Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 16 de 16
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903584

ABSTRACT

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome is a highly fatal condition characterized by widespread thromboembolism subsequent to a triggering factor (e.g., infection, trauma, and neoplasia) in antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients. This paper reports a case of a 29-year-old male without the underlying disease who developed extensive mesenteric thromboembolism and jejunal necrosis during the treatment for acute enteritis. The patient’s condition was improved with low-molecular-weight heparin and an intravenous Ig treatment with emergency surgery. The serum antiphospholipid (anticardiolipin IgM) and lupus anticoagulant antibody tests showed positive results. Acute infectious enterocolitis is generally considered a mild disease. On the other hand, aggressive evaluation and treatment should be considered if the clinical conditions do not improve and deteriorate rapidly despite appropriate antibiotic treatment because of the possibility of acute immunological complications, such as catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897691

ABSTRACT

Although patients with cirrhosis are known to be in a state of “rebalance” in that pro- and anticoagulant factors increase the risk for both bleeding and thrombosis, the prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with cirrhosis can be up to 26%. Therefore, physicians should consider anticoagulation for the prevention and management of PVT in patients with cirrhosis who are at high risk of PVT. Vitamin K antagonist or low molecular weight heparin is suggested as the standard treatment for PVT in cirrhosis. With the advent of new direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), there is a paradigm shift of switching to DOACs for the treatment of PVT in patients with cirrhosis. However, the safety and efficacy of DOACs in the treatment of PVT was not well-known in patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, this review focused on the current knowledge about the efficacy, safety concerns, and hepatic metabolism of DOACs in patients with cirrhosis and PVT.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895880

ABSTRACT

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome is a highly fatal condition characterized by widespread thromboembolism subsequent to a triggering factor (e.g., infection, trauma, and neoplasia) in antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients. This paper reports a case of a 29-year-old male without the underlying disease who developed extensive mesenteric thromboembolism and jejunal necrosis during the treatment for acute enteritis. The patient’s condition was improved with low-molecular-weight heparin and an intravenous Ig treatment with emergency surgery. The serum antiphospholipid (anticardiolipin IgM) and lupus anticoagulant antibody tests showed positive results. Acute infectious enterocolitis is generally considered a mild disease. On the other hand, aggressive evaluation and treatment should be considered if the clinical conditions do not improve and deteriorate rapidly despite appropriate antibiotic treatment because of the possibility of acute immunological complications, such as catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889987

ABSTRACT

Although patients with cirrhosis are known to be in a state of “rebalance” in that pro- and anticoagulant factors increase the risk for both bleeding and thrombosis, the prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients with cirrhosis can be up to 26%. Therefore, physicians should consider anticoagulation for the prevention and management of PVT in patients with cirrhosis who are at high risk of PVT. Vitamin K antagonist or low molecular weight heparin is suggested as the standard treatment for PVT in cirrhosis. With the advent of new direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), there is a paradigm shift of switching to DOACs for the treatment of PVT in patients with cirrhosis. However, the safety and efficacy of DOACs in the treatment of PVT was not well-known in patients with cirrhosis. Therefore, this review focused on the current knowledge about the efficacy, safety concerns, and hepatic metabolism of DOACs in patients with cirrhosis and PVT.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834048

ABSTRACT

Collision tumors are extremely rare, and currently, no therapeutic protocols are established. A 64-year-old man presented to his physician with complaints of right chest and abdominal pain. The contrast-enhanced CT scan showed a mass measuring 3.6 cm around the gastric fundus. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed and a semicircular longitudinal ulcerative mass was found at the distal esophagus. A mass measuring about 4 cm with central ulceration was noted at the cardia. The esophageal biopsy revealed positivity for a component of neuroendocrine carcinoma adjacent to a squamous cell carcinoma. PET-CT revealed a mass in the esophagus and cardia and several tumors in the whole liver, pancreas, and bone. The patient was finally diagnosed with a collision tumor of the esophagus with multiple metastases. In conclusion, patients with collision tumors must undergo active multidisciplinary management that will include pathologists and oncologists, who will decide on proper treatment strategies.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787149

ABSTRACT

Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by absence of peristalsis and failure of relaxation of lower esophagus sphincter. The introduction of high resolution manometry (HRM) and per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has made a new chapter in diagnosis and treatment of achalasia. HRM allows classify according to the subtype of achalasia, and help predict prognosis and therapeutic response. POEM is a minimally invasive, effective option for treating achalasia. The management of achalasia required tailored application of various therapies such as botox injection, pneumatic balloon dilatation, POEM, or Heller's myotomy. In this review, we state the important aspects of diagnosis as well as management of achalasia.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Diagnosis , Dilatation , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophagus , Manometry , Peristalsis , Prognosis , Relaxation
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764990

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gender-related factors might play an important role in the development of reflux esophagitis (RE) and symptomatic gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for RE and symptomatic GERD and determine whether gender specific differences exist. METHODS: This study was conducted on a health cohort consisting of 10,158 participants who underwent comprehensive health screening. Lifestyles and gastrointestinal symptoms were investigated using a self-reported structured questionnaire. Questionnaires about menstrual status were added for the women. RESULTS: The prevalence of RE in men was significantly higher than that in women (10.6% vs. 2.0%, P < 0.001); however, symptomatic GERD showed predominance in women (6.2% vs. 2.5%, P < 0.001). Although the prevalence of RE gradually increased with the duration of menopause stratified by decade (P = 0.007), that of symptomatic GERD rapidly increased across the menopausal transit in women. Apart from common risk factors of obesity and current smoking for RE, over 70 years of age in women and hiatal hernia and hypertriglyceridemia in men were significant risk factors. In symptomatic GERD, high somatization was a common risk factor. Excessive alcohol drinking was a significant risk factor in men, but not in women. CONCLUSION: This study showed a predominance of RE in men, but a predominance of symptomatic GERD in women. In women, dynamic increase in the prevalence of GERD is closely related to the menopause conditions and its duration. There are specific risk factors for RE and symptomatic GERD according to gender differences.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Cohort Studies , Esophagitis, Peptic , Female , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Hernia, Hiatal , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia , Life Style , Male , Mass Screening , Menopause , Obesity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763919

ABSTRACT

On December 31, 2018, an incident occurred where a doctor was attacked and killed by a patient carrying a lethal weapon in the outpatients' clinic of the psychiatric department of a tertiary general hospital. The suspect was diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder (manic depressive disorder) and has been hospitalized and cared for in the psychiatric ward of this hospital. This incident illustrates the necessity of more active cures and therapeutic intervention for mental patients with intellectual developmental disorders who require treatment considering the fact that a radical outcome has been caused by such a patient. However, on the other hand, there is also a need for an approach and analysis from the perspective of crime prevention for all medical departments. The reason for this is that even a tertiary general hospital equipped with the largest human resources, medical devices, facilities, and so forth, is susceptible to violence. As for illegal actions perpetrated against health and medical service personnel in medical institutions, such as verbal abuse, assault, injury, etc. there have neither been understanding shown for the current extent of damage in detail, nor discussions of active institutional improvement related to the seriousness of the act. It can be said that violence in the field of medical treatment is a realm requiring serious discussion and appropriate remedial actions. This is because when such incidents take place, if a patient who is supposed to get treatment from the damaged health care provider is in an urgent situation or on the waiting list of serious cases, he or she could suffer serious damage caused by deprivation of treatment opportunity, or secondary damage might be caused to the patient and/or a guardian who can hardly have an opportunity to take action. Accordingly, in this review, we would like to help create the necessary conditions for both health and medical service personnel and patients/guardians, respectively, to provide and receive medical treatment in a more secure environment. Therefore, objective assessment of the institution and issues relating to this aforementioned incident and general cases of violence occurring in medical institutions, and by suggesting legal and institutional improvements and solutions.


Subject(s)
Crime , Hand , Health Personnel , Hospitals, General , Humans , Mentally Ill Persons , Mood Disorders , Violence , Waiting Lists , Weapons
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786619

ABSTRACT

Cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are rare, and this infection is commonly asymptomatic in immunocompetent patients. Here, we report a pathologically proven case of CMV infection in gastric ulcers in an immunocompetent patient. A 35-year-old man visited our hospital for a surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Except fatigue, he had no other symptoms. Laboratory data showed that his white cell count was 9.28×10³/µL with 60.1% lymphocytes. However, aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase levels were elevated. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple gastric ulcers that were healing. Two endoscopic biopsies were performed to obtain specimens at the ulcer base. Histological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed CMV infection; subsequently, we decided that the best option was observation without medication. He revisited a month later, and the ulcers had disappeared.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alanine Transaminase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biopsy , Cell Count , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Cytomegalovirus , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Fatigue , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphocytes , Stomach Ulcer , Ulcer
10.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 565-573, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most efficient imaging modality for gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs). However, abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT) has other advantages in evaluating the characteristics, local extension, or invasion of SETs to adjacent organs. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic ability of EUS and APCT based on surgical histopathology results.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 53 patients who underwent both EUS and APCT before laparoscopic wedge resection for gastric SETs from January 2010 to December 2017 at a single institution. On the basis of histopathology results, we assessed the diagnostic ability of the 2 tests.RESULTS: The overall accuracy of EUS and APCT was 64.2% and 50.9%, respectively. In particular, the accuracy of EUS vs. APCT for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, and ectopic pancreas was 83.9% vs. 74.2%, 37.5% vs. 0.0%, and 57.1% vs. 14.3%, respectively. Most of the incorrect diagnoses with EUS involved hypoechoic lesions originating in the fourth echolayer, with the most common misdiagnosed lesions being GISTs mistaken for leiomyomas and vice versa.CONCLUSIONS: APCT showed a lower overall accuracy than EUS; however, APCT remains a useful modality for malignant/potentially malignant gastric SETs.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Endosonography , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Humans , Leiomyoma , Pancreas , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an accepted treatment method for gastric neoplasm worldwide, metachronous recurrence often occurs. Here, we evaluated the risk factors for metachronous recurrence after ESD of gastric dysplasia or adenocarcinoma and also examined the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 400 patients who underwent endoscopic resection from February 2005 to December 2014 at Ewha Womans University Hospital, the medical records of 180 patients were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: The enrolled patients included 118 men and 62 women, and their median age was 61.7±10.3 years. During a median follow-up period of 34.5 months, metachronous recurrence occurred in 21 (11.7%) patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that H. pylori eradication did not have any preventive effects on metachronous recurrence. A family history of gastric cancer was the only risk factor for metachronous recurrence after ESD of the gastric neoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: Metachronous recurrence was found to be related to family history of gastric cancer. However, H. pylori eradication had no preventive effects on metachronous recurrence after ESD of a gastric neoplasm. Therefore, intensive surveillance is required for patients who undergo ESD of a gastric neoplasm and have a family history of gastric cancer.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761501

ABSTRACT

Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by absence of peristalsis and failure of relaxation of lower esophagus sphincter. The introduction of high resolution manometry (HRM) and per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has made a new chapter in diagnosis and treatment of achalasia. HRM allows classify according to the subtype of achalasia, and help predict prognosis and therapeutic response. POEM is a minimally invasive, effective option for treating achalasia. The management of achalasia required tailored application of various therapies such as botox injection, pneumatic balloon dilatation, POEM, or Heller's myotomy. In this review, we state the important aspects of diagnosis as well as management of achalasia.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Diagnosis , Dilatation , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophagus , Manometry , Peristalsis , Prognosis , Relaxation
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738948

ABSTRACT

Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy has become a standard procedure in bariatric surgery owing to its efficacy and simplicity. However, this procedure can cause life-threatening complications such as a gastric staple-line leak. A 24-year-old woman was transferred to the emergency department for evaluation of epigastric pain. Nine days prior to transfer, she underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy at another institution. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed fluid collection with air density along the left subphrenic space and gastrosplenic ligament area. Intravenous antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition were initiated. She underwent percutaneous catheter drainage. On postoperative day 18, an esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed to assess the site and size of the leak, and revealed a leak at the proximal staple line just below the gastroesophageal junction. A newly designed, fully covered antimigratory esophageal stent was placed to cover the leak from the distal esophagus to gastric midbody. Follow-up abdominal CT demonstrated improvement of the fluid collection at the location of the previous gastric leak. The stent was removed 3 weeks after insertion, and a barium study confirmed no more leakage. In this case, we experienced that the newly designed esophageal stent was safe and effective for preventing migration in the management of leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.


Subject(s)
Anastomotic Leak , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bariatric Surgery , Barium , Catheters , Drainage , Emergency Service, Hospital , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrectomy , Humans , Ligaments , Obesity , Parenteral Nutrition, Total , Stents , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173099

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A substantial portion of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) patients present with localized disease limited to the upper respiratory tract, however; disease spectrum and prognosis of these patients are unclear. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with localized GPA. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive case series of patients with a biopsy proven localized GPA presenting to a single tertiary rheumatology service between January 1995 and September 2015. RESULTS: A total of 5 patients, median age 56 years (range 48 to 59 years) at diagnosis and 80% female, were identified. The median follow-up period was 42 months (range 15 to 62 months). Diagnosis was delayed with median time to diagnosis of 12 months (range 3 to 36 months), and patients underwent 1-3 ear, nose, and throat surgeries during the period of diagnostic delay. Sinusitis was the most frequent symptom in all patients, followed by otomastoiditis with cranial nerve palsies (n=2) and orbital mass (n=1). Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) was positive initially in 2/5 patients (40%). Two patients with otomastoiditis and cranial nerve palsies progressed to systemic disease with ANCA positive conversion. These two cases along with a case with orbital mass were refractory to standard treatment of cyclophosphamide with glucocorticoids requiring rituximab treatment. CONCLUSION: Patients with localized GPA may progress to systemic disease over the disease course, and may have aggressive disease refractory to standard treatment. Close monitoring for systemic symptoms and repeated ANCA testing is required in patients with localized GPA.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Biopsy , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Cyclophosphamide , Diagnosis , Ear , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glucocorticoids , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Humans , Nose , Orbit , Pharynx , Prognosis , Respiratory System , Retrospective Studies , Rheumatology , Rituximab , Sinusitis
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-81699

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer tends to be delayed in diagnosis because of the lack of early symptom and less than 20% of patients present with resectable masses. A 95-year-old male visited due to recurrent abdominal pain and vomiting. About 2 years ago, a polypoid lesion was detected at the post-bulbar area on esophagogastroduodenoscopy for medical check-up. Endoscopic biopsy noted chronic inflammation with glandular atypia. On the CT scan, there was an intraluminal polypoid mass lesion with mixed hypodensity at the duodenal second portion. Ultrasound guided biopsy targeting the hypodense lesion was performed and revealed chronic pancreatitis. The vomiting persisted and the patient received a palliative gastrojejunostomy. Twenty-five days after gastrojejunostomy, jaundice occurred and an ill-defined mass at the pancreas head was noted on the CT. Pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy was performed and a 3.5 cm sized, moderate to poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of pancreas head was diagnosed. Nineteen days after operation, the patient was discharged in good condition.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adenocarcinoma , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Duodenal Obstruction , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Gastric Bypass , Head , Humans , Inflammation , Jaundice , Male , Pancreas , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Pylorus , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , Vomiting
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Borrmann type 4 advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is difficult to diagnose. There are no typical endoscopic findings. Endoscopic biopsies have a high false negative rate because Borrmann type 4 AGC frequently resides below the submucosal cells from which it develops. The aim of this study was to investigate the endoscopic findings of Borrmann type 4 AGC in order to improve diagnosis rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 24 patients with pathologically proven Borrmann type 4 AGC at the Ewha Womans University Medical Center between January 2008 and May 2013 were included. We divided the cases according to their distinguishing endoscopic findings. The diagnostic yield for endoscopic biopsies was evaluated. RESULTS: The most common endoscopic findings were cases with Bormann type 4 AGC like lesions (diffuse infiltrative, n=10), followed by Bormann type 3 AGC like lesions (ulceroinfiltrative, n=9), Borrmann type 2 AGC like lesions (ulcerofungating, n=4) and early gastric cancer like lesion (n=1). Among the 23 cases in which endoscopic biopsies was performed, the diagnostic yield for the first endoscopic biopsy was 87.0% (n=20). All of the second endoscopic biopsies failed to diagnose the malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic findings of Borrmann type 4 AGC are atypical and diverse. In cases where negative results are accompanied by a malignant impression, further meticulous evaluation should be performed with careful targeting.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Biopsy , Diagnosis , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Female , Humans , Stomach Neoplasms
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL