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3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(5): 701-705, 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136270

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Microsurgical clipping is currently the main method of treating cerebral aneurysms, even with the improvement of endovascular therapy techniques in recent years. Treatment aims at complete occlusion of the lesion, which is not always feasible. Although appearing superior to endovascular treatment, microsurgical clipping may present varying percentages of incomplete occlusion. Such incidence may be reduced with the use of intraoperative vascular study. Some classifications were elaborated in an attempt to standardize the characteristics of residual lesions, but the classification criteria and terminology used in the studies remain vague and poorly documented, and there is no consensus for a uniform classification. Thus, there is also no agrément on which residual aneurysms should be treated. The aim of this study is to review the literature on residual lesions after microsurgery to treat cerebral aneurysms and how to proceed with them.


RESUMO A clipagem microcirúrgica é, atualmente, o principal método de tratamento dos aneurismas cerebrais, mesmo com o aprimoramento das técnicas de terapia endovascular nos últimos anos. O tratamento visa à oclusão completa da lesão, o que nem sempre é factível. Apesar de parecer superior ao tratamento endovascular, a clipagem microcirúrgica pode apresentar porcentagens variadas de oclusão incompleta. Tal incidência pode ser reduzida com utilização de estudo vascular intraoperatório. Algumas classificações foram elaboradas na tentativa de padronizar as características das lesões residuais, mas os critérios de classificação e a terminologia utilizados nos trabalhos mantêm-se vagos e pobremente documentados, não havendo consenso para uma classificação uniforme. Dessa forma, não há também concordância sobre quais aneurismas residuais devam ser submetidos a tratamento. O objetivo do presente estudo é realizar uma revisão da literatura a respeito das lesões residuais após microcirurgia para tratamento dos aneurismas cerebrais e como proceder diante dessas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm , Endovascular Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Disease Progression , Microsurgery
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 507-511, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136219

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Retro-odontoid pseudotumor (ROP) is a rare disease that affects the atlantoaxial joint and, in general, is associated with local biomechanical alterations that may or may not cause instability. METHODS Descriptive study of the literature available in databases MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, and Scopus. The research was conducted in April 2019. DISCUSSION ROP is, possibly, a syndromic designation that encompasses a significant variety of diseases of the atlantoaxial joint. There are different pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in its genesis. The patients, almost in their entirety, present with severe myelopathy, and most of them are treated surgically, with the posterior decompression being the most commonly used method, with or without arthrodesis. Evolution is usually favorable. CONCLUSION The ROP is still poorly recognized as a differential diagnosis between the diseases of the cranial-cervical junction. The information available in the literature analyzed was based mainly on the study of reports or case series; therefore, it is insufficient to define conducts with a high level of scientific evidence.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO O pseudotumor retro-odontoide (PRO) é uma patologia rara que acomete a articulação atlantoaxial e, em geral, está associada a alterações biomecânicas locais que podem ou não causar instabilidade. METODOLOGIA Estudo descritivo da literatura disponível nas bases de dados Medline/PubMed, Lilacs e Scopus. A pesquisa foi realizada em abril de 2019. DISCUSSÃO O PRO é, possivelmente, uma designação sindrômica que abrange uma variedade significativa de doenças da articulação atlantoaxial. Existem diferentes mecanismos fisiopatológicos implicados em sua gênese. Os pacientes, quase em sua totalidade, apresentam quadro de mielopatia grave e a maioria deles é tratada cirurgicamente, sendo a descompressão posterior o método mais utilizado, com ou sem artrodese. A evolução costuma ser favorável. CONCLUSÃO O PRO ainda é pouco reconhecido como diagnóstico diferencial entre as doenças da junção crânio-cervical. As informações disponíveis na literatura analisada foram baseadas principalmente no estudo de relatos ou séries de casos, sendo, portanto, insuficientes para definir condutas com alto nível de evidência científica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atlanto-Axial Joint , Spinal Cord Diseases , Odontoid Process , Skull , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Femur Neck
5.
Clinics ; 75: e1973, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze the incidence and epidemiological, angiographic, and surgical aspects associated with incomplete clipping of brain aneurysms in a cohort of patients undergoing microsurgical treatment. METHODS: The medical record data of patients who underwent microsurgery for cerebral aneurysm treatment and postoperative digital subtraction angiography, treated at the same teaching hospital between 2014 and 2019, were retrospectively analyzed. The studied variables involved epidemiological and clinical data, as well as neurological status and findings on neuroimaging. The time elapsed between hemorrhage and microsurgical treatment, data on the neurosurgical procedure employed for aneurysm occlusion, and factors associated with the treated aneurysm, specifically location and size, were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen patients were submitted to 139 neurosurgical procedures, in which 167 aneurysms were clipped. The overall rate of residual injury was 23%. Smoking (odds ratio [OR]: 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI95%]: 1.372-8.300, p=0.008), lesion size >10 mm (OR: 5.136, CI95%: 2.240-11.779, p<0.001) and surgery duration >6 h (OR: 8.667, CI95%: 2.713-27.681, p<0.001) were found to significantly impact incomplete aneurysm occlusion in the univariate analyses. CONCLUSION: Incomplete microsurgical aneurysm occlusion is associated with aneurysm size, complexity, and current smoking status. Currently, there is no consensus on postoperative assessment of clipped aneurysms, hindering the correct assessment of treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Intracranial Aneurysm/epidemiology , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Neurosurgical Procedures , Microsurgery
6.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(6): 834-838, June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012976

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: To identify recurrence and its potential predisposing factors in a series of 595 patients with an initial diagnosis of Chronic Subdural Hematoma (CSDH) who underwent surgical treatment at a Reference Hospital of São Paulo. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study, in which the medical records of all patients with a CSDH diagnosis submitted to surgical treatment from 2000 to 2014 were analyzed. RESULTS: The final study population consisted of 500 patients with a diagnosis of CSDH (95 patients with a diagnosis of Cystic Hygroma were excluded), of which 27 patients presented recurrence of the disease (5.4%). There were no statistically significant differences in relapses when cases were stratified by gender, laterality of the first episode or surgical procedure performed in the first episode (trepanning vs. craniotomy). It was possible to demonstrate an age-related protective factor, analyzed as a continuous variable, regarding the recurrence of the CSDH, with a lower rate of recurrence the higher the age. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that, among possible factors associated with recurrence, only age presented a protective factor with statistical significance. The fact that no significant difference between the patients submitted to trepanning or craniotomy was found favors the preferential use of burr-hole surgery as a procedure of choice due to its fast and less complex execution.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS: Identificar a taxa de recidiva e seus potenciais fatores predisponentes em série de 595 pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico inicial de hematoma subdural crônico (HSDCr) submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico em hospital terciário de São Paulo nos últimos 14 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo descritivo, no qual foram analisados os prontuários de todos os pacientes com diagnóstico de HSDCr submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico, no período de 2000 a 2014. RESULTADOS: A amostra final consistiu em 500 pacientes com diagnóstico de HSDCr — foram excluídos 95 pacientes com diagnóstico de higroma cístico —, dos quais 27 sujeitos apresentaram recidiva do quadro (5,4%). Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas recidivas quando os casos foram estratificados por gênero, lateralidade do primeiro episódio ou procedimento cirúrgico executado no primeiro episódio (trepanação vs. craniotomia). Foi possível demonstrar um fator protetor relacionado à idade, analisado como variável contínua, no que diz respeito à recidiva do HSDCr, com menor taxa de recidiva com o avançar desta CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados indicam que, dentre os fatores possivelmente associados à recidiva, apenas a idade se apresentou como fator protetor com significância estatística. O fato de não ser demonstrada diferença significativa entre os pacientes submetidos a tratamentos cirúrgicos por trepanação ou por craniotomia favorece o uso preferencial da trepanação como procedimento de escolha, em virtude de apresentar execução rápida e menos complexa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic/etiology , Recurrence , Logistic Models , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Craniotomy , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic/surgery , Middle Aged
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(1): 92-95, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004738

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Presence of an arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured intracystic brain aneurysm is extremely rare. The aim of this paper was to describe a case of a patient with an arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured aneurysm inside it. Clinical, surgical and radiological data were analyzed and the literature was reviewed. CASE REPORT: A patient complained of chronic headache. She was diagnosed as having a temporal arachnoid cyst and a non-ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm inside it. Surgery was performed to clip the aneurysm and fenestrate the cyst. CONCLUSIONS: This report raises awareness about the importance of intracranial vascular investigation in patients with arachnoid cysts and brain hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Arachnoid Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cerebral Angiography , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Arachnoid Cysts/surgery , Middle Cerebral Artery/surgery
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 492-496, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979372

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT: Central nervous system (CNS) infectious diseases have high prevalence in developing countries and their proper diagnosis and treatment are very important for public health planning. Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that may cause several CNS manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common type of involvement. Mass-effect lesions are uncommon: they are described as cryptococcomas and their prevalence is even lower among immunocompetent patients. The aim here was to report an extremely rare case of cryptococcoma causing a mass effect and mimicking a brain tumor in an immunocompetent patient. The literature on CNS cryptococcal infections was reviewed with emphasis on cryptococcomas. Clinical, surgical and radiological data on a female patient with this rare presentation of cryptococcoma mimicking a brain tumor are described. Case Report: A 54-year-old female patient presented to the emergency department with a rapid-onset progressive history of confusion and completely dependency for basic activities. Neuroimaging showed a left occipital lesion and neurosurgical treatment was proposed. From histopathological evaluation, a diagnosis of cryptococcoma was established. She received clinical support with antifungals, but despite optimal clinical treatment, her condition evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptococcal infections have several forms of presentation and, in immunocompetent patients, their manifestation may be even more different. Cryptococcoma is an extremely rare presentation in which proper surgical and clinical treatment should be instituted as quickly as possible, but even so, there is a high mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolation & purification , Immunocompetence , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Immunocompromised Host , Fatal Outcome , Central Nervous System Fungal Infections/pathology , Cryptococcosis/pathology , Rare Diseases/pathology , Rare Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential
9.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 37(2): 145-147, 24/07/2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-912279

ABSTRACT

Pineal region tumors are uncommon among neoplasm of the central nervous system, with this region being the most heterogeneous in terms of histological types. Meningiomas are rarer still, but can be found at this site, with origins in either the velum interpositum or falcotentorial junction. Neuroimaging exams can distinguish malignant from benign lesions besides helping to define the origin of the lesion as the pineal parenchymal or surrounding structures. We report the case of a woman with a pineal region tumor in which differential diagnoses included meningioma and germinoma, with confirmation of the former based on radiological characteristics and histopathology. In addition, a brief review of differential diagnoses and approaches for cases of lesions in this region is provided.


Os tumores da região da pineal apresentam uma baixa frequência entre as neoplasias do sistema nervoso central, sendo esta região a mais heterogênea em termos de tipos histológicos possíveis. Meningiomas são lesões ainda mais raras, porém possíveis de advirem desta localização, sejam originados do velum interpositum ou da junção falcotentorial. Os exames de neuroimagem permitem distinguir lesões malignas de benignas além de auxiliar na definição entre origem do parênquima pineal ou de estruturas adjacentes. Apresentamos o caso de uma mulher adulta com uma neoplasia da região da pineal cujos diagnósticos diferenciais incluíram meningioma e germinoma, evidenciando-se pelas características radiológicas e resultados histopatológicos tratar-se do primeiro. Além disso, fazemos uma breve revisão a respeito dos diagnósticos diferencias e condutas frente a uma lesão desta região.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pineal Gland , Brain Neoplasms , Meningioma , Pineal Gland/injuries
10.
Rev. chil. neurocir ; 43(1): 12-22, July 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-869775

ABSTRACT

La realización de una craneotomía con el paciente despierto se está utilizando cada vez más en diversas situaciones, como en neurocirugía funcional sobre la estimulación cerebral para tratar la enfermedad de Parkinson y la cirugía para tratar la epilepsia, así como los procedimientos neuroquirúrgicos destinadas a resección de tumores cerebrales en áreas elocuentes. Los principios anestésicos para realizar la craneotomía despierta tienen el objetivo de realización de una analgesia adecuada,sedación, la estabilidad hemodinámica sistémica y la permeabilidad de la vía aérea con el tipo de procedimiento neuroquirúrgico a realizar. El objetivo de este estudio es revisar los principios que rigen la conducta de la anestesia para la neurocirugía que es necesario para lograr la craneotomía con el paciente despierto.


Craniotomy in awake patients is becoming more widely used in a range of situations, such as functional neurology, brain stimulation for treatment of Parkinson disease, surgery for treating epilepsy, as well as in neurological procedures to resect brain tumors in eloquent area. The main anesthesia regimen for craniotomy in the awake patient is chosen to provide the appropriate analgesia, sedation, systemic hemodynamic stability and airway patency for the type of neurosurgical procedure being carried out. The objective of the present study was to conduct a review of the principles governing anesthesia for neurosurgeries involving craniotomy in awake patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Balanced Anesthesia , Craniotomy/methods , Propofol/therapeutic use , Wakefulness , Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring , Neurosurgical Procedures
11.
Rev. chil. neurocir ; 43(1): 34-36, July 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869777

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir un caso raro de una paciente previamente diagnosticada con cáncer de mama que evolucionó después de algunos años con metástasis intraorbitaria. Métodos: Relato del caso y revisión de literatura. Resultados: La correlación del diagnóstico previo de neoplasia de mama y la presencia de múltiples lesiones en la órbita y regiones adjacentes ha permitido concluir que la paciente presentaba enfermedad metastásica. Las metástasis se presentan como manifestaciones cada vez más frecuentes en enfermos oncológicos. La órbita y estruturas próximas constituyen topografías poco usuales de diseminaciónde células neoplásicas y manifestaciones iniciales pueden mimetizar otras condiciones, retrasando el diagnóstico. Como se trataban de pequeñas lesiones, se ha optado por radioterapia como tratamiento único. Después del término la paciente evolucionó con regresión de sintomatología. Conclusiones: Aunque infrecuentes, manifestaciones oculares pueden ocurrir en enfermos oncológicos y la investigación de enfermedad metastático de la órbita es esencial para el seguimiento adecuado.


Objective: Description a rare case of a patient with previous diagnosis of breast cancer that evolved years after with orbital metastasis. Method: Case report and literature review. Results: The relation between the previous diagnosis of breast cancer and the presence of multiple orbital and adjacent lesions allowed concluding that the patient presented metastatic disease. Metastasis presented as a common manifestation in oncological patients. Orbit and neighboring structures constitute unusualsite of neoplastic cells dissemination and initial manifestations could mimic other conditions, which can slow diagnosis. As they were small lesions that are close to noble structures, it was opted by performing exclusive radiotherapy. After the end of treatment, the patient referred improvement of her symptoms. Conclusions: Although unusual, ocular manifestations could occur in oncological patients and orbit metastatic disease investigation is essential to the proper follow.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Diplopia/etiology , Eye Movements , Orbital Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Orbital Neoplasms/secondary , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Brain Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis/radiotherapy , Brain Neoplasms/secondary
12.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(2): 146-149, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846293

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neurocysticercosis is prevalent in developing countries and manifests with several neurological signs and symptoms that may be fatal. The cysts may be parenchymal or extraparenchymal and therefore several signs and symptoms may occur. Depending on their location, neurosurgical procedures may be required, sometimes as emergencies. The aim here was to review 10-year statistics on all surgical neurocysticercosis cases at a large public tertiary-level hospital. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort at a large public tertiary-level hospital. METHODS: All surgical neurocysticercosis cases seen between July 2006 and July 2016 were reviewed. Parenchymal and extraparenchymal forms were considered, along with every type of surgical procedure (shunt, endoscopic third ventriculostomy and craniotomy). The literature was reviewed through PubMed, using the terms “neurocysticercosis”, “surgery”, “shunt” and “hydrocephalus”. RESULTS: 37 patients underwent neurosurgical procedures during the study period. Most were male (62.16%) and extraparenchymal cases predominated (81%). Patients aged 41 to 50 years were most affected (35.13%) and those 20 years or under were unaffected. Ventricular forms were most frequently associated with hydrocephalus and required permanent shunts in most cases (56.57%). CONCLUSIONS: The treatment of neurocysticercosis depends on the impairment: the parenchymal type usually does not require surgery, which is more common in the extraparenchymal form. Hydrocephalus is a frequent complication because the cysts often obstruct the cerebrospinal flow. The cysts should be removed whenever possible, to avoid the need for permanent shunts.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A neurocisticercose é prevalente em países em desenvolvimento e manifesta-se com vários sinais e sintomas neurológicos que podem ser fatais. Os cistos podem ser parenquimatosos ou extraparenquimatosos, portanto vários sinais e sintomas podem estar presentes. Dependendo da sua localização, procedimentos neurocirúrgicos podem ser necessários, às vezes em caráter emergencial. O objetivo foi revisar dados estatísticos de um período de 10 anos de todos os casos cirúrgicos de neurocisticercose num grande hospital público terciário. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Coorte retrospectiva de um grande hospital público terciário. MÉTODOS: Todos os casos cirúrgicos de neurocisticercose de pacientes tratados entre julho 2006 e julho 2016 foram revisados. As formas parenquimatosas e extraparenquimatosas foram consideradas, assim como tipo de procedimento cirúrgico (derivação, terceiroventriculostomia endoscópica e craniotomia). A literatura foi revisada por meio da PubMed, utilizando-se os termos “neurocysticercosis”, “surgery”, “shunt” e “hydrocephalus”. RESULTADOS: 37 pacientes foram submetidos a procedimentos neurocirúrgicos nesse período, a maioria do sexo masculino (62.16%%) e casos extraparenquimatosos predominaram (81%). Pacientes com idade 41-50 anos foram os mais afetados (35,13%) e aqueles com 20 anos ou menos não foram afetados. As formas ventriculares mais frequentemente estiveram associadas a hidrocefalia e necessitaram da realização de shunts definitivos na maior parte dos casos (56,57%). CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento depende da forma de acometimento: o tipo parenquimatoso usualmente não necessita de cirurgia que é mais comum na forma extraparenquimatosa. Hidrocefalia é uma complicação frequente pois muitas vezes os cistos obstruem o fluxo liquórico. A remoção dos cistos deve ser realizada sempre que possível para evitar a necessidade de derivações definitivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Neurocysticercosis/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sex Factors , Retrospective Studies , Neurocysticercosis/diagnosis , Neurocysticercosis/epidemiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Hydrocephalus/etiology
13.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(1): 46-53, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842645

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the endovascular treatment of vascular lesions of the cavernous segment of the internal carotidartery (ICA) performed at our institution. Methods: we conducted a descriptive, retrospective and prospective study of patients with aneurysms of the cavernous portion of the ICA or with direct carotid-cavernous fistulas (dCCF) undergoing endovascular treatment. Results: we included 26 patients with intracavernous aneurysms and ten with dCCF. All aneurysms were treated with ICA occlusion. Those with dCCF were treated with occlusion in seven cases and with selective fistula occlusion in the remaining three. There was improvement of pain and ocular proptosis in all patients with dCCF. In patients with intracavernous aneurysms, the incidence of retro-orbital pain fell from 84.6% to 30.8% after treatment. The endovascular treatment decreased the dysfunction of affected cranial nerves in both groups, especially the oculomotor one. Conclusion: the endovascular treatment significantly improved the symptoms in the patients studied, especially those related to pain and oculomotor nerve dysfunction.


RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar o tratamento endovascular de lesões vasculares da artéria carótida interna (ACI), segmento cavernoso, realizado na Santa Casa de São Paulo. Métodos: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo e prospectivo, de pacientes com aneurisma da porção cavernosa da ACI ou com fístulas carótido-cavernosas diretas (FCCd) submetidos a tratamento endovascular. Resultados: foram incluídos 26 pacientes com aneurismas intracavernosos e dez com FCCd. Todos os aneurismas foram tratados com oclusão da ACI. Os com FCCd foram tratados com oclusão, em sete casos, e com oclusão seletiva da fístula nos outros três. Houve melhora da dor e proptose ocular em todos os pacientes com FCCd. Nos pacientes com aneurisma intracavernoso, a incidência de dor retro-orbitária caiu de 84,6% para 30,8% após o tratamento. Após o tratamento endovascular houve uma melhora importante da disfunção de nervos cranianos afetados em ambos os grupos, sobretudo no nervo oculomotor. Conclusão: o tratamento endovascular trouxe melhora para os pacientes deste estudo, especialmente nos critérios dor e acometimento do nervo oculomotor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/surgery , Endovascular Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/complications , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(1): 78-84, Jan.-Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777443

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal connections between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. They are considered direct when there is a direct connection between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. These cases are generally traumatic. Direct CCFs are high-flow lesions, possibly related to intracranial bleeding, visual loss, corneal exposure or even fatal epistaxis. Treatment of such lesions is, thus, always recommended. The ideal treatment for direct CCF is to exclude the fistula from circulation, preserving the carotid flow. This can be attained using diverse endovascular techniques. The objective of the present article is to review the current techniques for treatment of direct CCFs, with special attention to the currently available endovascular treatment options.


RESUMO As fístulas carotidocavernosas (FCC) são comunicações anormais entre a artéria carótida e o seio cavernoso. Elas são consideradas diretas quando há uma comunicação direta entre a artéria carótida interna e o seio cavernoso. Nesses casos, são geralmente traumáticas. As FCC diretas são lesões de alto fluxo, podendo estar relacionadas a sangramento intracraniano, perda visual, exposição corneana ou até mesmo a epistaxe fatal. Seu tratamento é sempre indicado. O tratamento ideal da FCC direta é a exclusão da fístula da circulação, com preservação do fluxo carotídeo. Isso pode ser obtido por meio de técnicas endovasculares diversas. O objetivo do presente artigo é realizar uma revisão sobre as FCC diretas, com especial enfoque nas opções de tratamento endovascular disponíveis na atualidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carotid Artery, Internal/surgery , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/surgery , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Angiography/methods , Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula/diagnosis , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Endovascular Procedures/trends
15.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(1): 85-89, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777441

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Introduction: the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been decreasing patient morbidity and mortality by opportunistic infections and, thus, survival has increased. This new reality has been changing the spectrum of diseases affecting such patients. Objective: to discuss the association between HIV and the emergence of aneurysmal brain injuries. Method: it was performed a literature review using medical database. The following descriptors were searched: "Intracranial Aneurysms and HIV", "Intracranial Aneurysms and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome," "aneurysm and brain and HIV". Results: after performed a literature review, it was observed that the relationship between HIV infection and the formation of aneurysms appears to be real, however, it still lacks data to confirm the pathophysiology of this condition and its best treatment. Conclusion: there are new signs and symptoms that should be studied and researched relating HIV with other changes not previously known.


RESUMO Introdução: o tratamento da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) tem diminuído a morbidade e a mortalidade por infecções oportunistas nesses pacientes e, portanto, aumentado a sobrevida. Essa nova realidade tem mudado o espectro de doenças que afetam esses pacientes. Objetivo: discutir a associação entre HIV e ocorrência de aneurismas cerebrais. Método: foi realizada revisão da literatura utilizando bancos de dados médicos. Foram pesquisados os seguintes descritores: "HIV e aneurismas intracranianos", "aneurismas intracranianos e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida", aneurismas, cérebro e HIV. Resultados: a relação entre a infecção pelo HIV e a formação de aneurismas parece ser real; porém, ainda faltam dados que confirmem a fisiopatologia dessa condição e seu melhor tratamento. Conclusão: existem novos sinais e sintomas, que devem ser estudados e pesquisados, relacionando o HIV com outras alterações previamente desconhecidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/virology , HIV , Cerebral Angiography , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging
16.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 34(3): 203-207, ago. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-2360

ABSTRACT

É bem estabelecido que o diagnóstico da fratura de côndilo occipital tem aumentado nas últimas décadas, provavelmente devido à disponibilidade e ao uso comum da tomografia computadorizada durante a investigação do trauma craniano, além da maior gravidade dos mecanismos de trauma. Por causa da baixa especificidade da apresentação clínica, e também pelo pouco conhecimento sobre o mecanismo de lesão, o diagnóstico desta condição é um desafio para neurocirurgiões. A abordagem terapêutica destes pacientes é baseada em estudos com baixa casuística e em relatos de caso. Uma revisão sobre este tema foi realizada a fim de discutir alguns aspectos controversos sobre o manejo da fratura de côndilo occipital. As fraturas de côndilo occipital são eventos raros, entretanto podem relacionar-se à alta morbidade em pacientes que sofreram trauma encefálico. Alguns sintomas, como intensa dor cervical, podem estar associados com esta fratura; portanto, paciente com suspeita de fratura de côndilo occipital deve ser submetido a investigação radiológica detalhada da região. O diagnóstico precoce desta fratura permite investigação apropriada, minimizando a chance de sequelas.


It is well established that diagnoses of occipital condyle fracture have increased in past decades, probably because of the availability and common use of computed tomography for investigating traumatic brain injuries, as well as themajor seriousness of trauma mechanism. Because of the low specificity of clinical presentation besides the lesion mechanism not well known, this condition is a diagnostic challenge for neurosurgeons. Therapeutic approaches of these patients are based on studies with low samples and case reports. A review of this theme was performed objecting to discuss some controversial topics about management of occipital condyle fracture. The occipital condyle fracture is a rare event, and it, however, could be related to high morbidity in patients who suffered traumatic brain injury. Some symptoms such as severe neck pain are related with this fracture, and thus patients suspicious of this fracture should undergo detailed radiologic investigation of this region. Early diagnosis of this fracture allows appropriate investigation, thus minimizing the risk of sequelae.


Subject(s)
Humans , Craniocerebral Trauma/complications , Occipital Bone/injuries , Skull Fractures/complications , Skull Fractures/diagnosis
18.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 58(7): 758-764, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-726261

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Descrever e analisar a técnica empregada para a cateterização bilateral dos seios petrosos inferiores (SPI) em nosso serviço, discutindo as dificuldades e as taxas de sucesso encontradas. Sujeitos e métodos Entre 2009 e 2012, foram submetidos ao cateterismo bilateral dos SPI 14 pacientes com suspeita de síndrome de Cushing, sendo descrita a técnica empregada para o cateterismo e para a análise hormonal. Resultados O procedimento foi bem tolerado por todos os pacientes, sendo alcançada a cateterização adequada dos SPI em 92,85% dos casos. O diagnóstico de doença de Cushing foi firmado em 10 casos, sendo o resultado do cateterismo dos SPI após estímulo com CRH coerente em todos, não havendo falso-negativos. Conclusão O cateterismo dos SPI, apesar de ser uma técnica invasiva, é um procedimento seguro. A sua realização pode ser feita de forma adequada na maioria dos casos e, quando bem indicada, permanece como padrão-ouro na distinção da forma hipofisária da ectópica na síndrome de Cushing. .


Objective To describe and analyze technique for bilateral catheterization of inferior petrosal sinus in our service, discussing the difficulties and success rates found. Subjects and methods Fourteen patients with suspected Cushing’s syndrome underwent bilateral inferior petrosal sinuses (IPS) catheterization between 2009 and 2012. The technique for catheterization and for hormone analysis were described. Results The procedure was well tolerated by all patients, and adequate catheterization was achieved in 92.85% of cases. The diagnosis of Cushing’s disease was confirmed in 10 cases. The result of IPS catheterization after CRH infusion was coherent in all cases, without false negatives. Conclusion The catheterization of IPS, despite being an invasive technique, is a safe procedure. The objectives can be done properly in most cases. When well indicated, this procedure remains the gold standard in distinguishing the ectopic form to pituitary source in Cushing’s syndrome. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/blood , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Cushing Syndrome/diagnosis , Petrosal Sinus Sampling/methods , ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic/diagnosis , Adenoma/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , False Negative Reactions , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prolactin/blood
19.
Rev. chil. neurocir ; 40(1): 8-11, jul. 2014. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-831375

ABSTRACT

Introducción/Objetivos: El lóbulo temporal anterior tiene importantes estructuras subcorticales, especialmente fibras blancas que llevan la información visual. La comprensión de esta región anatómica, importantes para la práctica microquirúrgica, se basa en técnicas de disección de fibras. Ellos proporcionan perspectiva tridimensional de esta región y añaden un enfoque quirúrgico exitoso para el tratamiento de las lesiones temporales mesiales. El propósito de este trabajo es el estudio de la anatomía de la pared lateral del ventrículo lateral con el fin de determinar una zona libre de la radiación óptica. Métodos: Se diseccionaron diez hemisferios cerebrales, preparados de acuerdo con técnicas de Klingler. Se utilizan espátulas de madera con puntas de diferentes tamaños. La radiación óptica fue delimitada y las medidas se tomaron a partir de esta estructura para el polo temporal, que se utiliza como punto de referencia. Resultados: Abordajes para el cuerno temporal superior a 27 mm más allá del polo temporal pueden cruzar asa de Meyer y determinar un perjuicio a la radiación óptica con los consiguientes déficits en los campos visuales. Conclusión: La determinación de la zona de libre de fibras de radiación óptica es factible. En este trabajo se podría inferir que el área libre de la radiación óptica se encuentra en la región anterioinferior del lóbulo temporal a una distancia de hasta 2,7 centímetros desde el polo temporal y permite el acceso a el hipocampo y la amígdala durante la cirugía de la epilepsia. Resecciones más grandes que estas medidas permiten aclarar de una lesión a la radiación óptica con los consiguientes déficits en los campos visuales.


Introduction/Objective: The anterior temporal lobe has important subcortical structures, especially white fibers that lead visual information. Understanding this anatomical region, important for microsurgical practice, is based on fibers dissection techniques. They provide three-dimensional perspective for this region and add a successful surgical approach for the treatment of mesial temporal lesions. The purpose of this paper is to study the anatomy of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle in order to determine a free area of the optical radiation. Methods: Ten cerebral hemispheres were dissected, prepared according to Klingler´s techniques. Wooden spatulas with tips of various sizes were used. The optical radiation was delimited and measures were taken from this structure to the temporal pole, used as a reference point. Results: Approaches to the temporal horn larger than 27 mm beyond the temporal pole can cross Meyer´s loop and determine injury to the optical radiation with consequent postoperatively deficits in visual fields. Conclusion: The determination of free area of optical radiation fibers is feasible. In this work we could infer that free area of optical radiation is located in the anterioinferior region of the temporal lobe at a distance of up to 2.7 centimeters from the temporal pole and allows access to the hippocampus and amygdala during epilepsy surgery. Larger resections than these measures can possibly determine injury to the optical radiation with consequent deficits in visual fields.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dissection/methods , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe/surgery , Temporal Lobe/anatomy & histology , Temporal Lobe/surgery , Temporal Lobe/injuries , Superior Colliculi , Visual Pathways
20.
Rev. chil. neurocir ; 40(1): 75-79, jul. 2014. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-831388

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de Moyamoya (EMM) se caracteriza por la estenosis progresiva y la oclusión de las arterias carótidas internas en la base del cráneo. Se observó por primera vez en 1957 por Takeuchi y Shimizu en arteriografías anormales del cerebro. Esto representa el 6 por ciento de los accidentes cerebrovasculares en los niños, y es una enfermedad cerebrovascular importante en este grupo de edad en Japón. La mayoría son casos esporádicos de la EMM, pero hay también una variante familiar que se produce en aproximadamente el 8 por ciento de las veces. El tratamiento de la EMM depende de la presentación clínica del paciente y la etapa de la enfermedad. Las opciones de tratamiento incluyen la observación y el seguimiento, el tratamiento médico y el tratamiento quirúrgico, o incluso combinaciones de ellos. En general, no existe una recomendación establecida en relación con la gestión de la enfermedad, una vez que hay una ausencia de estudios prospectivos aleatorizados con seguimiento razonable. En este artículo realizamos una revisión de la literatura acerca de la EMM, con énfasis en su tratamiento quirúrgico.


Moyamoya disease (MMD) is characterized by progressive stenosis and occlusion of the internal carotid arteries at the base of the skull. It was first observed in 1957 by Takeuchi and Shimizu in abnormal arteriograms of the brain. It accounts for 6 percent of strokes in children, and it is a major cerebrovascular disease in this age group in Japan. Most are sporadic cases of MMD, but there is also a familiar variant that occurs in approximately 8 percent of the times. The treatment of MMD depends on the patient’s clinical presentation and the stage of the disease. Treatment options include observation and monitoring, medical treatment and surgical treatment, or even combinations of them. In general, there is no established recommendation regarding the management of the disease, once there is an absence of prospective randomized trials with reasonable follow-up. In this article we perform a review on the literature about the MMD, with emphasis on its surgical treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebral Angiography , Diagnostic Imaging , Moyamoya Disease/surgery , Moyamoya Disease/diagnosis , Moyamoya Disease/epidemiology , Moyamoya Disease/etiology , Moyamoya Disease/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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