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1.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 677-687, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894771

ABSTRACT

Microvascular ultrasound (US) techniques are advanced Doppler techniques that provide high sensitivity and spatial resolution for detailed visualization of low-flow vessels. Microvascular US imaging can be applied to breast lesion evaluation with or without US contrast agents. Microvascular US imaging without a contrast agent uses a sophisticated wall filtering system to selectively obtain low-flow Doppler signals from overlapped artifacts. Microvascular US imaging with secondgeneration contrast agents amplifies flow signals and makes them last longer, which facilitates hemodynamic evaluation of breast lesions. In this review article, we will introduce various microvascular US techniques, explain their clinical applications in breast cancer diagnosis and radiologic-histopathologic correlation, and provide a summary of a recent radiogenomic study using microvascular US.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 677-687, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902475

ABSTRACT

Microvascular ultrasound (US) techniques are advanced Doppler techniques that provide high sensitivity and spatial resolution for detailed visualization of low-flow vessels. Microvascular US imaging can be applied to breast lesion evaluation with or without US contrast agents. Microvascular US imaging without a contrast agent uses a sophisticated wall filtering system to selectively obtain low-flow Doppler signals from overlapped artifacts. Microvascular US imaging with secondgeneration contrast agents amplifies flow signals and makes them last longer, which facilitates hemodynamic evaluation of breast lesions. In this review article, we will introduce various microvascular US techniques, explain their clinical applications in breast cancer diagnosis and radiologic-histopathologic correlation, and provide a summary of a recent radiogenomic study using microvascular US.

3.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 379-394, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901270

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To design a scoring system to predict malignancy of additional MRI-detected lesions in breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Eighty-six lesions (64 benign and 22 malignant) detected on preoperative MRI of 68 breast cancer patients were retrospectively included. The clinico-radiologic features were correlated with the histopathologic results using the Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression analysis. The scoring system was designed based on the significant predictive features of malignancy, and its diagnostic performance was compared with that of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category. @*Results@#Lesion size ≥ 8 mm (p < 0.001), location in the same quadrant as the primary cancer (p = 0.005), delayed plateau kinetics (p = 0.010), T2 isointense (p = 0.034) and hypointense (p = 0.024) signals, and irregular mass shape (p = 0.028) were associated with malignancy. In comparison with the BI-RADS category, the scoring system based on these features with suspicious non-mass internal enhancement increased the diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.918 vs. 0.727) and detected three false-negative cases. With this scoring system, 22 second-look ultrasound examinations (22/66, 33.3%) could have been avoided. @*Conclusion@#The scoring system based on the lesion size, location relative to the primary cancer, delayed kinetic features, T2 signal intensity, mass shape, and non-mass internal enhancement can provide a more accurate approach to evaluate MRI-detected lesions in breast cancer patients.

4.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 379-394, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893566

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To design a scoring system to predict malignancy of additional MRI-detected lesions in breast cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Eighty-six lesions (64 benign and 22 malignant) detected on preoperative MRI of 68 breast cancer patients were retrospectively included. The clinico-radiologic features were correlated with the histopathologic results using the Student's t-test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression analysis. The scoring system was designed based on the significant predictive features of malignancy, and its diagnostic performance was compared with that of the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category. @*Results@#Lesion size ≥ 8 mm (p < 0.001), location in the same quadrant as the primary cancer (p = 0.005), delayed plateau kinetics (p = 0.010), T2 isointense (p = 0.034) and hypointense (p = 0.024) signals, and irregular mass shape (p = 0.028) were associated with malignancy. In comparison with the BI-RADS category, the scoring system based on these features with suspicious non-mass internal enhancement increased the diagnostic performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 0.918 vs. 0.727) and detected three false-negative cases. With this scoring system, 22 second-look ultrasound examinations (22/66, 33.3%) could have been avoided. @*Conclusion@#The scoring system based on the lesion size, location relative to the primary cancer, delayed kinetic features, T2 signal intensity, mass shape, and non-mass internal enhancement can provide a more accurate approach to evaluate MRI-detected lesions in breast cancer patients.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 759-772, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741456

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of ultrasound (US) microflow assessment in distinguishing malignant from benign solid breast masses as well as the association between US parameters and histologic microvessel density (MVD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-eight breast masses (57 benign and 41 malignant) were examined using Superb Microvascular Imaging (SMI) and contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) before biopsy. Two radiologists evaluated the quantitative and qualitative vascular parameters on SMI (vascular index, morphology, distribution, and penetration) and CEUS (time-intensity curve analysis and enhancement characteristics). US parameters were compared between benign and malignant masses and the diagnostic performance was compared between SMI and CEUS. Subgroup analysis was performed according to lesion size. The effect of vascular parameters on downgrading Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 4A masses was evaluated. The association between histologic MVD and US parameters was analyzed. RESULTS: Malignant masses were associated with a higher vascular index (15.1 ± 7.3 vs. 5.9 ± 5.6), complex vessel morphology (82.9% vs. 42.1%), central vascularity (95.1% vs. 59.6%), penetrating vessels (80.5% vs. 31.6%) on SMI (all, p < 0.001), as well as higher peak intensity (37.1 ± 25.7 vs. 17.0 ± 15.8, p < 0.001), slope (10.6 ± 11.2 vs. 3.9 ± 4.2, p = 0.001), area (1035.7 ± 726.9 vs. 458.2 ± 410.2, p < 0.001), hyperenhancement (95.1% vs. 70.2%, p = 0.005), centripetal enhancement (70.7% vs. 45.6%, p = 0.023), penetrating vessels (65.9% vs. 22.8%, p < 0.001), and perfusion defects (31.7% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001) on CEUS (p ≤ 0.023). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of SMI and CEUS were 0.853 and 0.841, respectively (p = 0.803). In 19 masses measuring < 10 mm, central vascularity on SMI was associated with malignancy (100% vs. 38.5%, p = 0.018). Considering all benign SMI parameters on the BI-RADS assessment, unnecessary biopsies could be avoided in 12 category 4A masses with improved AUCs (0.500 vs. 0.605, p < 0.001). US vascular parameters associated with malignancy showed higher MVD (p ≤ 0.016). MVD was higher in malignant masses than in benign masses, and malignant masses negative for estrogen receptor or positive for Ki67 had higher MVD (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: US microflow assessment using SMI and CEUS is valuable in distinguishing malignant from benign solid breast masses, and US vascular parameters are associated with histologic MVD.


Subject(s)
Area Under Curve , Biopsy , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Estrogens , Information Systems , Microvessels , Perfusion , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography
6.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 190-196, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714861

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: There is still a clinical need to easily evaluate the metastatic status of lymph nodes during breast cancer surgery. We hypothesized that ex vivo shear-wave elastography (SWE) would predict precisely the presence of metastasis in the excised lymph nodes. METHODS: A total of 63 patients who underwent breast cancer surgery were prospectively enrolled in this study from May 2014 to April 2015. The excised axillary lymph nodes were examined using ex vivo SWE. Metastatic status was confirmed based on the final histopathological diagnosis of the permanent section. Lymph node characteristics and elasticity values measured by ex vivo SWE were assessed for possible association with nodal metastasis. RESULTS: A total of 274 lymph nodes, harvested from 63 patients, were examined using ex vivo SWE. The data obtained from 228 of these nodes from 55 patients were included in the analysis. Results showed that 187 lymph nodes (82.0%) were nonmetastatic and 41 lymph nodes (18.0%) were metastatic. There was significant difference between metastatic and nonmetastatic nodes with respect to the mean (45.4 kPa and 17.7 kPa, p<0.001) and maximum (55.3 kPa and 23.2 kPa, p<0.001) stiffness. The elasticity ratio was higher in the metastatic nodes (4.36 and 1.57, p<0.001). Metastatic nodes were significantly larger than nonmetastatic nodes (mean size, 10.5 mm and 7.5 mm, p<0.001). The size of metastatic nodes and nodal stiffness were correlated (correlation coefficient of mean stiffness, r=0.553). The area under curve of mean stiffness, maximum stiffness, and elasticity ratio were 0.794, 0.802, and 0.831, respectively. CONCLUSION: Ex vivo SWE may be a feasible method to predict axillary lymph node metastasis intraoperatively in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Area Under Curve , Axilla , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis , Elasticity , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Methods , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prospective Studies
7.
Ultrasonography ; : 98-106, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730997

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonographic Doppler techniques have improved greatly over the years, allowing more sophisticated evaluation of breast tumor vascularity. Superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with second-generation contrast agents are two representative up-to-date techniques. SMI is a sensitive Doppler technique that adopts an intelligent filter system to separate low-flow signals from artifacts. With the development of second-generation contrast agents, CEUS has also emerged as a useful Doppler technique for evaluating tumor microcirculation. Both techniques can improve the diagnostic performance of gray-scale ultrasonography by providing vascular information useful not only for the morphologic assessment of microvessels, but also for the quantitative analysis of perfusion. In this review, we explain the imaging principles and previous research underlying these two vascular techniques, and describe our clinical experiences.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Contrast Media , Microcirculation , Microvessels , Perfusion , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Doppler
8.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 614-620, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-647344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The acceptable noise level (ANL) test measures the maximum noise level that a subject can tolerate while following speech. Given the limited investigation of ANL across different languages, this study aimed to compare ANLs using both Korean semantic speech and non-semantic speech signals (reversed Korean speech and international speech test signal, ISTS) in normal-hearing subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Twenty-five subjects with normal hearing (9 males, 16 females, with the mean age of 28.5±3.15 years) were included in the study. ANLs were obtained using three speech materials (Korean speech, reversed Korean speech, and ISTS) as the target speech material and an eight-talker babble noise as the competing background noise. RESULTS: Generally, the inter-subject variability was large. The ANLs did not differ statistically regardless of the type of speech signal. CONCLUSION: The ANLs seemed to be unaffected by the meaningfulness or semantic contents of the target speech, at least in normal-hearing adults. Thus, non-meaningful speech signals or non-semantic material can be considered as the target signal for the implementation of ANL test.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Hearing , Methods , Noise , Semantics
9.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 215-221, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-650227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Even patients with compensated peripheral vestibular dysfunction may report a sense of disequilibrium during daily activities, which often fail conventional vestibular function tests as attentional demand required for postural control may increase in these patients. The study aims to assess the feasibility of dual task test using concurrent cognitive tasks in a modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance (mCTSIB) to measure increased attentional demand for posture control. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Nineteen patients suspected with chronic dizziness were recruited by history reviews and physical examinations. Data for center of pressure (COP) variability and mean velocity during mCTSIB on a force long plate were analyzed, and time taken to react to the auditory stimuli were used to measure the attentional demand required for adequate postural control during platform perturbation. RESULTS: The mean COP range and velocity during mCTSIB were comparable between single and dual task conditions in patients with dizziness. Reaction time (RT) to auditory stimulus of 1 kHz pure tone in patients with chronic dizziness was also comparable to normal subjects. Interestingly, there was a tendency for increased RT in patients with documented caloric weakness, suggesting that attentional demand is increased in these patients. CONCLUSION: RT of dual task tests using auditory stimuli during mCTSIB may provide additional information about increased attentional demand for postural control in patients with vestibular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dizziness , Methods , Physical Examination , Posture , Reaction Time , Task Performance and Analysis , Vestibular Diseases , Vestibular Function Tests
10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 695-705, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-215560

ABSTRACT

Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) navigated ultrasound is an image fusion technique to display the results of both MRI and ultrasonography on the same monitor. This system is a promising technique to improve lesion detection and analysis, to maximize advantages of each imaging modality, and to compensate the disadvantages of both MRI and ultrasound. In evaluating breast cancer stage preoperatively, MRI and ultrasound are the most representative imaging modalities. However, sometimes difficulties arise in interpreting and correlating the radiological features between these two different modalities. This pictorial essay demonstrates the technical principles of the real-time MRI navigated ultrasound, and clinical implementation of the system in preoperative evaluation of tumor extent, multiplicity, and nodal status in breast cancer patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography
11.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 210-213, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166630

ABSTRACT

Tumor vascularity is an important indicator for differential diagnosis, tumor growth, and prognosis. Superb micro-vascular imaging (SMI) is an innovative ultrasound technique for vascular examination that uses a multidimensional filter to eliminate clutter and preserve extremely low-velocity flows. Theoretically, SMI could depict more vessels and more detailed vascular morphology, due to the increased sensitivity of slow blood flow. Here, we report the early experience of using SMI in 21 breast cancer patients. We evaluated tumor vascular features in breast cancer and compared SMI and conventional color or power Doppler imaging. SMI was superior to color or power Doppler imaging in detecting tumor vessels, the details of vessel morphology, and both peripheral and central vascular distribution. In conclusion, SMI is a promising ultrasound technique for evaluating microvascular information of breast cancers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Diagnosis, Differential , Prognosis , Ultrasonography
12.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 83-86, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-159282

ABSTRACT

The term "grouped microcalcifications" refers to the smallest arrangement of a relatively few calcifications noted on mammography, and has a wide range of clinical associations. For the pathologic diagnosis of suspicious-looking grouped microcalcifications without an associated mass, a mammography-guided procedure should be considered, because visualization of microcalcifications by conventional ultrasound (US) is limited. A mammography-guided procedure requires radiation exposure, is associated with pain, and is more time-consuming to perform than an US-guided procedure. However, an innovative US technology called MicroPure™ (Toshiba Medical Systems Corp., Tokyo, Japan) imaging improves detection and visualization of microcalcifications. We demonstrate the early clinical experience with and utility of MicroPure US examination of 10 breast lesions involving grouped microcalcifications without a mass on mammography screening.


Subject(s)
Breast , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Mammography , Mass Screening , Ultrasonography
13.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 316-323, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126237

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to compare the detection of breast cancer using full-field digital mammography (FFDM), FFDM with computer-aided detection (FFDM+CAD), ultrasound (US), and FFDM+CAD plus US (FFDM+CAD+US), and to investigate the factors affecting cancer detection. METHODS: In this retrospective study conducted from 2008 to 2012, 48,251 women underwent FFDM and US for cancer screening. One hundred seventy-one breast cancers were detected: 115 invasive cancers and 56 carcinomas in situ. Two radiologists evaluated the imaging findings of FFDM, FFDM+CAD, and US, based on the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon of the American College of Radiology by consensus. We reviewed the clinical and the pathological data to investigate factors affecting cancer detection. We statistically used generalized estimation equations with a logit link to compare the cancer detectability of different imaging modalities. To compare the various factors affecting detection versus nondetection, we used Wilcoxon rank sum, chi-square, or Fisher exact test. RESULTS: The detectability of breast cancer by US (96.5%) or FFDM+CAD+US (100%) was superior to that of FFDM (87.1%) (p=0.019 or p<0.001, respectively) or FFDM+ CAD (88.3%) (p=0.050 or p<0.001, respectively). However, cancer detectability was not significantly different between FFDM versus FFDM+CAD (p=1.000) and US alone versus FFDM+CAD+US (p=0.126). The tumor size influenced cancer detectability by all imaging modalities (p<0.050). In FFDM and FFDM+CAD, the nondetecting group consisted of younger patients and patients with a denser breast composition (p<0.050). In breast US, carcinoma in situ was more frequent in the nondetecting group (p=0.014). CONCLUSION: For breast cancer screening, breast US alone is satisfactory for all age groups, although FFDM+ CAD+US is the perfect screening method. Patient age, breast composition, and pathological tumor size and type may influence cancer detection during screening.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma in Situ , Consensus , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted , Early Detection of Cancer , Information Systems , Mammography , Mass Screening , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Mammary
14.
Ultrasonography ; : 234-243, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat ultrasonography (US)-guided fineneedle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) according to size and the number of suspicious findings and to determine the proper management of nodules with consecutive nondiagnostic results. METHODS: This retrospective study included 297 nodules with nondiagnostic results on repeat FNAB that were evaluated by US over the course of at least 12 months of follow-up, a follow-up biopsy, or an operation. We compared clinical and US variables between benign and malignant nodules in thyroid nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results. RESULTS: The comparison of benign and malignant nodules with repeat nondiagnostic results revealed that age, marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and nonparallel shape were significantly associated with malignancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis in malignant nodules revealed that microcalcifications and irregular or microlobulated margins were independently associated with malignancy. Among them, only irregular or microlobulated margins were independently significant as a predictor of malignancy in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules measuring >10 mm. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, the best cutoff value for the "number of suspicious findings" between benign and malignant nodules was three in nodules of all sizes, three in nodules measuring ≤10 mm, and two in nodules measuring >10 mm. CONCLUSION: Irregular or microlobulated margins may be the most frequent US features in repeatedly nondiagnostic nodules >10 mm. The presence of "two or more suspicious findings" can be used as the cutoff for distinguishing benign and malignant nodules.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Needle , Follow-Up Studies , Logistic Models , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
15.
Journal of Audiology & Otology ; : 74-78, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although acute low-tone hearing loss has been associated with cochlear hydrops or early stage Meniere's disease, its prognosis in the short-term has been reported to be better than sudden hearing loss. However, recurrence of hearing loss and possible progression to Meniere's disease remain important concerns in the clinical setting. This study aims to investigate the long-term audiological outcomes of acute low-tone hearing loss. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients presenting with a first attack of acute low-tone hearing loss was performed. Of the 77 patients, 33 were followed up for more than 3 months. Progression, recovery of hearing loss and recurrence of hearing loss were examined. Also, correlation between long-term outcomes and associated clinical factors were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (75.7%) had complete hearing recovery, five patients (15.1%) had partial recovery, two patients (6.0%) had no recovery, and one patient (3.0%) had progression of hearing loss 1 month after initial treatment. Thirty-three patients were followed up for more than 3 months (mean 22 months, range 3-79 months). Recurrences of acute low-tone hearing loss were observed in five patients (15.2%). All of the recurrences occurred during the first 12 months of follow-up. Long-term prognosis correlated with the initial therapy results (R2=0.693). CONCLUSIONS: Recurrences of hearing loss were documented in five patients (15.2%), and all of these cases occurred within one year of the first attack. Audiological outcomes after initial therapy may predict the recurrence of acute low-tone hearing loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Edema , Follow-Up Studies , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sudden , Hearing , Meniere Disease , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
16.
Journal of Breast Cancer ; : 404-408, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77774

ABSTRACT

Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB) is a very rare type of invasive breast carcinoma. Most NECBs appear on breast imaging as solid masses of varied shapes and margins, and have worse clinical outcomes than does invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified. However, there have been no reports to date regarding NECB with features of inflammatory breast carcinoma. Here, we describe the clinical, radiol-ogic, and pathologic findings of the first reported case of primary NECB presenting as inflammatory breast carcinoma. The patient complained of diffuse right breast enlargement and erythema. Mammography identified severe breast edema and axillary lymphadenopathy. Ultrasound detected an irregular, angular, hypoechoic mass with dermal lymphatic dilatation. On magnetic resonance imaging, the mass had rim enhancement and the entire right breast showed heterogeneous enhancement with malignant kinetic features. Pathology identified the mass as a primary NECB with positive for synaptophysin, CD56, estrogen and progesterone receptors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinoma, Ductal , Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine , Dilatation , Edema , Erythema , Estrogens , Inflammatory Breast Neoplasms , Lymphatic Diseases , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Pathology , Receptors, Progesterone , Synaptophysin , Ultrasonography
17.
Korean Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery ; : 120-123, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-647793

ABSTRACT

Laryngeal trauma is rare compared to other head and neck traumas, but it occurs, it can be life threatening. As for treatment, a laryngeal fracture that involves displacement of cartilage or extensive injury requires appropriate surgical treatments. For severe laryngeal fractures, conservative management is usually preferred with placing a stent to prevent laryngeal stenosis. But the downside of placing stents in the larynx includes the risk of granulation and infection. In this report, the authors describe a 35-year-old patient, who was diagnosed with blunt laryngeal trauma and treated by Horizontal partial laryngectomy. The patient's post-operative breathing and voice were fair, and airway stenosis did not occur afterwards.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Cartilage , Constriction, Pathologic , Fractures, Cartilage , Head , Laryngeal Cartilages , Laryngectomy , Laryngostenosis , Larynx , Neck , Respiration , Stents , Voice
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1310-1317, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210328

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered an independent risk factor for hypertension. However, it is still not clear which clinical factors are related with the presence of hypertension in OSA patients. We aimed to find different physical features and compare the sleep study results which are associated with the occurrence of hypertension in OSA patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients diagnosed with OSA at Severance Cardiovascular Hospital between 2010 and 2013. Males with moderate to severe OSA patients were enrolled in this study. Clinical and polysomnographic features were evaluated to assess clinical variables that are significantly associated with hypertension by statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among men with moderate to severe OSA, age was negatively correlated with hypertension (odds ratio=0.956), while neck circumference was positively correlated with the presence of hypertension (odds ratio=1.363). Among the polysomnographic results, the lowest O2 saturation during sleep was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension (odds ratio=0.900). CONCLUSION: Age and neck circumference should be considered as clinically significant features, and the lowest blood O2 saturation during sleep should be emphasized in predicting the coexistence or development of hypertension in OSA patients.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Hypertension/complications , Neck/anatomy & histology , Odds Ratio , Oxygen/blood , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/complications , Waist Circumference
19.
Korean Journal of Audiology ; : 93-96, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61334

ABSTRACT

The Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) with stapes clip coupler placement at the stapes head has been used successfully to treat mixed hearing loss. Coupling between the floating mass transducer of the VSB and the stapes head is technically less demanding than incus vibroplasty and is more likely to generate a positive outcome without significantly changing residual hearing or resulting in medical or surgical complications. A 65-year-old man with bilateral mixed hearing loss and chronic otitis media underwent vibroplasty with a stapes clip coupler. Speech discrimination scores in both quiet and noise environments showed better functional gain with the VSB than with the use of a conventional hearing aid. The results of the present case show the feasibility of implanting a VSB with a stapes coupler in patients with mixed hearing loss due to chronic otitis media.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Ear, Middle , Head , Hearing , Hearing Aids , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural , Incus , Noise , Otitis Media , Rehabilitation , Speech Perception , Stapes , Transducers
20.
Journal of the Korean Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine ; : 17-24, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-223487

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether high-resolution contrast-enhanced three dimensional imaging with spoiled gradient-recalled sequence (HR-CE 3D-SPGR) plays a meaningful role in the assessment of intracranial vertebral artery (ICVA) and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in lateral medullary infarction (LMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients confirmed with LMI were retrospectively enrolled with approval by the IRB of our institute, and 3T MRI with HR-CE 3D-SPGR and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) were performed. Two radiologists who were blinded to clinical information and other brain MR images including diffusion weighted image independently evaluated arterial lesions in ICVA and PICA. The demographic characteristics, the area of LMI and cerebellar involvement were analyzed and compared between patients with arterial lesion in ICVA only and patients with arterial lesions in both ICVA and PICA on HR-CE 3D-SPGR. RESULTS: Twenty-two of twenty-five LMI patients had arterial lesions in ICVA or PICA on HR-CE 3D SPGR. However twelve arterial lesions in PICA were not shown on CE-MRA. Concurrent cerebellar involvement appeared more in LMI patients with arterial lesion in ICVA and PICA than those with arterial lesion in ICVA alone (p = 0.069). CONCLUSION: HR-CE 3D-SPGR can help evaluate arterial lesions in ICVA and PICA for LMI patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arteries , Brain , Diffusion , Ethics Committees, Research , Infarction , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pica , Retrospective Studies , Vertebral Artery
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