and October 2010 and April and October 2011, pregnant women attending the antenatal Service, Hospital San Borja Arriarán, were randomly selected for detection of T. vaginalis, N. gonorrhoeae and C. tra-chomatis by culture in modified Diamond's broth, Thayer-Martin agar, and by omp1 gene amplification by nested PCR, respectively. We excluded pregnant women who received antibiotics within the past 30 days. Results: Two hundred and fifty five cervicovaginal samples were analyzed. C. trachomatis was detected in 15 (5.9%) and T. vaginalis in 6 (2.4%). N. gonorrhoeae was not found. Conclusion: The results show low prevalence of C. tracho-matis and T. vaginalis and absence of N. gonorrhoeae. These rates have remained stable at this me ...
5.

Positive tuberculin test and risk of infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a tuberculosis clinic settled in an upright building, in Minas Gerais, Brazil/ Reactividad a tuberculina en trabajadores de la salud de un centro de referencia de tuberculosis

Autor(es): Spíndola De Miranda, Silvana; Campos De Oliveira, Alice; Xavier Santos, Aline; Pereira Prado, Deborah; Leão Soares, Cláudia; Santos Nery, Rachel; Cunha Vieira, Henriquez; Da Silva Carvalho, Wânia
Fuente: Rev Med Chil;140(8): 1022-1027, Aug. 2012. ilus.
Artículo Idioma(s): Inglés
Resumen: Background: Occupational Tuberculosis (TB) can lead to work absenteeism and a negative professional impact. Knowing the reactivity of the tuberculin test and the risk of M. tuberculosis infection among healthcare professionals is essential for the revision and reinforcement of control measures against TB transmission. Aim: To assess the reactivity of tuberculin test and risk of M. tuberculosis infection among healthcare professionals working in an upright building, in which a TB Reference Clinic is placed. Subjects and Methods: A tuberculosis Skin Test (TST) was done to 251 staff members of a TB clinic that did not have a previous history or suspicion of TB and that did not have a previous TST done. Among subjects with absence of reaction, repeated tests were carried out to assess booster reaction. Results: Fifty one percent of studied subjects (129) had a positive tuberculin test. The booster phenomenon was evidenced in 35.7% (68/190). The seroconversion among non-reactive subjects, subjected to a new TST after one year, was 5.1%. The infection risk was 1.4. Conclusions: This study indicates an important occupational risk of infection in healthcare settings exposed to high TB ...
6.

Edad de menarquia y ascendencia indígena: Un estudio poblacional en Chile/ Age at menarche and indigenous ancestry: A population study in Chile

Autor(es): Ossa, Ximena; Bustos, Patricia; Muñoz, Sergio; Amigo, Hugo
Fuente: Rev Med Chil;140(8): 1035-1042, ago. 2012. ilus.
Artículo Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: Background: The age at menarche may influence decisively health and disease in women. It also indicates the beginning of the reproductive period and, as a consequence, the possibility of biological continuity for the human species. Genetic and environmental determinants define the age of menarche and can explain differences found among different populations. Aim: To determine the age at menarche among adolescents with different levels of indigenous descent (parental indigenous surnames), considering the effect of socioeconomic and demographic factors. Material and Methods: An observational study of historic cohorts of8.624 girls from the Arauca-nía Region (central-southern Chile) was carried out. Data were collected by health professionals using a previously validated questionnaire. Occurrence of menarche was estimated through survival analysis and compared between groups (according to indigenous parental surnames) adjusted for parents' income and educational level and provenance (rural/urban). Results: Estimated median age of menarche was 151 months (95% Cl: 150-151). In female with four indigenous surnames, menarche occurred two months later than girls without indigenous su ...
7.

Prevalencia de neuropatía periférica en diabéticos tipo 2 en el primer nivel de atención/ Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among primary care type 2 diabetic patients

Autor(es): Ibarra R, Carlos Tomás; Rocha L, José de Jesús; Hernández O, Raúl; Nieves R, Rene Efrén; Leyva J, Rafael
Fuente: Rev Med Chil;140(9): 1126-1131, set. 2012. ilus.
Artículo Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: Background: Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetic patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Type 2 diabetic patients attended at a family medicine unit. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional assessment of 348 type 2 diabetic patients aged 34-89 years (60% females) with a disease duration of 5 to 15 years. Peripheral neurological status was evaluated using The Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument, a tool that includes a self-assessment of symptoms and a physical examination. Results: Diabetic neuropathy was found in 240patients (69%). The prevalence in males and females was 72 and 67% respectively. The prevalence in patients with a disease duration of 5, 10 and 15 years, was 59, 69 and 77%, respectively. Fifty percent of patients with neuropathy complained of dry skin, 2% had ulcers, 43% had an abnormal perception of vibration and 29% had an abnormal monofilament test. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in this group of patients was 69% and was directly associated with the duration of the disease.(AU)
8.

Evaluación multidimensional de los servicios de salud para adolescentes en centros de Atención Primaria en una comuna de Santiago/ Multidimensional assessment of public health care services for adolescents in Chile

Autor(es): Williams de T, Catalina; Poblete A, Fernando; Baldrich A, Francisca
Fuente: Rev Med Chil;140(9): 1145-1153, set. 2012. ilus.
Artículo Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: Background: Adolescents are an especially vulnerable age group in terms of behavioral issues and require skilled teams in health centers. Aim: To assess the quality of health services provided to teenage users in Primary Health Care. Material and Methods: A study of multiple cases was carried out in two family health centers in Puente Alto, Chile. Health services delivered to adolescents were evaluated from the provider's perspective, through qualitative design of focus groups and interviews to the care teams at each centre. For technical quality, comparing electronic records of two tracer conditions (prenatal care and depression) with technical standards established by Delphi methodology and from teenage users perspective, through a survey of service satisfaction. Results: In both centers, providers perceived a lack of training in adolescent care, a deficient preventive approach and a limited access to care. The technical evaluation showed an inappropriate recording of both tracer conditions. The instrument used to assess user satisfaction survey was reliable and showed that the best perceived issue was medical care and treatment, and the least perceived, was the access to th ...
9.

La educación y la prevención como componentes primordiales en la actitud hacia las políticas de drogas/ Education and prevention as principal components in attitudes toward drugs policies

Autor(es): López-López, Wilson; Pineda-Marín, Claudia; Mullet, Etienne
Fuente: Ter. psicol;30(3): 103-117, dic. 2012. tab
Artículo Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: Las políticas para el manejo de las drogas en el mundo han sido principalmente prohibicionistas, han tenido un alto costo social, político y económico y pobres resultados en la disminución de la producción, el tráfico y el consumo de drogas. Este estudio piloto indagó la aceptabilidad frente a diversas políticas de drogas de 100 ciudadanos y ciudadanas corrientes de Bogotá-Colombia muestreados aleatoriamente. Para recoger los datos se usó un instrumento de 12 escenarios con dos conceptos fundamentales: el compromiso del Estado con la prevención y educación, y los tipos de políticas de los Estados. Los resultados se obtuvieron con análisis de varianzas y un análisis de componentes principales. Encontramos que las personas tienen un mayor nivel de aceptabilidad hacia las políticas de reglamentación, menor aceptabilidad hacia las políticas de libre mercado y que las personas tienen mayor aceptabilidad cuando el Estado se compromete con campañas de educación y prevención.(AU)
Drugs policies around the world have been mainly prohibitionists. It have had a high social, political and economic price and poor results in decreasing production, trafficking and d ...
10.

La heterogeneidad del alfabetismo en salud y el consentimiento informado en Chile/ The case against template informed consent procedures in biomedical research: heterogeneity in health literacy in Chile

Autor(es): Saavedra-Dahm, Oscar; Solar, Paula; Díaz, Hernán; Mandel, Astrid; Casado, María; Orihuela, Pedro; Rivera, María; Velásquez, Luis; Cardenas, Hugo
Fuente: Ter. psicol;30(3): 127-131, dic. 2012. tab
Artículo Idioma(s): Español
Resumen: Se examinó el alfabetismo en salud en Chile con el fin de determinar si se pueden usar procedimientos de consentimiento informado estándares en esta población. Se evaluó el alfabetismo en salud con la versión abreviada de la prueba SAHLSA. Los resultados se expresaron como el porcentaje de respuestas correctas en cada prueba. El promedio global de respuestas correctas fue 85.4 ± 13.5 % (media aritmética ± desviación estándar, n=762). Hubo diferencias importantes entre los subgrupos examinados. El nivel más bajo de alfabetismo en salud se detectó en pescadores artesanales y sus familias y en estudiantes de liceos públicos, y el más alto en estudiantes universitarios y madres pobladoras atendidas en el sistema público de salud. Los resultados muestran la necesidad que los procedimientos de consentimiento informado tomen en cuenta la heterogeneidad del alfabetismo en salud de la población chilena.(AU)
Health literacy was examined in Chile to assess whether it is homogenous enough to allow the use of "templates" for informed consent, and to identity subgroups that may need special consideration when recruited for research because of their low health literacy a ...
Resultados  1-10 de 187.211