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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(4): 882-887, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124870

ABSTRACT

The different pathologies of the prostate, involve the presence of a new microenvironment where inflammatory cells are actively recruited. This research explores the presence of mast cells and eosinophils associated with age and the evaluation of prostate cancer progress (Gleason Index). Forty two biopsies of anonymized patients, with confirmed prostate cancer, were used for histological analysis for eosinophils and mast cells and subsequent determination of Gleason index according to age. The results of the histological analyzes show the presence of eosinophils and mast cells in prostate biopsies with confirmed cancer. In the multiple correlation studies, a high correlation was observed between the presence of lymphocytes and the age of the patient diagnosed with prostate cancer, same correlation was observed between the patient's age and higher Gleason Index (Pearson and Spearman p< 0.05). It is concluded that in prostate biopsies from Chilean patients with confirmed cancer, eosinophilia and tissue mastocytosis were observed. Correlation analyzes show a direct correlation between older patients, higher Gleason index and presence of mast cell. Regarding eosinophilia, only a correlation between age and Gleason index was observed Further studies are suggested to determine that the presence of eosinophils and mast cells can be used as early bioindicators of prostate cancer.


Las diferentes patologías de próstata, involucran la presencia de un nuevo microambiente donde las células inflamatorias son activamente reclutadas. La presente investigación explora la presencia de mastocitos y eosinófilos asociadas a la edad y la evaluación del progreso del cáncer de próstata según índice de Gleason. Cuarenta y dos biopsias de pacientes anonimizados, con cáncer prostático confirmados, fueron utilizadas para su análisis histológico para eosinófilos y mastocitos y posterior determinación del índice de Gleason según edad. Los resultados de los análisis histológicos, muestran la presencia de eosinófilos y mastocitos en biopsias de próstata con cáncer confirmado. En los estudios de correlación múltiple, se observó una alta correlación entre la presencia de linfocitos, mastocitos y la edad del paciente diagnosticado con cáncer prostático, igual correlación se observó entre la edad del paciente y mayor índice de Gleason (Pearson y Spearman p<0,05). Se concluyó que en las biopsias de próstata de pacientes chilenos con cáncer confirmado, se observó eosinofilia y mastocitosis tisular. Los análisis de correlación muestran una correlación directa entre pacientes de mayor edad, índice de Gleason más alto y la presencia de mastocitos. Con respecto a la eosinofilia, solo se observó una correlación entre la edad y el índice de Gleason. Se sugieren estudios adicionales para determinar que la presencia de eosinófilos y mastocitos puede usarse como bioindicadores tempranos del cáncer de próstata.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Biopsy , Mastocytosis/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/analysis , Chile , Age Factors , Eosinophilia/pathology , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasm Grading
2.
Clinics ; 73(supl.1): e548s, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between the generation and elimination of oxidant species. This condition may result in DNA, RNA and protein damage, leading to the accumulation of genetic alterations that can favor malignant transformation. Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus types is associated with inflammatory responses and reactive oxygen species production. In this context, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and high-risk human papillomavirus can act in a synergistic manner. To counteract the harmful effects of oxidant species, protective molecules, known as antioxidant defenses, are produced by cells to maintain redox homeostasis. In recent years, the use of natural antioxidants as therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment has attracted the attention of the scientific community. This review discusses specific molecules and mechanisms that can act against or together with oxidative stress, presenting alternatives for cervical cancer prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/metabolism , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Papillomavirus Infections/metabolism , Papillomavirus Infections/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use
3.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e124, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978869

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo Describir, a partir de las percepciones de adolescentes y personal de atención de salud, las formas en que los adolescentes varones se relacionan con la atención de salud sexual y reproductiva, las transformaciones percibidas en este ámbito y las estrategias desplegadas por Espacios Amigables para la atención de salud adolescente para acercarse a ellos. Métodos Estudio cualitativo etnográfico en Espacios Amigables para la atención de adolescentes y jóvenes de cinco municipios de la Región Metropolitana de Chile. Se utilizaron las técnicas de entrevistas semiestructuradas (N = 38), grupos de discusión (N = 5) y observación participante. Resultados Se identifica una falta de perspectiva de masculinidades en la atención de salud sexual y reproductiva en adolescentes, que se percibe como un ámbito enfocado principalmente para el género femenino. La mayoría de los adolescentes varones percibe a los servicios de salud como distantes y acuden principalmente en casos de emergencia. Se identifica una baja asistencia de hombres a servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva en Espacios Amigables ubicados en centros de atención primaria de salud. Sin embargo, aquellos ubicados fuera de estos como, por ejemplo, un centro exclusivo de atención de salud adolescente y servicios integrados en las escuelas, convocan a mayor número de varones. Conclusiones Una mayor oferta de servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva para adolescentes no necesariamente implica un aumento en el acceso de hombres. Para que esto suceda, es importante invitarlos desde temáticas que les resulten de interés, acercar los servicios de salud hacia donde ellos están, potenciar el trabajo intersectorial, e incorporar un enfoque de masculinidades para su atención.


ABSTRACT Objective To describe, based on the perceptions of adolescents and health service staff, the ways in which adolescent boys interact with sexual and reproductive health services, the changes perceived in this area over time, and the Espacios Amigables strategy ('Friendly Spaces' for adolescent health) to reach out to boys. Methods An ethnographic, qualitative study was conducted in Friendly Spaces for adolescent and young adult health in five municipalities belonging to Chile's Metropolitan Region. The research methods used were semi-structured interviews (N = 38), discussion groups (N = 5), and participant observation. Results A masculinities perspective was [TN: "un enfoque de masculinidades". Or simply: "Masculine perspectives were…"] felt to be missing in adolescent sexual and reproductive health care, which is perceived to be an area geared primarily toward females. Most adolescent boys perceive health services as distant and visit them only in case of emergency. Male attendance is low at sexual and reproductive health services in Friendly Spaces within primary health care centers. However, services outside these centers attract boys in larger numbers, for example, one that is exclusively devoted to providing adolescent health care and integrated services in schools. Conclusions Greater provision of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services does not necessarily translate into increased male access. For such an increase to occur, it is important to engage boys in addressing issues that capture their interest, bring health services closer to them, strengthen intersectoral work, and incorporate a masculinities perspectives in their care.


RESUMO Objetivo Descrever, a partir das percepções dos jovens e do pessoal de saúde, as formas como os adolescentes do sexo masculino se relacionam com a atenção de saúde sexual e reprodutiva, as transformações percebidas neste âmbito e as estratégias para atenção de saúde do adolescente por espaços amigáveis para o alcance deste grupo. Métodos Foi realizado um estudo qualitativo etnográfico em espaços amigáveis para atenção de saúde de adolescentes e jovens em cinco municípios da região metropolitana do Chile. Foram empregados os métodos de entrevistas semiestruturadas (N = 38) e grupos de discussão (N = 5) e a técnica de observação participante. Resultados Foi verificada a falta de uma perspectiva de masculinidades na atenção de saúde sexual e reprodutiva para adolescentes, que se percebe como sendo voltada principalmente ao sexo feminino. A maioria dos adolescentes e jovens percebe os serviços de saúde como distantes e recorrem a eles sobretudo em situações de emergência. Foi observada pouca assistência ao sexo masculino nos serviços de saúde sexual e reprodutiva em espaços amigáveis situados em unidades de atenção primária à saúde. No entanto, a frequência dos jovens é maior nos espaços localizados fora destas unidades, como em um centro exclusivo de atenção de saúde do adolescente e serviços integrados em escolas. Conclusões Uma maior oferta de serviços de saúde sexual e reprodutiva para adolescentes não implica necessariamente maior acesso do sexo masculino. Para isso, é importante atrair os jovens com assuntos do interesse deles, acercar os serviços de saúde de onde eles estão, reforçar o trabalho intersetorial e incorporar um enfoque de masculinidades à atenção.


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Adolescent Health , Men's Health , Reproductive Health , Sexual Health , Chile
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(6): 723-733, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-793981

ABSTRACT

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGBT) populations have a high prevalence of suicide behaviors. Aim: To review the literature on suicide among LGBT populations. Material and Methods: A systematic review of the scientific literature published between 2004 and 2014 on suicidality among LGBT people was conducted. Forty-five articles were selected for a thematic analysis. Results: The research on suicide among LGBT people has increased during the last decade. The vast majority of studies have been conducted in the U.S. and other English speaking countries. At the same time, in a great part, these studies have been published in journals specializing in mental health and public health of sexual minorities. In general, they provide a significant foundation on protective and risk factors for suicide as well as their epidemiology. Conclusions: The focus of research on suicide among LGBT populations is mainly exploratory. More attention on these at-risk groups is required from the suicide research community in order to provide useful evidence for prevention and development of focalized and effective interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Bisexuality/statistics & numerical data , Homosexuality/statistics & numerical data , Transgender Persons/statistics & numerical data , Suicide/psychology , Bisexuality/psychology , Homosexuality/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology
6.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 138(4): 421-427, abr. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-553212

ABSTRACT

Background: Long term use of ganciclovir (GCV) is associated with acquired resistance to it. Ninety percent of the responsible mutations occur in cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL 97 gene. Aim: To search for these mutations, comparing nucleotide sequences of CMV-positive samples from post transplant and immunocompromised patients receiving GCV, with sequences of CMV isolates obtained from subjects not exposed to the drug. Patients and Methods: Codons 440 to 465 of gene UL 97, in-cluding the most common mutations causing resistance to GCV, were amplifed in 33 plasma samples from patients exposed to GCV and in 15 urine samples of newborns. Both populations and their nucleotide sequences were compared with the prototype strain CMV AD169. Results: Samples of exposed patients had multiple mutations but only one had a mutation associated with clinical resistance (M460I). Eight subjects had the D605E mutation, whose role in resistance is controversial. The remaining 150 mutations were silent mutations. Conclusions: A low frequency of mutations associated with CMV resistance to GCV was found in these exposed and unexposed samples. These mutations may refect coexistence of multiple genetic variants of CMV. The absence of clinical expression of resistance, even with these mutations, can be explained by the use of GCV for a shorter lapse than that associated with the appearance of resistance.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Ganciclovir/pharmacology , Mutation , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/genetics , Base Sequence , Chile , Cytomegalovirus/drug effects , Genome, Viral , Immunocompromised Host , Young Adult
7.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 138(2): 175-180, feb. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-546208

ABSTRACT

Background: Cervical cancer is the third cause of cancer death among Chilean women, affecting mainly women from low socioeconomic status. Aim: To determine main risk factors (RF) including human papilomavirus (HPV) types associated with abnormal cervical cytology (Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance or ASCUS) among Chilean women from low socioeconomic status in Santiago, Chile. Material and Methods: A random population based sample of616 women from La Pintana (a low-income district in Santiago) participated in 2001 in a HPV prevalence study and were re-evaluated in 2006 through a risk factors questionnaire, Papanicolaou test and DNA detection for HPV. The Papanicolaou test was analyzed in Santiago and HPV analysis (PCR_GP5+/GP6+) was conducted in Vrije University, Amsterdam. Cases included 42 women with cervical lesions and controls included 574 women with normal cytology during the period 2001-2006. Logistic regression with uni and multivariate analysis was performed to identify RF for cervical lesions. Results: During the study period, there was a significant increase in the proportion of single women, from 8.3 to 14.8 percent (p < 0.05), of women with 3 or more sexual partners from 8.9 to 13.3 and of women high risk HPV, from 9.1 to 14.3 percent. The proportion of abnormal Papanicolaou tests remained stable (3.08 and 3.9 percent > ASCUS). High risk HPV was the most significant factor associated with cervical lesions (odds ratio (OR) = 9.695 percent> confidence intervals (CI) = 4.4-21.1) followed by oral contraceptive use (OR = 2.58 95 percent> CI= 1.2-5.7). Among women infected by high risk HPV, the use of oral contraceptives was a risk factor while compliance with screening was protective for cervical lesions. Conclusions: From 2001 to 2006, there was an increase in the proportion of women with high-risk HPV infections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Diseases/epidemiology , Vaginal Smears , Chile/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Papillomavirus Infections/pathology , Socioeconomic Factors , Uterine Cervical Diseases/pathology , Uterine Cervical Diseases/virology
8.
Biol. Res ; 43(4): 475-480, 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582863

ABSTRACT

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpesvirus associated with serious diseases in immunocompromised subjects. The region between ORF UL133 and UL151 from HCMV, named ULb' is frequently deleted in attenuated AD169 and in highly passaged laboratory strains. However, this region is conserved in low-passaged and more virulent HCMV, like the Toledo strain. The UL146 gene, which is located in the ULb' region, encodes a CXC-chemokine analogue. The diversity of UL146 gene was evaluated among fifty-six clinical isolates of HCMV from Japan. Results show that UL146 gene was successfully amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in only 17/56 strains (30 percent), while the success rate for UL145/UL147 gene was 18/56 strains (32 percent). After DNA sequencing, the 35 amplified strains were classified into 8 groups. When compared, variability of UL146 ranged from 25.1 percent to 52.9 percent at the DNA level and from 34.5 percent to 67 percent at the amino acid level. Seven groups had the interleukin-8 (IL-8) motif ERL (Glu-Leu-Arg) CXC and one group had only the CXC motif, suggesting the absence of the IL-8 function of UL146. In conclusion, we found that UL146 gene of HCMV is hyper-variable in clinical strains from Japan suggesting the possibility of a different function in each sequence group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemokines, CXC/genetics , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Genes, Viral/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Base Sequence , Cytomegalovirus/isolation & purification , Fibroblasts/virology , Genotype , Japan , Molecular Sequence Data , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
9.
Biol. Res ; 41(3): 303-315, 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-511920

ABSTRACT

Diffuse type gastric carcinoma is the most aggressive type of gastric cancer. This type of tumor is not preceded by precancerous changes and is associated with early-onset and hereditary syndromes. To test the hypothesis that DNA methylation profile would be useful for molecular classification of the diffuse type gastric carcinoma, DNA methylation patterns of the CpG Island of 17 genes were studied in 104 cases and 47 normal adjacent gastric mucosa by Methylation-specific PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Hierarchicalclustering analysis. The most frequent methylated genes were FHIT, E-cadherin, BRCA1 and APC (>50%),followed by p14, p16, p15, p73, MGMT and SEMA3B (20-49%). Hierarchical clustering analysis reveals four groups with different clinical features. The first was characterized by hypermethylation of BRCA1 and younger age (<45 years old), and the second by hypermethylation of p14 and p16 genes, male predominance and Epstein-Barr virus infection. The third group was characterized by hypermethylation of FHIT and antrum located tumors and the fourth was not associated with any clinical variables. In normal adjacent mucosa only the p73 gene was significantly less methylated in comparison to tumor mucosa. DNA methylation identified subgroups of diffuse type gastric cancer. Hypermethylation of BRCA1 associated with young age suggests a role in early-onset gastric carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , DNA Methylation/genetics , DNA, Neoplasm/genetics , Genes, BRCA1 , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics , Cluster Analysis , CpG Islands/genetics , Early Diagnosis , Gastric Mucosa/pathology , Immunohistochemistry , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Precancerous Conditions/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology
10.
Biol. Res ; 40(3): 365-372, 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-481314

ABSTRACT

The inactivation of tumour suppressor genes by aberrant methylation of promoter regions has been described as a frequent event in neoplasia development, including lung cancer. The p16 gene is a tumour suppressor gene involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression that has been reported to be inactivated by promoter methylation in lung carcinomas at variable frequencies around the world in a smoking habit dependent manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the methylation status of the promoter region of the p16 gene in 74 non-small cell lung carcinomas from Chile. The frequency of p16 gene inactivation by promoter methylation was determined as 79.7 percent (59/74). When we considered histological type, we observed that p16 promoter methylation was significantly higher in squamous cell carcinomas (30/33, 91 percent) compared with adenocarcinomas (21/30, 70 percent) (p=0.029). In addition, no association between p16 promoter methylation and gender, age or smoking habit was found (p=0.202, 0.202 and 0.147 respectively). Our results suggest that p16 promoter hypermethylation is a very frequent event in non-small cell lung carcinomas from Chile and could be smoking habit-independent.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , DNA Methylation/drug effects , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Smoking/adverse effects , Chile , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/etiology , Lung Neoplasms/etiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction
11.
Santiago de Chile; entro de Investigaciónes y Desarrollo de la Educación, Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 2003. [50] p.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-382434
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