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Características clínicas, epidemiológicas y manejo terapéutico de la meningitis pediátrica en dos instituciones de Medellín, Colombia / Clinical, epidemiological characteristics and therapeutic management of pediatric meningitis in two institutions of Medellin, Colombia

Uribe-Ocampo, Alejandra; Correa-Pérez, Sara; Rodríguez-Padilla, Libia María; Barrientos-Gómez, Juan Guillermo; Orozco-Forero, Juan Pablo.
Univ. salud; 20(2): 121-130, mayo-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-904694
Resumen Introducción: La meningitis es una emergencia médica que requiere diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno para evitar complicaciones. Objetivo: Determinar las características clínicas, epidemiológicas y el manejo terapéutico de meningitis en la primera infancia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal que evaluó menores hasta los seis años de edad con meningitis bacteriana o aséptica en dos centros de Medellín, 2010 - 2013. Se recolectaron características clínicas, paraclínicas y terapéuticas. Las variables cualitativas se describieron mediante frecuencias absolutas y relativas y las cuantitativas con mediana y rango intercuartílico. Se exploró diferencias en las características de los pacientes según grupo de edad, mediante la prueba Chi-cuadrado o Fisher. Resultados: De 56 pacientes, 33 (58,9%) eran del sexo masculino; 26 (46,4%) presentaron meningitis bacteriana, 20 (35,7%) aséptica y 10 (17,9%) indeterminada; 36 (64,3%) fueron mayores de dos meses, con manifestaciones clínicas inespecíficas (fiebre e irritabilidad). Se aislaron principalmente microorganismos Gram negativos en hemocultivos y Gram positivos en líquido cefalorraquídeo. El tratamiento antibiótico más frecuente fue cefalosporinas de tercera-generación en 13 (65%) menores de 2 meses y 28 (77,8%) mayores. Fallecieron dos pacientes y seis presentaron complicaciones. Conclusiones: la meningitis bacteriana fue la más frecuente en menores de un año. El tratamiento combinado es ideal para garantizar un adecuado cubrimiento y evitar complicaciones.
Abstract Introduction: Meningitis is a medical emergency that requires early diagnosis and treatment to avoid complications. Objective: To determine the clinical, epidemiological characteristics and therapeutic management of meningitis in early childhood. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study, which evaluated children up to six years old with bacterial or aseptic meningitis from 2010 to 2013, was conducted in two centers in Medellin. Clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic characteristics were collected. The qualitative variables were described by absolute and relative frequencies, and the quantitative ones with median and interquartile range. Differences in patient characteristics according to age group were explored, using the Chi-square or Fisher test. Results: From the 56 patients studied, 33 (58.9%) were male; 26 (46.4%) showed bacterial meningitis, 20 (35.7%) aseptic one and 10 (17.9%) indeterminate one; 36 (64.3%) were older than two months, with non-specific clinical manifestations (fever and irritability). Gram-negative microorganisms were mainly isolated in blood cultures and Gram positive in cerebrospinal fluid. The most common antibiotic treatment was third-generation cephalosporins in 13 (65%) children who were less than 2 months and 28 (77.8%) in older ones. Two patients died and six children presented complications. Conclusions: Bacterial meningitis was the most frequent in children under one year old. Combined treatment is ideal to ensure adequate coverage and avoid complications.