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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920837

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: Fractures around the hip in the geriatric population not only lead to functional but also psychological impairment. Psychiatric disturbances can be associated with poor participation in rehabilitation, increased risk of falling again, and higher rates of mortality. The present study was undertaken to assess the association between the psychological status and functional outcome of surgically managed elderly Indian patients who had sustained fractures around the hip. Materials and methods: The present study was a hospital based prospective, single centre study. One hundred and two geriatric patients who had sustained hip fracture and had been managed surgically, having no cognitive dysfunction, living independently, having unhindered walking capability before the fracture, were included in the study. They were called for follow-up at 3rd, 6th, and 12th month after the hip surgery. Psychological assessment was done by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and functional outcome by using the Harris hip score (HHS). Results: Our study did not show association between psychological status and functional outcome except in one sub-group. Significant correlation was observed between the psychological status and functional outcome in most of the patients in the extra-capsular group. We have identified improvement in the depression, anxiety and functional scores during the follow-up. Conclusion: We conclude that psychiatric disturbances in a geriatric patient after undergoing a surgery for hip fracture may lead to poor recovery. We recommend that all such geriatric patients should undergo a psychological assessment and proper therapy should be instituted to achieve good functional recovery

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837705

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: With a higher proportion of young individuals undergoing uncemented hip arthroplasty, a close match in the dimension of the proximal femur and the implanted prosthesis is paramount. This is a study to gain insight into geographical variation in proximal femur morphology to determine the reference values to design uncemented femoral stems for a south Indian population, and also the effect of ageing and gender on the proximal femur morphology. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of two groups. For the first group, 50 unpaired dry femur bones were obtained from adult human cadavers; and the second group was a clinical group of 50 adult patients. Standardised radiographic techniques were used to measure the extracortical and intra-cortical morphometric parameters. Based on these, dimensionless ratios were calculated to express the shape of the proximal femur. The data were expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation and a comparison made with other studies. Results: A significant difference was noted across various population subsets within the Indian subcontinent and also in comparison to the Western population, suggestive of regional variation. The measurements made in cadaveric bone differed significantly from those in live patients, especially the femoral head diameter and extra-cortical and intracortical width. Femoral offset, head height and diameter were significantly less in females. Conclusion: The south Indian population needs customised implants with an increase in neck shaft angle and a decrease in intra-cortical and extra-cortical width for press fit in hip arthroplasty. The variation between the two sexes must also be accounted for during prosthesis design.

4.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-211942

ABSTRACT

Background: Outcome of various treatment regimen are dismal in non-small cell lung cancer. This analysis is done to find possible care in authors institutional set up and to see how these protocols have effect in Indian patients in term of toxicity.Methods: Medical records and data on patients who had been diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer histologically or cytologically, and who had been treated with sequential chemoradiation and concurrent chemoradiation at the hospital from January 2007 to March 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Two groups of sequential chemoradiotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy were formed and compared for outcomes.Results: Of the 114 evaluable patients in sequential chemoradiotherapy group, the median survival time was 16.0 months and the 1, 3- and 5-years overall survival were 57.0, 26.9 and 21.2%, respectively. Median progression free survival (PFS was 13.0 months and the 1, 3 and 5 years PFS were 52.6, 14.6 and 7.8%, respectively. In concurrent chemoradiotherapy group (105 patients), the overall median survival time was 15 months and the 1, 3- and 5-year overall survival were 56.2, 20.6 and 14.7%, respectively. Median PFS was 13 months and the 1, 3 and 5-year PFS were 48.8, 19.7 and 10.3%, respectively. Grade 3 and 4 toxicity in both regimen groups are same and statistically not significant.Conclusions: Analysis confirm dismal outcome with standard treatment and signifies to search for care beyond conventional chemoradiotherapy.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205314

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With sectional imaging, wide variations are reported in pelvic anatomy of individual patients raising concerns over adequate coverage of target volume with conventional radiotherapy based on standard bony landmarks. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) is reported to decrease normal tissue toxicity, along with decrease in chances of geographic miss. Present study is done for dosimetric comparison of Planning Target Volume (PTV) and Organs at Risk (OAR) in cancer cervix patients treated with conventional and conformal radiotherapy along with clinical correlation in terms of side effects and tumor response. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients of cancer cervix underwent planning contrast enhanced CT scan. Target volumes & OAR were contoured. Patients were randomized into conventional & conformal arms. Conventional fields were planned using standard bony landmarks. CT based radiotherapy planning was done for 3DCRT arm. Field sizes &dose volume histogram (DVH) were recorded & compared for target coverage & OAR sparing in both arms. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy followed by brachytherapy. Results: Field sizes used for the 3DCRT plans were significantly larger than those used for the conventional plans (p= 0.000). Optimal PTV coverage was significantly improved using 3DCRT as compared to conventional radiotherapy (p= 0.0001). Dose homogeneity in both arms were almost similar (p= 0.292), while conformity index was better in 3DCRT which was statistically significant between the groups (p= 0.000). Mean dose to the Planning Target Volume was increased significantly in the CT based plan when compared with the standard four field plan (p= 0.0001).Difference in doses to the organs at risk (urinary bladder, and small bowel)and their side effects were statistically significant across both groups. There was no difference in tumor response. Conclusion: The present study showed significantly better target volume coverage & dose homogeneity with 3DCRT which may translate into better local control & survival but longer follow up is required to validate it.

6.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Dec; 67(12): 2029-2034
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197653

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Retinal hemangioblastomas (RHs) are characteristic of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Early diagnosis of retinal lesions may aid in systemic diagnosis. Early identification of VHL is life-saving and also prevents vision loss. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) is a useful tool in the diagnosis and management of RHs. The aim of this study is to report FFA features of RH using ultra-widefield (UWF) imaging. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of consecutive patients of RH who underwent UWF FFA at a tertiary eye care center. Images were analyzed and assessed by authors. The main outcome measures were (a) the number and size of RH in each eye and (b) vascular characteristics of the retina. UWF-FFA characteristics in each eye were tabulated. The number of clock hours involved by these characteristics and their correlation with the number and size of RH were analyzed. Results: The study evaluated 24 eyes of 13 patients. The mean age was 28.4 years. The median number of RHs in an eye was 3.5 (range 1�16), and the size of RHs varied from 0.1 to 4 disc diameters. Novel UWF-FFA findings noted in this study were the presence of abnormal capillary network in 22 of 24 eyes (91.7%), capillary leakage in 15 of 24 eyes (62.5%), and capillary telangiectasia in 7 of 24 eyes (29.2%). In addition, feeder arterioles and venules showed bulbous projections in 8 of 24 eyes (33.3%). Conclusion: The UWF-FFA characteristics of RH, which have not been described before, were identified. These add to our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and may pave the way for future therapeutic targets.

7.
Int J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 2019 Sep; 11(9): 1-7
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205942

ABSTRACT

This review is generally focussed on lipid-based excipients in solid oral formulations which increase its bioavailability. Several approaches have been used to deliver the drug efficiently in the body, and lipid excipients are one of the promising drug delivery systems which address challenges like solubility and bioavailability of water-soluble drugs. Lipids excipients can be tailored to meet a wide range of product requirements like disease indication, route of administration, stability, toxicity, and efficacy. This review discusses novel lipids like Compritol 888 ATO, Dynasan 114, and Precirol ATO 5 and how these can be employed for devicing efficient drug delivery models and thereby have used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

8.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195807

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The growing incidence and the wide diversity of carbapenemase-producing bacterial strains is a major concern as only a few antimicrobial agents are active on carbapenem-resistant bacteria. This study was designed to study molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) isolates from the community and hospital settings. Methods: In this study, non-duplicate GNB were isolated from clinical specimens, and phenotypic test such as modified Hodge test, metallo ?-lactamase E-strip test, etc. were performed on carbapenem-resistant bacteria. Multiplex PCR was performed to identify the presence of blaIMP, blaVIM, blaKPC, blaOXA48, blaOXA23, blaSPM, blaGIM, blaSIM and blaNDM. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of colistin, fosfomycin, minocycline, chloramphenicol and tigecycline was also determined. Results: Of the 3414 GNB studied, carbapenem resistance was 9.20 per cent and maximum resistance (11.2%) was present at tertiary care centre, followed by secondary care (4%) and primary centre (2.1%). Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, overall, the most common isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%). On multiplex PCR 90.3 per cent carbapenem-resistant isolates were positive for carbapenemase gene. The blaNDM(63%) was the most prevalent gene followed by blaVIM(18.4%). MIC results showed that 88 per cent carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were sensitive to fosfomycin, whereas 78 per cent of P. aeruginosa and 85 per cent Acinetobacter spp. were sensitive to colistin. Interpretation & conclusions: Carbapenem resistance in GNB isolates from the community and hospital settings was found to be on the rise and should be closely monitored. In the absence of new antibiotics in pipeline and limited therapeutic options, prudent use of antibiotics and strict infection control practices should be followed in hospital to limit the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria.

9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Aug; 66(8): 1084-1087
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196858

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The aim of the study was to report the occurrence of contamination/replacement of ophthalmic eye drops with liquids of acidic nature in patients treated for nonresponding scleritis. Methods: This was a retrospective interventional case series study. Results: Of the three patients (4 eyes) referred as necrotizing scleritis, two were found to have acid as the content in the bottle/s being used as eye drops, confirmed using biochemical tests. All four eyes had tarsal ischemia and tarsal conjunctival defect in addition to severe scleral ischemia involving the inferior bulbar area. All four eyes required tenonplasty with amniotic membrane transplant more than once for the ocular surface to heal. Two of the three patients were on systemic immunosuppressives including pulse cyclophosphamide for refractory necrotizing scleritis. Sulfuric and hydrochloric acid was isolated from the bottles of 2nd and 3rd patient using confirmatory biochemical tests. Conclusion: It is important to be aware of the possibility of contaminating or replacing contents of eye drops with harmful agents of acidic nature and should be considered in situations that resemble the clinical picture described herein.

10.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-192711

ABSTRACT

Background: Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the branching pattern of hepatic arterial system with Multi Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT). Methods: 100 patients who underwent Contrast Computed Tomography of abdomen for any medical reasons were evaluated retrospectively. Results: Out of 100 patients analyzed 38% shown variations in hepatic artery branching pattern. Conclusion: Knowledge about hepatic artery variations using MDCT provides valuable guidance particularly for hepatobiliary and liver transplant surgeons and radiologist to make appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

11.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Jul; 66(7): 1004-1006
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196789

ABSTRACT

Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is associated with a reduced T-helper (Th) 1 response, and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) occurs secondary to a heightened Th2 response. VKC has been reported to occur in patients with HIV. In all probability, a Th1–Th2 shift occurs in the immune response in progressive HIV patients with a decreasing CD4 count. This shift could be the probable cause for the initiation and gradual worsening of the VKC in our patient that corresponded to the dropping CD4 counts. VKC resolved only after a change in antiretroviral therapy for HIV that caused a demonstrable increase in the CD4 counts possibly by reversing the shift.

13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2018 May; 66(5): 620-629
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196725

ABSTRACT

Keratoprosthesis (Kpro) forms the last resort for bilateral end-stage corneal blindness. The Boston Type 1 and 2 Kpros, the modified osteo-odonto Kpro and the osteo-Kpro are the more frequently and commonly performed Kpros, and this review attempts to compile the current data available on these Kpros worldwide from large single-center studies and compare the indications and outcomes with Kpros in the Indian scenario. Although the indications have significantly expanded over the years and the complications have reduced with modifications in design and postoperative regimen, these are procedures that require an exclusive setup, and a commitment toward long-term follow-up and post-Kpro care. The last decade has seen a surge in the number of Kpro procedures performed worldwide as well as in India. There is a growing need in our country among ophthalmologists to be aware of the indications for Kpro to facilitate appropriate referral as well as of the procedure to enable basic evaluation during follow-ups in case the need arises, and among corneal specialists interested to pursue the field of Kpros in understanding the nuances of these surgeries and to make a judicious decision regarding patient and Kpro selection and more importantly deferral.

14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Mar; 66(3): 474-476
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196656

ABSTRACT

A young male presented with diminution of vision left eye, attributable to full-thickness macular hole, and submacular hemorrhage, following closed globe injury 2 weeks ago. The patient was managed successfully with 25-gauge vitrectomy, subretinal injection of tissue plasminogen activator and aspiration of liquefied blood through the macular hole, internal limiting membrane peeling, short-acting gas tamponade, and prone positioning. This resulted in good visual improvement, type 1 macular hole closure, and restoration of foveal architecture. The outcome and rationale of treatment in this unique scenario is discussed.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196166

ABSTRACT

Background: Carcinoma breast is ever-evolving and becoming increasingly prevalent in India. Numerous prognostic factors based on morphology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been established which need to be interconnected to give patients best possible treatment. Aims: This study aims to confirm and analyze lymphovascular invasion (LVI) detected by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) using IHC with CD34 and D2-40 and its correlation with other biologic and morphologic prognostic markers. Settings and Design: This was a prospective study. Materials and Methods: Fifty mastectomy specimens diagnosed as infiltrating ductal carcinoma breast on histopathology selected for the study. Evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections was done using H and E and IHC for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2/neu receptors, CD34, and D2-40 endothelial markers. Correlation of LVI done with prognostic markers of Carcinoma Breast, namely, age of the patient, tumor size, Nottingham grade, lymph node ratio (LNR), Nottingham prognostic index (NPI), ER/PR status, and HER2/neu status. CD34 and D2-40 utilized to distinguish blood vessel, lymph vessel, and retraction artifacts and to calculate lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) and blood microvessel density (BMVD). Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS Software Package. Results: LVI was associated with younger age (P = 0.001), greater tumor size (P = 0.007), higher Nottingham grade (P = 0.001), higher LNR (P = 0.001), higher NPI (P = 0.001), Negative ER Status (P = 0.001), Negative PR Status (P = 0.002), Positive HER2/neu status (P = 0.021), Higher Intratumoral BMVD (P = 0.016), Peritumoral BMVD (P = 0.001), and Intratumoral LMVD (P = 0.009). Blood vessels more commonly invaded than lymph vessels. Retraction artifacts can be mistaken for LVI without IHC. Conclusions: D2-40 is a promising marker for lymphatic endothelium. LVI is a poor prognostic marker hence should be evaluated imperatively in all cases of carcinoma breast.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758393

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: Early diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OATB) is essential to prevent significant functional disability. There is no single test for diagnosis. Despite an array of investigations available, definitive diagnosis at early stage before starting antitubercular drugs is still a challenge. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out between February 2016 and October 2017. All children less than 18 years of age with suspected osteoarticular tuberculosis were included. The cases were subjected to simple needle aspiration from whichever site was accessible. Multiple sample aspirations were done at site of involvement. Smears were prepared from the aspirated material. Results: Ziehl-Neelsen staining for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) showed deep pink red rods under light microscopy. Features suggestive of tuberculosis can be seen by May-GrünwaldGiemsa (MGG) staining. Auramine-O staining method of detecting AFB under fluorescent microscope shows the bacilli as greenish yellow slender curved rods in dark background. Fluorescent microscopy has higher sensitivity and comparable specificity. In our study, microbiological confirmation of OATB could be done in 100% cases where the lesion could be accessed for aspiration. The molecular techniques are relatively more expensive and not available everywhere. Conclusion: Meticulous search for AFB in a well stained smear using three different staining methods provides a direct evidence of infection over costly imaging especially in poor patients seen in resource limited settings.

17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-179892

ABSTRACT

Fibromyxoma is a rare benign tumour of mesenchymal origin that mostly involves the posterior part of the mandible. It is a locally aggressive and slowly growing painless tumour that mostly occurs in second and third decades of life. We report a case of 2 years old child with huge mass of the right maxilla. After proper diagnosis mass was completely excised via sublabial approach and reported histopathologically as fibromyxoma. Because of its rarity in the maxilla and in this age, it is being reported here.

18.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-186190

ABSTRACT

Background: Numerous studies are quoted in literature which focuses mostly on evaluating the specific head and neck lesion such as tumours of odontogneic origin. Only limited studies are quoted in literature focusing on the prevalence the whole spectrum of biopsied oral and maxillofacial lesions in various countries. Hence; we planned this retrospectively analysis to evaluate the frequency of all biopsied jaw lesions in order to assess the discrepancy between clinical diagnoses and histopathologic diagnosis. Materials and methods: The present study was planned in Vananchal Dental College, Jharkhand and involved analysis of records of all the patients whose biopsy specimen was submitted to the Department of Oral Pathology from June 2010 to July 2014. All the jaw lesions were divided Mosby S, Magar S, Magar S, Ranpise SG, Agarwal PK, Agarwal S. Assessment of clinic-pathologic discrepancy in diagnosis of Jaw lesions: A retrospective analysis . IAIM, 2016; 3(8): 140-145. Page 141 predominantly into three main groups depending on the type of lesions. Complete analysis of the record of the patients and their histopahtologic reports was done and comparison was made between the clinical diagnosis and histopathologic diagnosis to assess the coordination between the two diagnoses of the jaw lesions. Results: 1500 patient’s records were evaluated in the present study. Group I, II and III had 400, 800 and 300 patients respectively. More male population was observed in the present study. Lesions diagnosed in the maxilla and in the mandible were approximately same in number. More than 75 percent of cases in this group were Periapical granulomas. The most prevalent lesion in Group II was radicular cyst followed by dentigerous and residual cyst. Conclusion: Collaboration of histopatholgocial details and radiographic findings should be done along with the clinical history to reach the final diagnosis.

19.
Indian J Cancer ; 2015 Oct-Dec; 52(4): 568-573
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-176284

ABSTRACT

Despite multimodality treatment protocol including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), most suffer from treatment failure and tumor recurrence within a few months of initial surgery. The effectiveness of temozolomide (TMZ), the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, is largely dependent on the methylation status of the promoter of the gene O6‑methylguanine‑DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and the integrity of the mismatch repair (MMR) system. Changes in these regulatory mechanisms at the time of recurrence may influence response to therapy. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms of resistance to these drugs may in future lead to improvised patient management. In this article, we provide an update of the spectrum of molecular changes that occur in recurrent GBMs, and thus may have an impact on patient survival and treatment response. For review, electronic search for the keywords “Recurrent GBM”, “Recurrent GBM AND MGMT” “Recurrent glioma AND MGMT”, “Recurrent GBM AND MMR” and “Recurrent glioma AND MMR”, “Recurrent GBM AND MMR” and “Recurrent glioma AND MMR” was done on PubMed and relevant citations were screened including cross‑references.

20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164823

ABSTRACT

The ulnar artery, larger terminal branch of brachial artery is one of the principal arteries contributing to the vascular supply of forearm. It passes through a narrow tunnel, the Guyon’s canal, along with the ulnar nerve at the level of wrist. Ulnar artery is approached during surgical interventions like, coronary and cerebral angiography, ulnar-cephalic arteriovenous fistula etc., in situations where access to radial artery fails. The lesions of ulnar artery such as aneurysms, tortuosity, aberrancy, etc. may lead to entrapment neuropathies of the ulnar nerve. We have reported here a case of tortuous ulnar artery in the distal forearm and hand of the left side of a 62 years old male, which is a rare finding observed during routine educational cadaveric dissection. The tortuosity was observed in the form of twists and bends at various levels in 15cm long segment of ulnar artery in the distal forearm wrist and hand up to the commencement of superficial palmar arch. An aberrant head of flexor pollicis longus was seen crossing the ulnar artery. The ulnar artery of right side was normal and no other anatomical variations were seen. Such muscular variations may simulate soft tissue tumors resulting in nerve or vascular compressions and also influence the biomechanics of wrist and hand. An understanding of variations in the regional anatomy is essential for surgeons, cardiologists and neuroradiologists for preventing failure of surgical procedures.

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