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1.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 841-851, nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252172

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia y distribución de anemia en mujeres mexicanas y su asociación con factores sociodemográficos y la diversidad de la dieta. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron mujeres en edad fértil de la encuesta probabilística Ensanut 100k, que representa a los hogares con menos capacidades económicas. Se estimó la prevalencia de anemia mediante concentración de hemoglobina, con información sociodemográfica, de salud, inseguridad alimentaria y diversidad de la dieta. Resultados: El 34.3% de las mujeres presentó anemia; los factores protectores para anemia fueron pertenecer al tercil 3 de condición de bienestar (OR=0.26, IC95% 0.16-0.61), alta diversidad de la dieta en áreas rurales (OR=0.57, IC95%0.36-0.92), así como vivir en un hogar con seguridad alimentaria. Conclusiones: Es necesario implementar acciones de detección y atención temprana de la anemia en las mujeres de edad fértil, así como identificar las causas subyacentes y fortalecer y reformular estrategias para prevenirla.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of anemia in Mexican women and their association with sociodemographic factors and diet diversity. Materials and methods: We analyzed information of women in childbearing age. The Ensanut 100k is a probabilistic survey that over-represents households with less economic capacity. Anemia was estimated using hemoglobin concentration. We collected sociodemographic and health information, food insecurity, and dietary diversity. Results: 34.3% of the women presented anemia, belong to tertile 3 of welfare status is a protective factor for anemia (OR= 0.26, 95%CI 0.16-0.61), and living in a household with food security, as well as high diversity of the diet in rural women (OR= 0.57, 95%CI 0.36-0.92). Conclusions: It is necessary to implement actions of detection and early attention of the anemia in women in childbearing age, identification of its underlying causes, strengthening and reformulation of strategies to prevent it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Poverty , Anemia/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Population Density , Mexico/epidemiology
2.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 833-840, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252171

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de desnutrición infantil y algunas características sociodemográficas asociadas con la desnutrición crónica en menores de cinco años, de localidades de menos de 100 000 habitantes en 2012 y 2018 en México. Material y métodos: Se calcularon prevalencias de bajo peso, desnutrición crónica y emaciación. Se presenta la comparación de la desnutrición crónica por variables sociodemográficas y de diversidad dietética. Se probaron modelos logísticos multivariados entre desnutrición crónica y variables sociodemográficas. Resultados: En 2018, 4.4% presentó bajo peso, 14.9% desnutrición crónica y 1.5% emaciación. La desnutrición crónica fue mayor en hogares indígenas (24.5%), hogares de mayores carencias socioeconómicas (17.5%) y hogares con inseguridad alimentaria moderada/severa (15.3%). La desnutrición crónica se asoció positivamente con habitar hogar indígena y la alta diversidad dietética resultó factor protector de desnutrición crónica. Conclusiones: Se documenta una alta prevalencia de desnutrición crónica asociada con condiciones de alta marginalidad. Es importante fortalecer estrategias diseñadas para contener la desnutrición, sobre todo en las poblaciones de mayores carencias sociales.


Abstract: Objective: To describe the undernutrition prevalence, as well as some sociodemographic characteristics associated to stunting in children under five years old, living on localities with less than 100 000 inhabitants in Mexico in 2012 and 2018. Material and methods: Low weight, stunting and wasting prevalences were calculated in children under 5y according to WHO Growth Reference. A comparison of stunting by sociodemographic and diet diversity variables is presented. Multi-variated logistic models between chronic malnutrition and sociodemographic variables were calculated. Results: In 2018, 4.4% of the individuals suffered low weight, 14.9% stunting and 1.5 % wasting. Stunting was greater in indigenous households (24.5%), households from the lower socioeconomic-index tertile (17.5%), and households with moderated/severe food insecurity (15.3%). Stunting was positively associated with indigenous condition; on the other hand a highly diverse diet resulted to be a protective factor against it. Conclusions: A high prevalence of chronical malnutrition was documented associated with high poverty conditions. It is important to enforce strategies aimed to contain it, mainly in such populations with greater social deprivation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Demography , Prevalence , Population Density , Mexico/epidemiology
3.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 787-797, nov.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252167

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia de niveles elevados (≥5.0μg/dL) de plomo en sangre (PbS) y su asociación con el uso de loza de barro vidriado con plomo (LBVPb). Material y métodos: En 2018 se midió PbS capilar en una muestra representativa de niños de 1 a 4 años de edad residentes en localidades de México menores de 100 000 habitantes (Ensanut 100k). Se indagó sobre uso de LBVPb para consumo de alimentos. Para estimar su asociación con PbS, se generaron modelos logit multinomial estratificados por región. Resultados: La prevalencia de niveles elevados de PbS fue de 21.8%. En las regiones Norte, Centro y Sur las prevalencias fueron 9.8, 20.7 y 25.8%, respectivamente. La asociación con uso y frecuencia de LBVPb fue altamente significativa y diferencial por región. Conclusiones: La exposición a plomo permanece como un problema de salud pública en México, particularmente en el Centro y Sur, y está fuertemente asociada con el uso de LBVPb.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate the prevalence of elevated (≥5.0μg / dL) blood lead levels (BLL) and its association with the use of lead glazed ceramics (LGC). Materials and methods: In 2018, we measured capillary BLL in a representative sample of children 1 to 4 years old residing in Mexican localities under 100 000 inhabitants (Ensanut 100k). We inquired about use of LGC for food preparation and consumption. To estimate its association with BLL, multinomial logit models stratified by region were generated. Results: The prevalence of elevated BLL levels was 21.8%. For the North, Central and South regions, the prevalence were 9.8, 20.7 and 25.8%, respectively. The association with use and frequency of LGC was highly significant and differential by region. Conclusions: Lead exposure remains a public health problem in Mexico, particularly in the Central and South regions, and is strongly associated with the use of LGC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Ceramics/chemistry , Cooking and Eating Utensils/statistics & numerical data , Lead/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Vulnerable Populations , Lead/analysis , Mexico
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(5): 678-684, sep.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127331

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Describir el diseño metodológico de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición en localidades con menos de 100 000 habitantes (Ensanut 100k). Material y métodos: La Ensanut 100k es una encuesta probabilística que sobrerrepresenta a los hogares con menos capacidades económicas. Se describe el alcance de la encuesta, los procedimientos de muestreo, medición e inferencia y la organización logística. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 10 461 entrevistas de hogar y 26 161 de individuos. La tasa de respuesta de hogar fue 89% y de individuos 92%. Conclusiones: El diseño probabilístico de la Ensanut 100k permite hacer inferencias estadísticas válidas sobre parámetros de interés para la salud pública en localidades con menos de 100 000 habitantes, localidades donde vive 52% de la población según el censo de 2010. La comparabilidad de los resultados con la Ensanut 2012 facilita evaluar las acciones de apoyo que otorga el gobierno a poblaciones con menores capacidades económicas en el periodo 2012-2018.


Abstract: Objective: To describe the methodological design of the National Health and Nutrition Survey in localities with less than 100 000 inhabitants (Ensanut 100k). Materials and methods: The Ensanut 100k is a probabilistic survey that over-represents households with less economic capabilities. This paper describes the scope of the survey, sampling procedures, measurement and inference and logistics organization. Results: 10 461 home interviews and 26 161 individual interviews were obtained. The household response rate was 89 and 92% from individuals. Conclusions: The probabilistic design of the Ensanut 100k allows to make valid statistical inferences about parameters of interest for public health in localities with less than 100 000 inhabitants, localities where 52% of the population lives according to the 2010 census. The comparability of the results with the Ensanut 2012 facilitates the assessment of the government's support actions to populations with lower economic capacities in the period 2012-2018.


Subject(s)
Humans , Poverty Areas , Nutrition Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/methods , Population Density , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Nutrition Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Sample Size , Mexico
5.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(4): 404-413, Jul.-Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To estimate energy and nutrient intakes and adequacies in Mexican adolescents. Materials and methods Dietary intake was assessed in 1 961 adolescents who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (Ensanut 2012), by a food frequency questionnaire. Medians of intakes and adequacies were estimated for energy, macro- and micronutrients and are presented by residence area, region and household wealth index (HWI). Consumption by food groups was estimated. Results Median daily energy intake was 2 000 Kcal in males and 1 800 Kcal in females. High prevalences of inadequacy were observed for fiber, PUFAs, iron, zinc and calcium. These inadequacies were higher among individuals of low HWI. Moreover, excessive intakes of total and saturated fat were higher among adolescents of higher HWI. Conclusion The diet of Mexican adolescents is deficient in essential nutrients for good health and high in saturated fat. Actions are needed to promote a healthy diet.


Resumen Objetivo Estimar la ingesta de energía, nutrientes e inadecuaciones en adolescentes mexicanos. Material y métodos La ingesta se evaluó en 1 961 adolescentes mexicanos participantes en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2012 (Ensanut 2012), mediante un cuestionario de frecuencia. Se calcularon las medianas de ingestas y adecuaciones para la energía, macro y micronutrientes, y el consumo por grupo de alimentos. Resultados La ingesta energética diaria fue de 2 000 kcal en varones y 1 800 kcal en las mujeres. Se observó una alta prevalencia de inadecuación de fibra, grasa poliinsaturada, hierro, zinc y calcio. Las inadecuaciones fueron mayores en el índice de bienestar bajo, mientras que el nivel alto se caracterizó por ingesta excesiva de grasas. Conclusión La dieta de los adolescentes mexicanos es deficiente en nutrientes esenciales para la buena salud y es excesiva en grasas saturadas. Es necesario promover una dieta saludable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Energy Intake , Nutrients/analysis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Diet , Socioeconomic Factors , Dietary Fats , Child Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Nutritional Status , Surveys and Questionnaires , Feeding Behavior , Mexico
6.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(3): 244-253, may.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-979151

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Actualizar las prevalencias de sobrepeso y obesidad (SP+O) y estudiar algunos determinantes asociados en población<20 años, de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de Medio Camino 2016 (Ensanut MC 2016). Material y métodos: La Ensanut MC 2016 es una encuesta nacional probabilística. Se estimó el puntaje Z del índice de masa corporal. Se clasificó el riesgo de sobrepeso, sobrepeso y obesidad de acuerdo con el patrón de referencia de la OMS. Se estudiaron variables sociodemográficas asociadas con sobrepeso mediante regresión logística. Resultados: La prevalencia nacional de SP+O en <5 años fue niñas 5.8%, niños 6.5%; escolares niñas 32.8%, niños 33.7%; adolescentes mujeres 39.2% y hombres 33.5%. Las mujeres adolescentes de localidades rurales mostraron un incremento de 2012 a 2016 de 9.5 puntos porcentuales. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de SP+O en niñas y mujeres en zonas rurales muestran un aumento importante en un periodo corto, lo que llama a implementar acciones de atención inmediatas.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate recent overweight and obesity prevalences in Mexican population under 20 years from Halfway National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut MC 2016). Materials and methods: Ensanut MC 2016 is a probabilistic national survey which gives representative information from national, regional and rural/urban levels. BMIz was estimated through weight and height, then it was classified into overweight risk or overweight or obesity according to WHO growth reference standards. Association between overweight and sociodemographic information was analyzed through logistic regression models. Results: Overweight-obesity prevalence was 5.1% in girls and 6.5% in boys<5y, 32.8% in girls and 33.7% in boys 5-11y, and 39.2% in female adolescents and 33.5% in male adolescents. Female adolescents from rural localities increased overweight-obesity prevalence from 27.7% in 2012 to 37.2% in 2016. Conclusions: Overweight-obesity increased in girls and females, mainly from rural areas. Strategies focused in containing this phenomenon are encouraged to implement in this context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Overweight/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Health Surveys , Mexico/epidemiology
7.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(3): 272-282, may.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-979150

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar el consumo de alimentos recomendables y no recomendables para consumo cotidiano, por características sociodemográficas en la población mexicana. Material y métodos: Se utilizó información del cuestionario semicuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos (de siete días), de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de Medio Camino 2016. Se estimó el porcentaje de consumidores en preescolares, escolares, adolescentes y adultos, por área, región y nivel socioeconómico (NSE). Resultados: Menos de 50% de la población consumió de verduras diariamente. Alrededor de 80% de la población consumió agua sola diariamente y bebidas endulzadas al menos tres días a la semana. Las regiones Centro y Ciudad de México tuvieron el mayor porcentaje de consumidores de frutas y verduras (p<0.012). El NSE alto presentó el mayor porcentaje de consumidores de grupos de alimentos recomendables y no recomendables. Conclusiones. Un porcentaje importante de la población no consume frutas, verduras, ni agua sola diariamente.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate the recommendable and non-recommendable food groups for usual consumption by sociodemographic characteristics in Mexican population. Materials and methods: Through a 7-day, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire used in 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, we estimated the proportions of population (preschool and school children, adolescents and adults) who consumed food groups that are relevant for public health by area, region and socioeconomic status (SES). Results: Less than 50% of population consumed vegetables daily; almost 80% of the population consumed plain water daily and sweetened beverages (3 d/week). Center and Mexico City regions had the highest percentage of fruits and vegetables consumers (p<0.012). High SES had the highest consumer´s percentage of recommendable and non-recommendable food groups. Conclusions: A high percentage of the population do not consume fruits, vegetables and plain water daily.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Food/classification , Social Class , Nutrition Surveys , Mexico
8.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(6): 621-629, nov.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903837

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto del programa de servicios SaludArte en sus componentes de educación en nutrición y de asistencia alimentaria, dentro de escuelas participantes, durante 2013-2015. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio comparativo de tres cohortes que consideró 1 620 escolares de 144 primarias. Se construyeron dos paneles: de tiempo continuo y de tiempo completo. Se obtuvo información de consumo y hábitos alimenticios, higiene y conservación de alimentos, actividad física (AF) y antropometría. El análisis fue por diferencia en diferencias y modelos de regresión logística dicotómica y multinomial. Resultados: Los efectos atribuibles al programa fueron: higiene personal (p=0.045), conocimientos en nutrición (p=0.003), AF (p=0.002, 2013-2014; p=0.032, 2015) y consumo de fibra (p=0.064). El consumo de azúcar total fue significativo contrario a lo esperado (p=0.012, tiempo continuo; p=0.037, tiempo completo). Conclusiones: SaludArte tuvo efectos positivos en algunos componentes. Sin embargo, es necesario considerar las lecciones aprendidas, a fin de institucionalizar el programa y darle permanencia y crecimiento en las escuelas.


Abstract: Objective: To assess the effect of Education in Nutrition and Food Assistance components of the SaludArte program in participant schools during 2013-2015. Materials and methods: A three cohort comparative study was used, with two type of follow-up panel structures: a complete panel and a continuous time, with a total of consisting on 1620 scholar children from 144 schools. Information on food intake, feeding behaviors, food preservation and hygiene, physical activity (PI) and anthropometry was registered. To stablish effect estimates, a difference in difference method combined with propensity score matching was carried out; as an alternative procedure, logistic-multinomial and logistic regression models were also used. Results: Program attributable estimated effects were as follows: an increase in personal hygiene (p=0.045), increase in nutrition knowledges (p=0.003), PI (p=0.002 2013-2014; p=0.032 2015) and increase in fiber Intake (p=0.064). Sugar intake, contrary to the expected showed a significant increase (p=0.012 continuous time and; p=0.037 complete time). Conclusions: SaludArte shows positive effects over some components as expected. However in order to institutionalize the SaludArte program, it is necessary to consider these learned lessons, give it permanence and impulse it in the schools.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , Child Nutrition Disorders/prevention & control , Exercise , Program Evaluation , Anthropometry , Hygiene/education , Nutritional Status , Cohort Studies , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Food Assistance , Mexico
9.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(3): 299-305, may.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903753

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Describir el diseño metodológico de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de Medio Camino (Ensanut-MC) 2016. Material y métodos: La Ensanut-MC es una encuesta probabilística nacional cuya población objetivo son los habitantes de viviendas particulares en México. El tamaño de muestra se determinó para poder hacer inferencias sobre las localidades urbanas y rurales de cuatro regiones. Se describen los elementos principales del diseño: población objetivo, temas de estudio, procedimiento de muestreo, procedimiento de medición y organización logística. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 9 479 entrevistas de hogar completas y 16 591 entrevistas de individuos completos. La tasa de respuesta de hogar fue 77.9%. La tasa de respuesta de individuo fue 91.9%. Conclusiones: El diseño probabilístico de la Ensanut-MC permite hacer inferencias estadísticas válidas sobre parámetros de interés para la salud y nutrición pública de México, específicamente en variables de sobrepeso, obesidad y diabetes mellitus. Asimismo, la información actualizada sustentará el monitoreo, la actualización y formulación de nuevas políticas y programas prioritarios.


Abstract: Objective: Describe the design methodology of the halfway health and nutrition national survey (Ensanut-MC) 2016. Materials and methods The Ensanut-MC is a national probabilistic survey whose objective population are the inhabitants of private households in Mexico. The sample size was determined to make inferences on the urban and rural areas in four regions. Describes main design elements: target population, topics of study, sampling procedure, measurement procedure and logistics organization. Results A final sample of 9 479 completed household interviews, and a sample of 16 591 individual interviews. The response rate for households was 77.9%, and the response rate for individuals was 91.9%. Conclusions The Ensanut-MC probabilistic design allows valid statistical inferences about interest parameters for Mexico´s public health and nutrition, specifically on overweight, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Updated information also supports the monitoring, updating and formulation of new policies and priority programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Nutrition Surveys/methods , Nutritional Status , Mexico
10.
Acta Medica Philippina ; : 51-55, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-632845

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rabies is an important zoonotic disease that needs to be eradicated worldwide. It is still prevalent in the Philippines, thus development of a relatively affordable but still accurate and rapid post-mortem detection test for the virus is desired, especially in regional laboratories.METHODS:The study evaluated the Direct Rapid Immunohistochemical Testing (DRIT) of hippocampal touch impressions of suspected rabid Canis lupus familiaris using monospecific N protein polyclonal antibody developed by the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (RITM). One hundred sixty (160) acetone-fixed hippocampal touch impressions were subjected DRIT.RESULTS: One hundred thirteen (70.6%) out of 160 samples tested positive for rabies viral antigen (RVA) and 47 (29.4%) out of 160 samples tested negative for RVA. No false positive and false negative results were obtained. The results agree with the gold standard, dFAT.CONCLUSION: DRIT was able to detect low to high concentrations of RVA in the hippocampal touch impressions based on the grading distribution. DRIT had 100% sensitivity, specificity and over-all accuracy using monospecific polyclonal antibodies, which suggests its use as a more affordable alternative to the gold standard dFAT.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antigens, Viral , Dogs , Hippocampus , Rabies , Rabies virus , Sensitivity and Specificity , Touch , Tropical Medicine , Immunohistochemistry
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 56(supl.2): s103-s112, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736446

ABSTRACT

Objective. To characterize the current consumption of fruits and vegetables based on the international recommendations, as well as its relationship to certain variables of interest in Mexican children aged 6 to 12 years. Materials and methods. Adherence to the international recommendations for the consumption of fruits and vegetables was estimated based on data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (Ensanut 2012). Logistic regression models were developed. Results. Only 34.4% of children met the recommendations. Their age (years) (OR:074; p< 0.01) and the fact that they lived in the Central (OR:2.48; p< 0.01) or Southern (OR:2.66; p< 0.01) regions of Mexico or in Mexico City (OR:2.37; p< 0.01) versus the Northern region were significantly associated with adherence. An interaction was observed between the educational level of the head of the family and his or her kinship with the child. Conclusions. Only 3 out of every 10 Mexican children meet the recommendations; therefore, the implementation of a public policy with the appropriate legislation, financing and regulation is required.


Objetivo. Caracterizar el consumo actual de frutas y verduras tomando como referencia las recomendaciones internacionales y su relación con algunas variables de interés en niños mexicanos de 6 a 12 años de edad. Material y métodos. Con datos de la Ensanut 2012 se estimó el apego hacia las recomendaciones internacionales del consumo de frutas y verduras. Se desarrollaron modelos de regresión logística. Resultados. El 34.4% de los niños cumplió con las recomendaciones. La edad (años) (RM:0.74; p< 0.01) y vivir en las regiones centro (RM:2.48; p< 0.01), Ciudad de México (RM:2.37; p< 0.01) y sur (RM:2.66; p< 0.01), con respecto a vivir en la región norte, se asociaron significativamente con el cumplimiento. Se observó una interacción entre el nivel educativo del jefe de familia y su parentesco con el niño. Conclusiones. Sólo 3 de 10 niños mexicanos cumplen con las recomendaciones, por lo que se requiere de la implementación de una política pública con legislación, financiamiento y regulación adecuados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Vegetables , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Fruit , Socioeconomic Factors , Family Characteristics , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Nutrition Policy , Guideline Adherence , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/etiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Diet, Healthy , Mexico/epidemiology
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1009-1014, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279791

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Significant progress has taken place over the past 50 years in the control of schistosomiasis japonica in China. However, the available data suggested that schistosomiasis has re-emerged shortly after the World Bank Loan Project which was conducted from 1992 to 2001. The national control program with a revised strategy to control schistosomiasis by using integrated measures has been implemented since 2005. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the national program on schistosomiasis control from 2005 to 2008.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A retrospective study was carried out to analyze the epidemic patterns of acute infections with Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum), based on the number of acute cases annually collected from the web-based national communicable diseases reporting system from 2005 to 2008.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 564, 207, 83 and 57 acute cases infected with S. japonicum were reported nationwide in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively, with an average annual reduction rate of 46.35% during last four years. Six outbreaks of acute infection with S. japonicum were reported in 2005 but none in the period of 2006 to 2008. All acute cases that were reported mainly came from the lake regions and became infected during the higher risk periods from the 27th to 43rd weeks of the year. Most of these cases are students (44.87%), farmers (31.51%) and fishermen (7.79%) who got the infection by water contact mainly through swimming (41.49%) and production activities (40.25%). With time, the proportion of imported cases among all acute cases increased due to more frequent movement of people that has occurred with a more mobile population.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The national control program on schistosomiasis aliened with the revised control strategy has been effectively brought into effect. However, there is still a significant risk of infection among students, farmers and fishermen living in the lake regions. Therefore, it is important to strengthen control measures among risk populations in the high risk areas of transmission, or the lake regions.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Epidemiology , Animals , China , Epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Schistosoma japonicum , Virulence , Schistosomiasis , Epidemiology
13.
Salud pública Méx ; 51(supl.4): S613-S620, 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether screen time and physical activity is related to overweight or obesity in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional design. Adolescents aged 10 to 19 were included in the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). The dependent variable was overweight or obesity; the independent variable was screen time. A logistic regression model was created to estimate the relationship of overweight and obesity to various factors, including screen time, physical activity, study vs. no study, age, sex, indigenous ethnicity, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. RESULTS: A total of 18 784 adolescents were included. A positive relation between screen time and overweight and obesity was found. CONCLUSIONS: Screen time is associated with overweight and obesity in Mexican adolescents.


OBJETIVO: Determinar si el tiempo que los adolescentes permanecen frente a pantalla y realizan actividad física se asocia con el sobrepeso o la obesidad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño transversal. Se incluyeron adolescentes de 10 a 19 años de edad, de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT 2006). La variable dependiente fue el sobrepeso u obesidad y la independiente el tiempo frente a la pantalla. Se ajustó un modelo de regresión logística para estimar la relación entre el sobrepeso u obesidad con el tiempo frente a la pantalla, actividad física, edad, sexo, condición de estudiante, indigenismo, tabaquismo y consumo de alcohol. RESULTADOS: Se estudió a 18 784 adolescentes. Se encontró una asociación positiva entre el tiempo frente a pantalla y el sobrepeso u obesidad. CONCLUSIONES: El tiempo que los adolescentes mexicanos pasan frente a pantalla está asociado con el sobrepeso u obesidad.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Motor Activity , Overweight/epidemiology , Television/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Time Factors
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 51(3): 293-302, sep. 2001.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-333624

ABSTRACT

The effect of the addition of vitamins and soy protein on the quality characteristics of nixtamal tortillas (TN) and the losses of nutrients during the nixtamalization process were evaluated. Vitamins (0.15 as is) and defatted soy (4 as is) were added to the tortillas without affecting their sensory characteristics. Higher values of those nutrients had a negative effect on the color and flavor of the product. During the production of the tortilla the corn lost approximately 1.5 of proteins. The nixtamal tortilla fortified with 4 of defatted soy (TNS) showed 3 higher protein content than the TN. The calcium content in the samples was 7.7, 114 and 212.5 mg/100 g for the corn, the TN and the TNS respectively. In the process of producing the nixtamal tortillas from corn 28.9 of the niacin, 46.3 of the folic acid, 36.3 of the thiamin and 80 of the riboflavin were lost. During the washing and rinsing of the nixtamal there were losses of 18.2 of the thiamin, 16.6 of the riboflavin and 20.7 of the folic acid. Although the niacin showed a 28.9 loss, the alkaline process caused an important release of that vitamin. The losses during the cooking of the tortillas were high especially for riboflavin which showed a total loss of 80 in comparison with the original corn. Of the total, 63 was lost during cooking and 16.6 was lost during washing of the nixtamal.


Subject(s)
Food, Fortified , Food Handling/methods , Zea mays , Soybeans/chemistry , Soybeans/metabolism , Flour , Hot Temperature , Minerals , Nutritive Value , Soybean Proteins/analysis , Soybean Proteins/metabolism , Dietary Proteins/analysis , Dietary Proteins/metabolism , Quality Control , Vitamins , Zea mays
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