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Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2018 Jun; 36(2): 172-177
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198776


Purpose: BK virus (BKV) is an opportunistic pathogen which causes significant morbidity and mortality in individuals who are immunodeficient. We aimed to quantitate and characterise BKV and to correlate with the degree of immunosuppression among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected individuals. Methods: BKV DNA detection was carried out using an in-house quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on paired whole-blood and urine samples collected from 187 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals and 93 healthy individuals who served as controls. Sequencing was performed for a proportion of high BK viral load (VL) samples to observe non-coding control region (NCCR) rearrangements. Results: BKV positivity in urine was 25.6% among HIV-infected individuals and 10.7% in control individuals (P = 0.03). The BK VL showed a significant negative correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts, a positive correlation with WHO clinical staging and no significant correlation with HIV-1 VL. Of 42 BKVs from urine samples sequenced, two showed rearrangements without clinically severe disease or high VL. Their NCCR and VP1 sequence-based genotyping revealed genotype I. In a small subset of individuals (n = 8) on ART who were being followed up, six individuals showed either decrease or complete clearance of virus with ART. Conclusion: There was a higher frequency of BK viruria in HIV-1-infected individuals than among healthy controls and the positivity correlated with the degree of immunosuppression. There was no association of high VL with NCCR rearrangements in urine.

Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2018 Jun; 36(2): 2141-246
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198761


Background: Quantitative Cytomegalovirus (CMV) polymerase chain reactions are increasingly being used for monitoring CMV DNAemia in haematopoietic stem cell transplants and solid organ transplants. Objective: In this study, a commercial CMV viral load assay was compared with an in-house viral load assay. Materials and Methods: A total of 176 whole-blood samples were tested for CMV DNAemia using both assays. Results: Our evaluation showed a difference of 1 log10copies/ml between the two assay systems in determining CMV viral loads in the clinical samples. Conclusion: The in-house viral load assay had a better correlation with clinical findings compared to the commercial assay. Quality assessment of these assays was done by the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UKNEQAS), an external proficiency testing programme, and by the National Institute for Biological Standard and Control (NIBSC) standard. For UKNEQAS and NIBSC standards, the bias between the assays was 0.73 log10and 0.85 log10, respectively. This difference is well within the acceptable range already reported in the literature.

Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Jul-Sept; 33 (3): 369-373
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-159605


Background: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)‑associated gastric carcinoma is a relatively uncommon entity detected in approximately 10% of gastric adenocarcinoma. Objective: The purpose of this study is to estimate the frequency of EBV‑associated gastric carcinoma and also to assess the nature of presentation, any significant difference between this subgroup and EBV‑negative gastric adenocarcinomas with respect to age and sex predilection, lymph nodal status, site of presentation. Materials and Methods: We prospectively analyzed 100 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent either a partial or total gastrectomy during the period from March 2010 to August 2011. The tumour and the corresponding normal gastric tissue from the same patient were analyzed for the presence of Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) by real‑time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Result: EBV was detected in 6% cases of gastric adenocarcinoma. All the positive patients were males. The majority of cases involved the proximal stomach and there was variable lymph nodal involvement. Conclusion: Our study endorses that there is an association between EBV infection and gastric adenocarcinoma in the Indian population. There was no significant difference between this subgroup and EBV‑negative gastric adenocarcinomas with respect to age and sex predilection, lymph nodal status and site of presentation. Short‑term follow‑up of this subgroup of patients seems to indicate a good overall prognosis after appropriate treatment. However, a larger study with long‑term follow‑up is needed to further establish the role of EBV in gastric adenocarcinoma in this study population.