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1.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 25(1): 98-102, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279660

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. El propósito de este estudio fue explorar la duplicidad de la arteria renal en un espécimen de Cerdocyon thous, centrándose en las posibilidades de la implicación clínico-quirúrgica de esta variación anatómica. Materiales y Métodos. Fueron disecados 32 especímenes de Cerdocyon thous, obtenidos de las colecciones del Laboratorio de Enseñanza e Investigación en Morfología de los Animales Domésticos y Salvajes del Departamento de Anatomía Animal y Humana, de la Universidad Federal Rural del Rio de Janeiro y del Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal de la Universidad Federal del Pampa. Resultados. Fue observada una variación numérica en la arteria renal izquierda en un cadáver hembra adulto. El riñón izquierdo tenía dos arterias renales, una craneal y otra caudal. La primera arteria renal del riñón izquierdo, midiendo 2,25 cm de longitud, se ha originado lateralmente desde la aorta abdominal a nivel de la tercera vértebra lumbar. Además, emanaba dos ramas prehiliares, una dorsal y otra ventral, con la rama ventral suministrando también a la glándula suprarrenal. La segunda arteria renal también se ha originado lateralmente desde la aorta abdominal a nivel de la tercera vértebra lumbar, midiendo 2,36 cm de longitud. También ha emitido dos ramas prehiliares, una craneal y otra caudal, las cuales emitieron la rama uretral. Conclusiones. Las variaciones numéricas de las arterias renales deben ser consideradas en la ejecución de procedimientos quirúrgicos, radiológicos y experimentales, con los fines de evitar errores ocasionados por la falta de conocimiento de la posibilidad de estas variaciones tanto en animales domésticos como salvajes.


ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of this study was explored the duplicity of renal artery in a specimen of Cerdocyon thous, focusing on the possibilities of clinical-surgical implication of this anatomical variation. Materials and methods. Were dissected 32 specimens of Cerdocyon thous, obtained from the collections of the Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Morfologia dos Animais Domésticos e Selvagens do Departamento de Anatomia Animal e Humana, da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro e Laboratório de Anatomia Animal da Universidade Federal do Pampa. Results. Were observed a numerical variation in the left renal artery in an adult female cadaver. The left kidney had two renal arteries, one cranial and another caudal. The first renal artery of the left kidney, measuring 2.25 cm in length, originated laterally from the abdominal aorta at the level of the third lumbar vertebra. Moreover, it emanated two pre-hilar branches, one dorsal and one ventral, with the ventral branch supplying also to the adrenal gland. The second renal artery also originated laterally from the abdominal aorta at the level of the third lumbar vertebra and measured 2.36 cm in length. It also emitted two pre-hilar branches, one cranial and another caudal, which emitted the ureteral branch. Conclusions. Numerical variations of the renal arteries should be considered in the execution of surgical, radiological and experimental procedures in order to avoid mistakes made due to lack of knowledge of the possibility these variations both in domestic and wild animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine , Renal Artery , Urogenital System
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1404-1408, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040145

ABSTRACT

Las glándulas tiroides consisten en dos partes denominadas lobos que se encuentran en ambos lados de la laringe. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las medidas, topografía y vascularización de la glándula tiroides de conejos Nueva Zelanda. Las disecciones anatómicas se realizaron en 36 cadáveres adultos, 17 machos y 19 hembras, con masa corporal media de 2,5 kg y longitud cara-sacral media de 40 cm. Los cadáveres fueron obtenidos del sector de necropsia de la Universidad. Los especímenes tuvieron la arteria aorta torácica canalada, por la cual se inyectó solución de formaldehído al 10 %, seguida de látex coloreado. En los machos, el lobo izquierdo de la glándula tiroidea midió 1,40 x 0,40 x 0,01 cm y el derecho 1,36 x 0,56 x 0,01 cm; en las hembras, el lobo izquierdo midió 1,50 x 0,49 x 0,01 cm y el derecho 1,37 x 0,48 x 0,01cm. No hubo diferencia significativa (p> 0,05) entre las medias de las medidas entre machos y hembras, pero la extensión del lóbulo izquierdo de las hembras y la anchura del lóbulo derecho de los machos fueran significativamente mayores (p <0,05). La extremidad craneal de los lobos tiroideos se encontraba al nivel del cartílago cricoide en casi todos los especímenes. El extremo caudal presentó topografía más variable, desde el tercer hasta el décimo anillo traqueal, habiendo predominado al nivel del quinto anillo. Invariablemente, la irrigación arterial fue determinada por las arterias tiroideas izquierda y derecha, originadas de la arteria carótida común. Las anastomosis entre las arterias tiroideas fueron comunes. La constancia en las dimensiones y irrigación de la glándula tiroidea puede ser ventajosa en la elección del Coelho como modelo experimental para el estudio de esta glándula.


The thyroid glands consist of two parts called lobes located on both sides of the larynx. The aim of this study was to characterize the measures, topography and arterial irrigation of New Zealand´s rabbits thyroid glands. The anatomical dissections were performed in 36 adult cadavers, 17 males and 19 females, with a mean body mass of 2.5 kg and a mean cranium-sacral length of 40 cm. The specimens were obtained from the necropsy unit of the University. The cadavers had the thoracic aorta artery cannulated, through which 10 % formaldehyde solution was injected, followed by injection colored latex. In males, the left lobe of the thyroid gland measured 1.40x0.40x0.01cm and the right 1.36x0.56x0.01cm; in females, the left lobe measured 1.50x0.49x0.01cm and the right one was 1.37x0.48x0.01cm. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05) between the means of the measurements between males and females, but the left lobe length of the females and the right lobe width of the males were significantly higher (p <0.05). The cranial extremity of the thyroid lobes was at the level of the cricoid cartilage in almost all specimens. The caudal end showed more variable topography, from the third to the tenth tracheal ring in few specimens, but predominated at the level of the fifth ring. Invariably, arterial irrigation was determined by the left and right thyroid arteries, originating from the common carotid artery. Anastomoses between the thyroid arteries were common. The constancy in dimensions and irrigation of the thyroid gland may be advantageous in choosing the rabbit as an experimental model for the study of this gland.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits/anatomy & histology , Thyroid Gland/blood supply , Blood Vessels/anatomy & histology , Sex Characteristics , Thyroid Gland/anatomy & histology
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 26(1): 8-11, jan.-mar. 2019. il
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016189

ABSTRACT

El Didelphis aurita, conocido como comadreja de orejas negras, es un marsupial con amplia distribución en la América del Sur, frecuente tanto en los ambientes silvestres como antrópicos debido a su gran plasticidad ecológica. Animales de esta especie son comúnmente atendidos en la medicina de animales silvestres y vienen siendo empleados como modelos experimentales alternativos a especies tradicionales. El objetivo de ese trabajo fue relatar la ocurrencia de un caso de vena renal doble en un espécimen adulto, macho, de D. aurita. Para eso, se ha disecado un cadáver fijado y conservado en solución de formaldehído 10%, previamente inyectado con látex de color azul por la porción torácica de la arteria aorta para facilitar la disección. El espécimen poseía dos venas renales derechas, una vena craneal (11,3 mm) y otra caudal (10,0 mm) que drenaban distintamente para una vena cava caudal. La vena renal izquierda y las arterias renales eran únicas. Aunque la duplicidad de la vena renal es reportada en otras especies como perros, gatos y felideos silvestres, este es el primer relato en el género Didelphis. El conocimiento de las variaciones anatómicas vasculares es relevante para la correcta ejecución de procedimientos veterinarios y en la interpretación de hallazgos experimentales en relación con el sistema urogenital.


Didelphis aurita, known as black eared oposum, is a marsupial widely distributed in South America, frequently seen in both wild and anthropogenic environments due to its great ecological plasticity. This species is commonly treated in wildlife veterinary services and has been used as alternative experimental models instead of conventional species. The aim of this report was to describe a case of double renal vein in a male, adult, specimen of D. aurita. In order to make the dissection easier, the cadaver was fixed and preserved in 10 % formaldehyde solution, and previously injected with latex in blue color by the thoracic aorta to facilitate dissection. The specimen had two right renal veins, one cranial (11.3 mm) and other caudal (10.0 mm) that drained distinctly for caudal vena cava. The left renal vein and the renal arteries were single. Although double renal vein has been reported in other species, such as dogs, cats and wild felids, this is the first mention in the genus Didelphis. The knowledge of the vascular anatomical variations is relevant for the correct execution of veterinary procedures and the interpretation of experimental findings in urogenital system research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Opossums , Animals, Wild , Cardiovascular System , Didelphis , Marsupialia
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 925-930, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893075

ABSTRACT

This study described the anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main branches in Puma concolor. The hearts of six individuals of Puma concolor, were analyzed. The A. coronaria sinistra formed the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and the ramus circunflexus. A ramus septal was formed close to the origin of the ramus interventricularis paraconalis and yielded from six to eight ventricular branches. The circumflex branch originated from two to five atrial branches and from three to seven ventricular branches. The right coronary artery formed two to six atrial branches, and four to nine ventricular branches. In half of the individuals, an accessory coronary artery was identified as the first branch of the right coronary artery. In all individuals, the subsinusal interventricular branch originated in the right coronary artery. It could be inferred that coronary circulation in Puma concolor is balanced, as each coronary artery yielded an interventricular branch and there was no significant difference in the total number of branches that originated from each coronary artery. These findings are different from the descriptions of most carnivore species, and may aid a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationships and synapomorphies of carnivore coronary circulation, especially in the Felidae family.


En este estudio se describió la anatomía de las arterias coronarias, y sus principales ramas, en el Puma concolor. Se analizaron los corazones de seis especímenes de Puma concolor. La arteria coronaria izquierda formó la rama interventricular paraconal y la rama circunfleja. Una rama septal se formó cerca del origen de la rama paraconal y otorgó de seis a ocho ramas ventriculares. La rama circunfleja originó de dos a cinco ramas atriales y de tres a siete ramas ventriculares. La arteria coronaria derecha originó de dos a seis ramas atriales y de cuatro a nueve ramas ventriculares. En la mitad de los especímenes, se identificó una arteria coronaria accesoria como la primera rama de la arteria coronaria derecha. En todos los individuos, la rama interventricular subsinusal se originó en la arteria coronaria derecha. Se podría inferir que la circulación coronaria en el Puma concolor es equilibrada, ya que cada arteria coronaria produce una rama interventricular y no hay diferencia significativa en el número total de ramas que se originan de cada arteria coronaria. Estos hallazgos son diferentes de las descripciones de la mayoría de las especies carnívoras y pueden ayudar a una mejor comprensión de las relaciones filogenéticas y de las sinapomorfias de la circulación de los carnívoros, especialmente en la familia Felidae.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Coronary Circulation , Coronary Vessels/anatomy & histology , Puma/anatomy & histology , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 1000-1009, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893085

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del estudio fue describir las características anatómicas y establecer hipótesis morfo-funcionales del esqueleto del miembro torácico de Mazama gouazoubira. Para ello, se utilizaron los miembros torácicos de cuatro adultos jóvenes. Los huesos se prepararon mediante ebullición y fueron blanqueados en una solución de peróxido de hidrógeno para obtener descripciones comparativas, mediciones osteométricas y radiografías digitales. En comparación con los rumiantes domésticos, la escápula resultó ser ancha y plana, con el acromion pequeño, el proceso coracoides muy pequeño y sin tuberosidad de la espina. El húmero se observó alargado con la diáfisis redondeada en una sección transversal y con proyecciones no articulares lisas. La ulna se unió al radio hasta la epífisis distal y juntos formaron un espacio interóseo proximal alargado y estrecho, sin surco vascular. El esqueleto de la mano presentó los metacarpianos III y IV bien desarrollados y fusionados, mientras que los metacarpianos II y V resultaron rudimentarios con disposición telemetacarpiana, filogenéticamente típico de cérvidos del Nuevo Mundo. Se encontraron cuatro dedos con tres falanges en cada uno, de los cuales, dos corresponden a los principales (III y IV) que llegan al suelo y dos son rudimentarios (II y V). Las radiografías nos permitieron visualizar los patrones de tensiones trabeculares normales y la osteometría permitió establecer relaciones con fines comparativos. Se reconocieron las adaptaciones esqueléticas del miembro torácico para favorecer la locomoción cursorial saltatoria.


This study aimed to describe anatomical features of the forelimb skeleton of Mazama gouazoubira in order to establish morphofunctional activity. Forelimbs of four young adult specimens were used to this end. The bones were prepared by boiling and cleared in a solution of hydrogen peroxide for comparative descriptions, osteometrics measurements and digital radiographs. Compared to domestic ruminants, the scapula proved to be wide and flat, with a small acromion, reduced coracoid process and lacking of spine tuberosity. The humerus had an elongated shaft with a rounded cross-section and discrete non-articular projections. The ulna accompanied the radio to the distal epiphysis and formed a long and narrow, proximally placed interosseous space without a vascular groove. The skeleton of the hand presented the rudimentary metacarpals II and V and the well-developed III and IV fused metacarpals, which is a typical telemetacarpal arrangement of close phylogenetically deer species from the New World. There were four fingers, each one with three phalanges; two main (III and IV) touching the ground and two rudimentary (II and V). Radiographs allowed visualizing patterns of normal trabecular tensions and osteometrics enabled to establish ratios for comparative purposes. Adaptations of skeletal forelimb to favor cursorial saltatory locomotion were typically identified.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Deer/anatomy & histology , Forelimb/anatomy & histology , Metacarpal Bones/anatomy & histology
6.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 24(3): 128-131, jul- set. 2017. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964911

ABSTRACT

A criptococose é uma micose sistêmica que em cães frequentemente está envolvida com lesões nos sistemas respiratório e nervoso central. O acometimento do sistema gastrointestinal por este fungo é considerada rara. O objetivo deste estudo é relatar um caso de criptococose intestinal em um cão, macho, da raça Boxer, de quatro anos, com histórico de êmese e diarreia sanguinolenta há cinco dias. Ao exame físico foi constatado dor abdominal e estrutura firme em região mesogástrica. Após realização de exame ultrassonográfico sugestivo de intussuscepção, realizou-se a celiotomia exploratória, e foi visualizada uma lesão nodular de 5cm na parede do jejuno, retirada por enterectomia. O fragmento intestinal contendo a lesão foi encaminhado para análise histopatológica. Na macroscopia, a massa apresentava aspecto gelatinoso aos cortes, com superfície de corte compacta e tonalidade creme. No exame histopatológico, observou-se acentuada quantidade de estruturas leveduriformes, redondas ou ovoides, circundada por espessa cápsula, e discreto e difuso processo inflamatório mononuclear. A coloração pelo ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS) ajudou a confirmar a infecção pelo fungo do gênero Cryptococcus. Não foi possível dar continuidade ao caso, uma vez que o proprietário não retornou mais ao atendimento. Sugere-se que a porta de entrada da criptococose neste estudo, tenha sido através da ingestão da levedura desidratada, ou pela entrada do agente na extensa ulceração em jejuno, já que o mesmo pode ser encontrado em intestino delgado de cães saudáveis e de cães com enteropatia crônica. Conclui-se que, apesar da criptococose intestinal em cães ser considerada rara, recomenda-se a inclusão nos diagnósticos diferenciais de lesões que acometem os segmentos intestinais sem o envolvimento clínico de demais sistemas.


Subject(s)
Dogs , Dog Diseases
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(9): 912-918, set. 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-829321

ABSTRACT

As artérias mesentéricas das aves são importantes para a irrigação do aparelho digestório e encontram-se associadas ao ganho de peso e conversão alimentar. Objetivou-se descrever as origens, esqueletopias, medidas e principais ramificações das artérias mesentéricas cranial e caudal em avestruzes. Foram utilizados 41 cadáveres de filhotes de avestruzes, 23 machos e 18 fêmeas, obtidos de um criadouro após morte natural. Os cadáveres foram fixados com formaldeído a 10% e tiveram o sistema vascular preenchido com Petrolatex® S-65 colorido. As artérias mesentéricas, cranial e caudal e seus ramos proximais foram dissecados "in situ" e medidas com paquímetro digital. A artéria mesentérica cranial teve comprimento médio de 3,68 ± 1,04 cm e surgiu da aorta descendente ao nível da oitava vértebra torácica na maioria dos casos. Ramificou-se em artérias jejunal e ileocecal. A artéria jejunal ofereceu média de 14,04 ±2,08 ramos ao jejuno e a artéria ileocecal originou um ramo retal e outro que se bifurcou para derivar ramos para íleo, ceco e reto. Em um espécime macho a artéria ileocecal foi ramo da artéria celíaca. A artéria mesentérica caudal originou-se na porção terminal da aorta descendente predominantemente ao nível das 4ª e 6ª vértebras sacro-caudais. Perto da extremidade caudal do rim emitiu os ramos cranial e caudal. O primeiro irrigou o reto e anastomosou-se com ramo retal da artéria mesentérica cranial; o segundo irrigou a porção final do reto, cloaca e bolsa cloacal. Não houve diferença significativa (p<0,05) entre as medidas, esqueletopia e número de ramificações das artérias entre os sexos.(AU)


The mesenteric arteries of birds are important for the irrigation of the digestive tract and are associated with weight gain and food conversion. This study aimed to describe the origins, skeletopy, measures and main branches of cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries in ostriches. Forty-one cadavers of ostrich chicks, 23 males and 18 females, obtained from a farmer after natural death. The cadavers were fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution and their vascular system was filled with colored Petrolatex® S-65. The cranial and caudal mesenteric arteries and its proximal branches were dissected in situ and measured with a digital caliper. The mesenteric artery had an average length of 3.68cm±1.04 and emerged from the descending aorta at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra in most cases; it branched into jejunal and ileocecal arteries. The jejunal artery sent a mean of 14 (14.04±2.08) branches to the jejunum. The ileocecal artery sent a rectal branch and another branch that irrigated ileum, cecum and rectum. In a male specimen the ileocecal artery was originated from the celiac artery. The caudal mesenteric artery emerged in the terminal portion of the descending aorta predominantly at the level of the 4th and 6th sacrocaudal vertebrae. Near the caudal end of the kidney it issued the cranial and caudal branches. The first irrigated the rectum and anastomosed with the rectal branch of the cranial mesenteric artery; the second irrigated the final part of the rectum, cloaca and cloacal bursa. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) between measurements, skeletopy and number of branches of the arteries between genders.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Intestines/blood supply , Mesenteric Arteries/anatomy & histology , Skull/blood supply , Struthioniformes/anatomy & histology , Tail/blood supply , Cardiovascular System/anatomy & histology
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(4): 218-226, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781330

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To update the gross and sonographic anatomy and propose landmarks to perform ultrasound-guided (US-guided) axillary brachial plexus block (BPB) in rabbits. METHODS: Forty New Zeeland's rabbit (NZR) cadavers were dissected and the nerves were trimmed, identified, measured, and photographed. Additionally, in twenty NZRs, sonographic images of brachial plexus (BP) were performed through a simple-resolution ultrasound device. The US-guided block was achieved through a minimum volume of lidocaine necessary to surround the BP roots. The effectiveness of the brachial plexus block was assessed on sensitivity and motor functions. RESULTS: The BP resulted from connections between the ventral branches of the last four cervical spinal nerves and the first thoracic spinal nerve. In the axillary sonoanatomy, the BP appeared as an agglomerate of small, round hypoechoic structures surrounded by a thin hyperechoic ring. The amount of time and the minimum volume required to perform was 4.3 ± 2.3 min and 0.8 ± 0.3ml, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The gross and sonographic anatomy of the BP showed uncommon morphological variations. Moreover, from sonographic landmarks, we showed complete reproducibility of the axillary US-guided brachial plexus block with simple resolution equipment and small volume of anesthetics required.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Brachial Plexus/anatomy & histology , Brachial Plexus/diagnostic imaging , Models, Animal , Brachial Plexus Block/methods , Axilla/innervation , Axilla/blood supply , Axillary Artery/anatomy & histology , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography/methods , Anatomic Landmarks , Brachial Plexus Block/veterinary , Forelimb/innervation , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
9.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 23(1-2): 23-27, jan./jun. 2016. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-994651

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se determinar o local de desembocadura do ducto excretor da glândula salivar parótida nos canídeos silvestres Cerdocyon thous e Lycalopex gymnocercus e, assim, fornecer subsídios para procedimentos em medicina veterinária e estudos de anatomia comparada. Para tal, foram inspecionadas as papilas parotídeas de 28 cadáveres (56 hemiarcadas) recolhidos mortos em rodovias: C. thous (cinco machos e nove fêmeas) e L. gymnocercus (nove machos e cinco fêmeas). A partir da papila parotídea traçou-se uma linha imaginária vertical para determinar sua correspondência topográfica em relação aos dentes pré-molares (P) e molares (M). Dois cadáveres de cada espécie foram dissecados para determinação macroscópica da posição da glândula parótida e respectivo ducto. A glândula localizou-se ventralmente à cartilagem auricular e seu ducto apresentou trajeto sobre a face lateral do m. masseter, abrindo-se no vestíbulo oral. Quando consideradas as hemiarcadas, no C. thous houve predominância da abertura do ducto no nível entre P4 e M1 (53,6% dos casos), seguida pela abertura oposta a M1 (46,4%). Os machos de C. thous apresentaram local de desembocadura do ducto em nível significativamente (p-valor = 0,0006) mais caudal do que as fêmeas. No L. gymnocercus em metade das hemiarcadas a abertura ocorreu entre P4 e M1 e na outra metade opostamente a M1, não havendo diferença significativa entre sexos. Pode-se concluir que em ambas espécies a papila parotídea teve posição mais caudal em relação ao que é relatado para os cães domésticos.


This study aimed to determine point of opening of excretory parotid duct in the wild canids Cerdocyon thous and Lycalopex gymnocercus and compare the findings with those available for other carnivores. We analyzed 28 cadavers (56 hemiarcads) collected dead from highways, which included five males and nine females of C. thous and nine males and five females of L. gymnocercus. Thereafter, the parotid papilla was inspected and an imaginary vertical line was projected to determine its topography in relation to the premolars (P) and molars (M). Two cadavers of each species were macrodissected to determine the position of the salivary parotid gland and its duct. The parotid gland was located ventrally to the ear cartilage and its duct crossed on lateral surface of the masseter muscle, opening in the buccal region of the oral vestibule. When considered hemiarcades, the opening of the duct in C. thous predominated at the level between P4 and M1 (53.6% of cases), followed by opening opposite to the M1 (46.4%). Males of C. thous presented the duct opening in a significantly (p-value = 0.0006) caudally level when compared to females. In L. gymnocercus half of hemiarcades showed the opening at the level between P4 and M1 and the other half opposed to M1, with no significant difference between genders. It could be concluded that these two species have parotid papilla in a caudal position in relation to the reports concerning domestic dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Canidae
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(2): 632-637, jun. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755521

ABSTRACT

The origin and distribution of the femoral nerves in both antimeres were studied in 30 New Zealand rabbits (15 males and 15 females). The specimens were collected after natural death and fixed with 10% formaldehyde solution. In males, the femoral nerve originated from the ventral branches of the fourth, sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves in seven animals (46.67%), in two animals (13.33%) from the ventral branches of the fifth and sixth lumbar spinal nerves, in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve, in three animals (20%) from the ventral branches of the fifth, sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves, in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branches of the fourth and fifth lumbar spinal nerves, and in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branches of the fifth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves. In females, the femoral nerve originated from the ventral branches of the fourth, sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves in four animals (26.67%), in two cases (13.33%) from the ventral branches of the fifth and sixth lumbar spinal nerves, in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branch of the fifth lumbar spinal nerve, in three animals (20%) from the ventral branches of the sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves, in four animals (26.67%) from the ventral branches of the fifth, sixth and seventh lumbar spinal nerves and in one animal (6.67%) from the ventral branches of the fourth and seventhlumbar spinal nerves. In all animals the femoral nerves were distributed in different branches to the major and minor psoas, femoral quadriceps, sartorius and pectinius muscles.


Se estudió el origen y distribución del nervio femoral de ambos antímeros en 30 conejos neozelandeses, 15 machos y 15 hembras. Los animales fueron recolectados después de su muerte natural y se fijaron en formaldehído al 10%. En los machos, el nervio femoral se originó a partir de los ramos ventrales del cuarto, sexto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares en siete casos (46,67%); en tres casos (20%) desde los ramos ventrales del quinto, sexto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares; en dos casos (13,33%) desde los ramos ventrales del quinto y sexto nervios espinales lumbares, mientras que en tres animales (n=1 respectivamente), desde los ramos ventrales del quinto nervio espinal lumbar (6,67%), los ramos ventrales del cuarto y quinto nervios lumbares espinales (6,67%) y desde los ramos ventrales del quinto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares. En las hembras, el nervio femoral se originó a partir de los ramos ventrales del cuarto, sexto y séptimo nervios espinales en cuatro casos (26,67%); en otros cuatro casos (26,67%) desde los ramos ventrales del quinto, sexto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbar, en tres casos (20%) desde los ramos ventrales del sexto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares, en dos casos (13,33%) desde los ramos ventrales del quinto y sexto nervios espinales, y en dos animales (n=1, respectivamente) procedían desde los ramos ventrales del quinto nervio espinal lumbar (6,67%) y de los ramos ventrales del cuarto y séptimo nervios espinales lumbares (6,67%). Los nervios femorales en todos los animales estaban distribuidos en diversos ramos de los músculos psoas mayor y menor, cuádriceps femoral sartorios y pectinatos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Femoral Nerve/anatomy & histology , Rabbits/anatomy & histology
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(10): 633-638, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-725288

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess pain in the immediate postoperative period in cats submitted into two different celiotomy techniques for ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Fourteen healthy female cats up to three years old with a mean weight 2.75kg, without breed specification, were used in this double blind experiment. The animals were randomly assigned to two treatments: I- ovariohysterectomy by lateral approach (LA) or II - by midline approach (MA). The anesthesia consisted of acepromazine (0.1 mg.kg-1) and midazolam (0.25mg.kg-1) followed isoflurane vaporization to induce and maintain hypnosis. A bolus of fentanyl (5μg.kg-1) was administered intravenously to provide intraoperative analgesia. After surgery, pain scores were assessed through a multidimensional composite pain scale at four different times. RESULTS: Generally all factors related to psychomotor changes and pain expression showed higher scores in cats neutered by LA, but only psychomotor changes and total pain score presented statistical differences (p<0.05). The animals that underwent lateral celiotomy showed higher pain scores, at 1, 4 and 6 hours after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Multidimensional analgesic scales were highly reliable. There was a tendency for the cats neutered by lateral approach to suffer more postoperative pain, including requiring a large number of analgesic rescues. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Female , Hysterectomy/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Pain Measurement/veterinary , Pain, Postoperative/veterinary , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Hysterectomy/adverse effects , Laparotomy/methods , Laparotomy/veterinary , Ovariectomy/adverse effects , Pain Measurement/methods , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(6): 382-388, 06/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-711595

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the minimum volume of methylene blue (MB) to completely color the brachial plexus (BP) nerves, simulating an effective anesthetic block in cats. METHODS: Fifteen adult male cat cadavers were injected through subscapular approach with volumes of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ml in both forelimbs, for a total of 30 brachial plexus blocks (BPB). After infusions, the specimens were carefully dissected preserving each nervous branch. The measurement of the effective area was indicated by the impregnation of MB. Nerves were divided into four segments from the origin at the spinal level until the insertion into the thoracic limb muscles. The blocks were considered effective only when all the nerves were strongly or totally colored. RESULTS: Volumes of 2, 3 and 4 ml were considered insufficient suggesting a failed block, however, volumes of 5 and 6 ml were associated with a successful block. CONCLUSIONS: The injection of methylene blue, in a volume of 6 ml, completely colored the brachial plexus. At volumes of 5 and 6 ml the brachial plexus blocks were considered a successful regional block, however, volumes of 2, 3 and 4 ml were considered a failed regional block. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Male , Anesthesia, Local/veterinary , Brachial Plexus/drug effects , Coloring Agents/administration & dosage , Forelimb/surgery , Methylene Blue/administration & dosage , Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques/methods , Shoulder/surgery , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Brachial Plexus/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Dissection , Forelimb/innervation , Medical Illustration , Nerve Block/methods , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Shoulder/innervation
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(supl.1): 107-112, dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705860

ABSTRACT

Samples of ten penises of Mediterranean buffaloes and ten penises of Red Sindhi cattle were used. The thickness of the tunica albuginea (TA), distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and volume density (Vv) of elastic system fibers in TA, corpus cavernosum (CC) and corpus spongiosum (CS) were evaluated. The Vv of elastic system fibers in buffalo and bovine penis was respectively 4.07% ±0.88% and 3.36% ±1.21% in TA; 17.32% ±2.21% and 13.14% ±1.27% (CC), 26.58% ±4.31% and 31.36% ±3.67% (CS). The CC of buffalo presented higher Vv of elastic fibers than bovine, while in the CS the Vv of elastic fibers in buffaloes was smaller than in cattle. The TA thickness showed a significant difference among the species studied. The arrangement of SMC in the bovine penises and in the water buffalo suggests that this pattern is common to animals that have fibroelastic penises.


O pênis dos zebuinos e bubalinos são classificados como do tipo fibroelástico, sendo grande parte de sua rigidez conferida pelas fibras colágenas e elásticas presentes na matriz extracelular. Embora alguns estudos tenham abordado estes componentes em bovinos europeus, os dados na literatura sobre zebuínos e bubalinos são escassos. Nós avaliamos a espessura da túnica albugínea, a distribuição das células musculares lisas e a densidade volumétrica (Vv) das fibras do sistema elásticona túnica albugínea, no corpo cavernoso e esponjoso do pênis de animais jovens adultos inteiros.Foram utilizados 10 fragmentos de pênis de búfalos da raça Mediterrâneo e 10 fragmentos de pênis de bovinos da raça Red Sindi. Os fragmentos de pênis foram processados de acordo com a técnica histológica de rotina para inclusão em parafina e corados pela Fucsina Resorcina de Weigert, Picro Sirius Red, Tricrômio de Gomori e anticorpo anti α actina. As fibras elásticas foram determinadas em 25 campos aleatórios de cada fragmento, utilizando o sistema teste modelo M42. A Vv das fibras do sistema elástico no pênis do búfalo e bovino foram(média e desvio padrão respectivamente) de 4,07% ±0,88 e 3,36% ±1,21 na túnica albugínea; 17,32% ±2,21 e 13,14% ±1,27 no corpo cavernoso; 26,58% ±4,31 e 31,36% ±3,67 no corpo esponjoso, respectivamente. Houve diferença na Vv das fibras elásticas entre as duas espécies, no corpo cavernoso e no corpo esponjoso. Na espessura da túnica albugínea houve diferença significativa entre o búfalo Mediterrâneo (1,4mm ±0,11) e o bovino Red Sindi (1,76mm ±0,23). Nas duas espécies, as fibras musculares lisas foram encontradas apenas associadas ao endotélio de revestimento dos seios cavernosos. Com base nestes resultados, podemos concluir que existem diferenças na proporção entre os componentes da matriz extracelular nas espécies estudadas, fato que deve ser considerado nos procedimentos clínicos e cirúrgicos veterinários e continua a ser investigado.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/anatomy & histology , Buffaloes/anatomy & histology , Penis/anatomy & histology , Penis/ultrastructure , Elastic Tissue/cytology , Histological Techniques/veterinary
14.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 35(4): 585-589, out.-dez. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-849322

ABSTRACT

The broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris, is widely distributed in countries of South America. In Brazil it is considered an endangered species because of natural habitat destruction and illegal hunting. In reptiles, the thyroid gland plays an integral part in ecdysis, reproduction, tail regeneration, growth, endocrine function and metabolism rate. The aim of the present study was to characterize the thyroid gland morphology of C. latirostris, based on histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. The thyroid glands were fixed in Bouin's fluid and serial cross sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Mallory's trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and Alcian blue (AB pH 1.5 and 2.5). The immunohistochemical technique for 5-HT-IR cells was used. The thyroid gland has a dense irregular connective tissue forms a capsule enveloping the gland. There are several follicular acini of varying size lined by simple cuboidal or columnar epithelium in the thyroid gland. The follicles are connected by interfollicular connective tissue which contains blood vessels. We observed the presence of lymph nodes around the entire gland. There was a positive PAS reaction and negative AB reaction in the colloid. 5-HT-IR cells were detected around the follicle cells. No striking morphological differences were observed between C. latirostris and other domesticated mammals.


O jacaré do papo-amarelo, Caiman latirostris, é amplamente distribuído nos países da America do Sul. No Brasil este é considerado uma espécie em extinção pela destruição de seu habitat natural e caça ilegal. Em répteis, a glândula tireoide desempenha um papel fundamental na ecdise, reprodução, regeneração da cauda, crescimento, função endócrina e na taxa de metabolismo. O objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar a morfologia da glândula tireoide de C. latirostris, com base em técnicas de histoquímica e imuno-histoquímica. As tireoides foram fixadas em Bouin e seções transversais corados com hematoxilina-eosina, Tricrômico de Mallory, ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS) e Alcian blue (AB pH 1,5 e 2,5). A técnica de imuno-histoquímica para detecção de células imunoreativas a 5-HT foi utilizada. A glândula tireoide possui uma cápsula de tecido conjuntivo denso não modelado. Há numerosos ácinos foliculares de tamanho variáveis revestidos por epitélio cúbico ou cilíndrico simples. Entre os folículos observa-se o tecido conjuntivo ricamente vascularizado. Observamos a presença de linfonodos ao redor de toda a glândula. No coloide observou-se uma reação PAS positiva e AB negativa. Células imunoreativas para 5-HT foram detectadas em torno das células foliculares. Não foram observadas diferenças histológicas marcantes na tireoide de C. latirostris quando comparadas a outros mamíferos domésticos.


Subject(s)
Alligators and Crocodiles , Thyroid Gland/anatomy & histology
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 29(5): 1295-1299, sept./oct. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-946928

ABSTRACT

O conhecimento das variações nos vasos renais possui importância na anatomia radiológica e cirúrgica, tanto para o homem quanto para animais destinados a pesquisa, ensino e treinamento cirúrgico. As artérias renais têm sido estudadas tanto radiograficamente quanto através de dissecção. Atenção particular é dada ao estudo desses vasos enfatizando as variações entre as diferentes espécies animais. O local de origem das artérias renais a partir da aorta abdominal varia de acordo com a topografia renal nos diferentes animais. A artéria renal direita se origina mais cranialmente que a esquerda de acordo com a posição mais cranial do rim direito. O objetivo deste relato foi descrever um caso de duplicidade de artéria renal esquerda, originando-se da superfície lateral da artéria aorta abdominal, em um cadáver de coelho macho com três anos de idade. O mesmo foi fixado e preservado com solução de formaldeído a 10% e teve o seu sistema arterial preenchido com látex corado em vermelho. Durante a dissecção observou-se que o rim esquerdo foi suprido por duas artérias renais, de diferente topografia e arranjo, caracterizando duplicidade da mesma. Variações numéricas das artérias renais em coelhos devem ser consideradas em procedimentos cirúrgicos e experimentais, evitando a ocorrência de erros causados por desconhecimento da existência de artérias renais duplas.


Knowledge about the renal vessels variations has importance in radiological and surgical anatomy, both in humans and animals, applied for research and surgical training. Renal arteries have been considered by dissective or angiographic study means. Particular attention has been paid to the study of these vessels, outlining the variations noticed among various animal species. The renal arteries sites of origin of the abdominal aorta vary according to the renal topography of the different animals. As a rule, the right artery arises more cranially than the left one, according with the most cranial position of the right kidney. Thus, the goal of this article was to describe a case of a left double renal artery originating from the lateral portion of the aorta, in a three old male rabbit cadaver, formalin-preserved at 10% and with red latex colored vascular injection. It was observed that the left kidney was supplied by two arteries of different topography and arrangements, showing duplicity of the renal artery. Numerical variations of the renal arteries in rabbits should be considered in experimental and surgical procedures, avoiding the occurrence of errors caused by ignorance of the existence of double renal arteries.


Subject(s)
Aorta, Abdominal , Rabbits , Renal Artery , Kidney
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 39(3): 424-431, May/June/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680101

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the morphological changes of penile vascular structures and the corpus cavernosum area in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Materials and Methods Twenty male rabbits (2 months old) were divided into two groups with 10 rabbits each, the control group (CG) and the diabetic group (DG). The animals from DG received an intravenous injection of alloxan (100mg/kg) to induce the diabetes. Ten weeks after the induction of diabetes, all animals were euthanized. Two fragments of the penile shaft were harvested and samples were processed and paraffin embedded. Sections (5µm) were cut and stained for histological and immunohistochemical markers. Results Nuclear protrusion toward the lumen, and cytoplasmic vacuolization were observed in the tunica intima of the dorsal artery of the penis in DG. The thicknesses of the tunica media increased significantly in DG (p = 0.0350). It was also observed a significant increase in the area of the tunica media (p = 0.0179). There was no significant change in smooth muscle cell density in the tunica media of the dorsal artery of the penis (p = 0.0855). The collagen fiber pattern of the tunica adventitia of the dorsal artery of the penis was different between the control and diabetic groups. There was a significant decrease in the area occupied by the cavernous sinuses in DG (p = 0.0013). Conclusion Alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rabbits promotes important changes in penile vascular structures, thereby decreasing blood supply and affecting penile hemodynamics, leading to erectile dysfunction. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Penis/blood supply , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Alloxan , Blood Glucose/analysis , Constriction, Pathologic/complications , Constriction, Pathologic/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/complications , Erectile Dysfunction/etiology , Hemodynamics , Hypertrophy/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/pathology , Penile Erection , Vascular Diseases/complications
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(5): 378-384, May 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674159

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate whether elastic fiber content in the corpus cavernosum (CC), corpus spongiosum (CS) and tunica albuginea (TA) of the rabbit penis undergoes modifications with age. METHODS: Rabbits were sacrificed, in groups of ten animals each, at 30, 120, 240, and 730 days of age. Histological sections were obtained from the penile middle shaft and were stained with Weigert's resorsin fuchsin. The content of elastic fibers was determined using stereological methods, and was expressed as volume fraction. RESULTS: At 730 days of age, elastic fiber content was increased by 54% (p<0.004), 78% (p<0.004), and 87% (p<0.004) in the TA, CC, and CS, respectively, compared with animals aged 30 days. After 30 days of age, the concentration gradually and significantly increased until 240 days of age. In 730-day old animals, the concentration, compared with the previous age group, was unchanged in the CC and decreased by 20% (p<0.004) in the TA. CONCLUSIONS: Elastic fiber contents in the rabbit penis correlate with properties of penile tissues. Although after one month of age there is a gradual increase in these concentrations, in two-year old animals this trend is interrupted, which suggests that this could be an early alteration due to senescence.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Elastic Tissue/anatomy & histology , Penis/anatomy & histology , Age Factors , Extracellular Matrix , Elastic Tissue/ultrastructure , Models, Animal , Penis/ultrastructure , Time Factors
18.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 31(8): 711-717, ago. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-602160

ABSTRACT

Estudamos em 40 caprinos adultos da raça Bhuj Brasileira os aspectos histológicos do funículo espermático. Observamos que este se acha envolvido por uma cápsula de tecido conjuntivo fibroelástico denso, de espessura variável, pregueada em alguns pontos, e revestida por mesotélio que circunda todo o conjunto vásculo-nervoso, e projeta-se para formar o mesoducto deferente. Em posição subcapsular, verifica-se uma camada de tecido conjuntivo fibroelástico frouxo, de espessura variável, que circunda parcialmente o funículo espermático, isolando nas regiões deferencial e abdeferencial, conjuntos vásculo-nervosos, responsáveis pela nutrição do epidídimo. Na região do mesoducto deferente, o tecido subcapsular acompanhado de tecido adiposo constitui a camada interna deste meso, formando a sua adventícia e abrigando vasos e nervos deferenciais. Na região abdeferencial, pequenos acúmulos de tecido adiposo são vistos de permeio aos vasos e nervos desta região. Entre as artérias, veias e nervos testiculares, bem como entre os vasos das regiões deferencial e abdeferencial, observa-se o tecido conjuntivo denso, intervascular, rico em fibras elásticas, que constitui as adventícias contínuas destes vasos. O arranjo vascular mostra que o segmento da artéria testicular, contido no funículo espermático, apresenta trajeto sinuoso. Estando envolvido pelo plexo venoso pampiniforme, formado por veias testiculares desprovidas de válvulas de calibres variados, apresentando amplas comunicações entre si. As veias responsáveis pela drenagem do epidídimo e ducto deferente estão localizadas em posição subcapsular deferencial e abdeferencial e mostram-se providas de válvulas. O trato das artérias testiculares no funículo espermático apresenta como média e desvio padrão 134,6±38,1cm à direita, e 137,0±33,9cm à esquerda, não existindo diferenças estatisticamente significantes ao nível de 5 por cento, quando comparamos a média do segmento da artéria testicular contida no funículo espermático direito em relação ao esquerdo.


Histological aspects of the spermatic cord were studied in 40 Brazilian Bhuj goats. It was seen that the spermatic cord is involved by a thin capsule of compact connective tissue recovered by mesothelium which forms an expansion, the mesodeferens. Under this capsule is a subcapsular layer of variable thickness, formed by loose elastic fiber connective tissue that mixes with deep layer of the mesodeferens and with the adventitia of ductus deferens. Between the testicular artery and testicular veins exists an intervascular compact elastic fiber connective tissue in continuity with the adventitia of spermatic cord vessels. In the abdeferential region of the spermatic cord exists a neurovascular contingent, the vessels of which generally have inferior calibers and similar constitution and arrangement as the testicular artery and veins; the described contingent is related to nutrition of the initial portion of ductus deferens and part of the epididymis head and body. The vascular arrangement shows that the segment of the testicular artery in the spermatic cord has a sinuous disposition and is totally involved by the venous plexus formed by testicular vein valves with irregular outlines, diverse calibers and large connections. The length of the intra spermatic cord segment of the testicular artery has a medium and standard deviation of 134.6±38.1cm on the right and 137±33.9cm on the left. There were no statistical differences between the right and left medium ranges.

19.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(2): 598-603, June 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-597499

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maternal protein and energy restriction during lactation on mandible dimensions of pups (female) at aging. At parturition, Wistar rat dams were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1) control group (C) - free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 23 percent protein, 2) protein-energy restricted group (PER) - free access to an isoenergetic, protein-restricted diet containing 8 percent protein, and 3) energy-restricted group (ER) ­ fed with restricted amounts of a standard laboratory diet. At weaning (d21), all pups were separated of dams and received free access to a standard laboratory diet containing 23 percent protein until 90 days (d90), when the rats were anesthetized and sacrificed. The dimensions of excised pup mandible were measured directly using pre-established 3 anatomical points. Morphometric analysis showed that most of the measurements in the ER and PER groups were significantly lower than in the control group, with the greatest reductions occurring in the PER group. These results show that protein and energy restriction during lactation have an important influence on pup mandible development and continue through the aging process.


El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de la restricción de la proteína materna y de la energía durante la lactancia sobre las dimensiones de la mandíbula de crías (hembras) durante la vida. En el parto, las crías de ratas Wistar fueron agrupadas aleatoriamente en los siguientes grupos: 1) control (C) - con acceso libre a una dieta estándar del laboratorio, que contenía 23 por ciento de proteínas; 2) con restriccion de proteínas y energía (PER) - acceso libre a una dieta isoenergética, con restricción de proteínas, conteniendo un 8 por ciento de éstas y 3) grupo con restricción de energía, alimentado con restricción en la cantidad de alimento de la dieta estándar del laboratorio (ER). Al destete, todas las crías fueron separadas y recibieron las dietas establecidas hasta los 90 días (d90), luego fueron anestesiadas y sacrificadas. Las mediciones de las mandíbulas de las crías de rata fueron obtenidas por 3 puntos anatómicos preestablecidos. El análisis morfométrico de la mandíbula demostró que la mayoría de las mediciones en los grupos ER y PER eran significativamente menores que las del grupo control, con mayores reducciones en el grupo PER. Estos resultados muestran que las restricciones de energía y proteínas durante la lactancia tienen una influencia importante en el desarrollo de la mandíbula de las crías, las que se mantuvieron con el paso del tiempo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Diet, Protein-Restricted/adverse effects , Malnutrition , Mandible/anatomy & histology , Mandible/growth & development , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Lactation , Rats, Wistar , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Food Deprivation
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 30(8): 685-688, ago. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-559904

ABSTRACT

A busca pela compreensão do funcionamento do sistema nervoso resultou em um aumento de estudos morfológicos sobre a vascularização encefálica em diferentes espécies animais. As artérias encefálicas são a principal rota para transporte de sangue para o cérebro e, portanto têm um papel essencial na manutenção de atividade normal do mesmo, o que desperta, devido sua importância funcional, o interesse pela realização de vários estudos. A artéria caroticobasilar foi investigada em animais da ordem Perissodactyla, de espécies da família dos eqüídeos. Pesquisou-se a frequência da artéria caroticobasilar em 30 encéfalos de equinos adultos e mestiços, do sexo masculino. As observações realizadas mostraram que este importante vaso apresentou as seguintes frequências absolutas e percentuais: presente em 15(50 por cento) dos encéfalos examinados sendo 4 (13,3 por cento) no antímero direito, 6 (20 por cento) no antímero esquerdo e 5 (16,7 por cento) em ambos os antímeros.


The search for the functional understanding of the nervous system has resulted in an increase of morphological studies about encephalic vascularization in different animal species. The encephalic arteries are the main rote for blood transport to the brain and therefore have an essential role in the maintenance of normal brain activity. The functional importance of these vessels has led to various studies. The caroticobasilar artery was investigated in animals of order Perissodactyla, in species of Equidae family. The frequency of caroticobasilar artery was studied in 30 adult male crossbreed brain horses. The observations showed that this important vessel presented the following absolute and percentual frequencies: present in 15 (50 percent) brains 4 (13.3 percent) in the right antimere, 6 (20 percent) in the left antimere and 5 (16.7 percent) on both antimeres.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adult , Basilar Artery/cytology , Cerebral Arteries/anatomy & histology , Carotid Artery, Internal , Horses/surgery , Central Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Central Nervous System/blood supply
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