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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249472, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364512

ABSTRACT

Abstract Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is the most common rust disease of wheat. The fungus is an obligate parasite capable of producing infectious urediniospores. To study the genetic structure of the leaf rust population 20 RAPD primers were evaluated on 15 isolates samples collected in Pakistan. A total of 105 RAPD fragments were amplified with an average of 7 fragments per primer. The number of amplified fragments varied from 1 to 12. GL Decamer L-07 and GL Decamer L-01 amplified the highest number of bands (twelve) and primer GL Decamer A-03 amplified the lowest number of bands i.e one. Results showed that almost all investigated isolates were genetically different that confirms high genetic diversity within the leaf rust population. Rust spores can follow the migration pattern in short and long distances to neighbor areas. Results indicated that the greatest variability was revealed by 74.9% of genetic differentiation within leaf rust populations. These results suggested that each population was not completely identical and high gene flow has occurred among the leaf rust population of different areas. The highest differentiation and genetic distance among the Pakistani leaf rust populations were detected between the leaf rust population in NARC isolate (NARC-4) and AARI-11and the highest similarity was observed between NARC isolates (NARC-4) and (NARC-5). The present study showed the leaf rust population in Pakistan is highly dynamic and variable.


Resumo A ferrugem da folha, causada por Puccinia triticina, é a ferrugem mais comum do trigo. O fungo é um parasita obrigatório, capaz de produzir urediniósporos infecciosos. Para estudar a estrutura genética da população de ferrugem da folha, 20 primers RAPD foram avaliados em 15 amostras de isolados coletadas no Paquistão. Um total de 105 fragmentos RAPD foram amplificados com uma média de 7 fragmentos por primer. O número de fragmentos amplificados variou de 1 a 12. GL Decamer L-07 e GL Decamer L-01 amplificaram o maior número de bandas (doze), e o primer GL Decamer A-03 amplificou o menor número de bandas, ou seja, um. Os resultados mostraram que quase todos os isolados investigados eram geneticamente diferentes, o que confirma a alta diversidade genética na população de ferrugem da folha. Os esporos de ferrugem podem seguir o padrão de migração em distâncias curtas e longas para áreas vizinhas. Os resultados indicaram que a maior variabilidade foi revelada por 74,9% da diferenciação genética nas populações de ferrugem. Esses resultados sugeriram que cada população não era completamente idêntica e um alto fluxo gênico ocorreu entre a população de ferrugem da folha de diferentes áreas. A maior diferenciação e distância genética entre as populações de ferrugem da folha do Paquistão foram detectadas entre a população de ferrugem da folha no isolado NARC (NARC-4) e AARI-11 e a maior similaridade foi observada entre os isolados NARC (NARC-4) e (NARC-5). O presente estudo mostrou que a população de ferrugem da folha no Paquistão é altamente dinâmica e variável.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252471, 2024. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355868

ABSTRACT

Abstract Smog has become the fifth season of Pakistan especially in Lahore city. Increased level of air pollutants (primary and secondary) are thought to be responsible for the formation of smog in Lahore. Therefore, the current study was carried out for the evaluation of air pollutants (primary and secondary) of smog in Wagah border particularly and other sites (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. For this purpose, baseline data on winter smog from March to December on primary and secondary air pollutants and meteorological parameters was collected from Environmental Protection Department and Pakistan Meteorological Department respectively. Devices being used in both departments for analysis of parameters were also studied. Collected data was further statistically analyzed to determine the correlation of parameters with meteorological conditions and was subjected to air quality index. According to results, PM 10 and PM 2.5 were found very high above the NEQS. NOx concentrations were also high above the permissible limits whereas SO2 and O3 were found below the NEQS thus have no roles in smog formation. Air Quality Index (AQI) of pollutants was PM 2.5(86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) and SO2 (10-95). AQI of PM 2.5 remained between moderate to very unhealthy levels. AQI of PM 10 remained between good to hazardous levels. AQI of NOx remained between good to unhealthy for sensitive groups' levels. AQI of O3 and SO2 remained between good to moderate levels. Pearson correlation showed that every pollutant has a different relation with different or same parameters in different areas. It is concluded from the present study that particulate matter was much more responsible for smog formation. Although NOx also played role in smog formation. So there is need to reduce sources of particulate matter and NOx specifically in order to reduce smog formation in Lahore.


Resumo Smog tornou-se a quinta estação do Paquistão, especialmente na cidade de Lahore. Acredita-se que o aumento do nível de poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) seja responsável pela formação de poluição atmosférica em Lahore. Portanto, o presente estudo foi realizado para a avaliação dos poluentes atmosféricos (primários e secundários) do smog na fronteira de Wagah em particular e em outros locais (Jail road, Gulburg) Lahore. Para este propósito, os dados de referência sobre a poluição atmosférica de inverno de março a dezembro sobre poluentes atmosféricos primários e secundários e parâmetros meteorológicos foram coletados do Departamento de Proteção Ambiental e do Departamento Meteorológico do Paquistão, respectivamente. Dispositivos sendo usados ​​em ambos os departamentos para análise de parâmetros também foram estudados. Os dados coletados foram posteriormente analisados ​​estatisticamente para determinar a correlação dos parâmetros com as condições meteorológicas e foram submetidos ao índice de qualidade do ar. De acordo com os resultados, PM 10 e PM 2,5 foram encontrados muito acima do NEQS. As concentrações de NOx também estavam muito acima dos limites permitidos, enquanto SO2 e O3 foram encontrados abaixo do NEQS, portanto, não têm papéis na formação de smog. O índice de qualidade do ar (AQI) de poluentes foi PM 2,5 (86-227), PM 10 (46-332), NOx (26-110), O3 (19-84) e SO2 (10-95). O AQI de PM 2,5 permaneceu entre níveis moderados a muito prejudiciais à saúde. O AQI de PM 10 permaneceu entre níveis bons e perigosos. AQI de NOx permaneceu entre bom e não saudável para os níveis de grupos sensíveis. O AQI de O3 e SO2 permaneceu entre níveis bons a moderados. A correlação de Pearson mostrou que cada poluente tem uma relação diferente com parâmetros diferentes ou iguais em áreas diferentes. Conclui-se do presente estudo que o material particulado foi muito mais responsável pela formação de smog. Embora o NOx também tenha desempenhado um papel na formação do smog. Portanto, é necessário reduzir as fontes de partículas e NOx, especificamente para reduzir a formação de smog em Lahore.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Pakistan , Smog , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Particulate Matter/analysis
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240725, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249235

ABSTRACT

Abstract Molecular based identification of bat fauna in Pakistan has been relatively less explored. The current study was therefore planned to report for the first time the molecular classification of insectivorous bats (Pipistrellus coromandra) based on mitochondrion gene (COI) from Punjab, Pakistan. Specimens were collected from five different locations followed by DNA extraction with subsequent gene amplification and sequencing. All samples in the study had shown close identity matches with species (Pipistrellus coromandra) from India and (Pipistrellus tenuis) from Vietnam with percentage identity score of 96.11 and 95.58 respectively except one sequence which only revealed 86.78% identity match on Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) and could only be assigned to genus level Pipistrellus sp. The results indicated negligible intra-population genetic distance among collected samples whereas the comparison with species from other countries had shown high intraspecific (P. coromandra) and interspecific (P. tenuis) mean genetic distances. The current study hence successfully proved the efficiency of COI gene as a molecular marker for species identification and in analyzing the patterns of genetic variation with species from other countries.


Resumo A identificação com base molecular da fauna de morcegos no Paquistão tem sido relativamente menos explorada. Portanto, o estudo atual foi planejado para relatar pela primeira vez a classificação molecular de morcegos insetívoros (Pipistrellus coromandra) com base no gene da mitocôndria (COI) de Punjab, Paquistão. As amostras foram coletadas em cinco locais diferentes, seguidas pela extração de DNA com subsequente amplificação e sequenciamento do gene. Todas as amostras no estudo mostraram coincidências de identidade próximas com espécies (Pipistrellus coromandra) da Índia e (Pipistrellus tenuis) do Vietnã, com pontuação de identidade percentual de 96,11 e 95,58, respectivamente, exceto uma sequência que revelou apenas 86,78% de correspondência de identidade na Ferramenta de Pesquisa de Alinhamento Local Básico (BLAST), a qual só poderia ser atribuída ao nível de gênero Pipistrellus sp. Os resultados indicaram distância genética intrapopulacional desprezível entre as amostras coletadas, enquanto a comparação com espécies de outros países mostrou altas distâncias genéticas intraespecíficas (P. coromandra) e interespecíficas (P. tenuis) médias. O presente estudo, portanto, comprovou com sucesso a eficiência do gene COI como marcador molecular para identificação de espécies e análise dos padrões de variação genética com espécies de outros países.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chiroptera/genetics , Pakistan , Phylogeny
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 776-784, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153399

ABSTRACT

Abstract Present study was conducted to record ecotoparasitic prevalence in bat fauna of the northwestern parts of Pakistan. A total of 204 bat specimens representing 14 species were captured during a two year survey, extending from June 2015 through May 2016. A species of soft ticks Argas vespertilionis was identified from 23 bat specimens. Similarly, members of the family Dermanyssoidae (dermanyssoid mites) were isolated from 10 bat specimens, that of Spinturnicidae (spinturnicid mites) from 3 and Streblidae (bat flies) from 2 bat specimens. These parasites were collected using entomological tweezers and were identified on morphological basis. Further studies on parasitic prevalence, molecular characterization of bat parasites and their control measures are recommended.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para registrar a prevalência de ectoparasitas na fauna de morcegos em partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 204 espécimes de morcegos, representando 14 espécies, foi capturado durante uma pesquisa de dois anos, de junho de 2015 a maio de 2016. A espécie de carrapato Argas vespertilionis foi identificada em 23 espécimes de morcegos. Da mesma forma, os membros da família Dermanyssidae (ácaros dermanyssoid) foram isolados de 10 espécimes de morcego, os da Spinturnicidae (ácaros spinturnicid), de 3, e os da Streblidae (mosca de morcego), de 2 espécimes de morcego. Esses parasitas foram coletados com pinça entomológica e identificados com base morfológica. Estudos adicionais sobre prevalência parasitária, caracterização molecular de parasitas de morcego e suas medidas de controle devem ser realizados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Chiroptera , Diptera , Mites , Pakistan/epidemiology , Prevalence
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 737-740, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153393

ABSTRACT

Abstract Curcuma longa is an important dietary plant which possess several pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory, anticancer and anti clotting etc. The aim of the present study was to determine the phenolic profile of Curcuma longa and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. In HPLC chromatogram of Curcuma longa rhizome extract 15 phenolic compounds were identified namely Digalloyl-hexoside, Caffeic acid hexoside, Curdione, Coumaric, Caffeic acid, Sinapic acid, Qurecetin-3-D-galactoside, Casuarinin, Bisdemethoxycurcumin, Curcuminol, Demethoxycurcumin, and Isorhamnetin, Valoneic acid bilactone, Curcumin, Curcumin-O-glucuronide respectively. The ethanolic extract displayed an IC50 value of 37.1±0.3 µg/ml against alpha glucosidase. The IC50 value of DPPH radical scavenging activity was 27.2 ± 1.1 μg/mL. It is concluded that ethanolic extract of Curcuma long is rich source of curcumin and contain several important phenolics. The in vitro antioxidant and alpha glucosidase inhibitory effect of the plant justifies its popular use in traditional medicine.


Resumo A Curcuma longa é uma importante planta presente na dieta da população, pois possui diversas atividades farmacológicas, incluindo antioxidante, antimicrobiana, anti-inflamatória, anticancerígena, anticoagulante etc. O objetivo do presente estudo foi elucidar o perfil fenólico da Curcuma longa e determinar as atividades antioxidante e antidiabética in vitro do extrato. No cromatograma por HPLC do extrato de rizoma de Curcuma longa, foram identificados 15 compostos fenólicos: digaloil-hexosídeo, hexosídeo de ácido cafeico, curdiona, cumárico, ácido cafeico, ácido sinápico, quercetina-3-D-galactosídeo, casuarinina, bisdemetoxicurcumina, curcuminol, demetoxicurcumina, isoramnetina, bilactona de ácido valônico, curcumina e curcumina-O-glicuronídeo. O extrato etanólico apresentou um valor de IC50 de 37,1 ± 0,3 µg / mL em relação à alfa-glucosidase. O valor de IC50 da atividade de eliminação de radicais DPPH foi de 27,2 ± 1,1 μg / mL. Conclui-se que o extrato etanólico de Curcuma longa é uma rica fonte de curcumina e contém várias substâncias fenólicas importantes. O efeito antioxidante in vitro e inibidor da alfa-glucosidase da planta justifica seu uso popular na medicina tradicional.


Subject(s)
Curcuma , Rhizome , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals , Antioxidants/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 326-336, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989451

ABSTRACT

Abstract The catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to different acute concentrations (5-10 mg/l) of diazinon and the Lc50 value was recorded as high as 7.3 mg/l for 96 hours. The fishes exposed to three sub-lethal levels of diazinon (0.73, 1.095 and 1.46 mg/l) for 30 days showed that the pesticide induces changes in different blood parameters. Number of red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin level and haematocrit values were elevated whereas white blood cells (WBC) count was reduced. Various blood indices like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobine (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobine concentration (MCHC) vary insignificantly in the fish treated with diazinon. Glucose level and activity level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was increased in Clarias gariepinus exposed to diazinon. Protein level in plasma of fish treated with pesticide was changed but the change was insignificant. Histological changes in the liver, gills and kidney of fishes exposed to diazinon were apparent when compared to control. Hepatocytes necrosis and bleeding were more distinct in the fishes exposed to pesticide. Glomerulus hypertrophy and bleeding in kidneys; and fusion and degeneration of secondary lamellae and epithelial hyperplasia in gills were also observed in the exposed fish.


Resumo O peixe-gato, Clarias gariepinus, foi exposto a diferentes concentrações agudas (5-10 mg / l) de diazinon e o valor de Lc50 foi registrado tão alto quanto 7,3 mg / l por 96 horas. Os peixes expostos a três níveis sub-letais de diazinon (0,73, 1,095 e 1,46 mg / l) por 30 dias mostraram que o pesticida induz mudanças nos diferentes parâmetros sanguíneos. O número de glóbulos vermelhos, o nível de hemoglobina e os valores do hematócrito foram elevados, enquanto a contagem de leucócitos foi reduzida. Vários índices sanguíneos, como volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM) variam insignificantemente nos peixes tratados com diazinon. Nível de glicose e nível de atividade de AST e ALT foi aumentado em Clarias gariepinus expostos a diazinon. O nível de proteína no plasma de peixes tratados com pesticidas foi alterado, mas a mudança foi insignificante. Alterações histológicas no fígado, brânquias e rins de peixes expostos ao diazinon foram aparentes quando comparados ao controle. A necrose e o sangramento de hepatócitos foram mais distintos nos peixes expostos ao agrotóxico. Hipertrofia do glomérulo e sangramento nos rins; e fusão e degeneração de lamelas secundárias e hiperplasia epitelial em brânquias também foram observadas nos peixes expostos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Catfishes/metabolism , Catfishes/blood , Diazinon/toxicity , Gills/drug effects , Gills/pathology , Kidney/drug effects , Toxicity Tests , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763315

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic prelacrimal medial maxillectomy (EPMM) was previously reported to treat maxillary inverted papilloma. This study aimed to compare prelacrimal recess approach with the conventional Caldwell-Luc approach (CLA) to remove benign maxillary sinus tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of this approach based on our experience. METHODS: Ten patients who underwent EPMM at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2017 were reviewed. We also reviewed 30 patients who underwent benign maxillary sinus tumor resection via CLA during the same period. From medical records, postoperative pathological results, complications due to surgery, and recurrence rate were evaluated. RESULTS: There were eight inverted papilloma, one ameloblastoma, and one ossifying fibroma in the EPMM group. In the CLA group, all 30 cases were inverted papilloma. There were no cases of failure at gross total removal during surgery, and no recurrences were observed during follow-up in either groups. Mean follow-up period was 13.0 months in CLA group and 10.8 months in EPMM group. Regarding postoperative complications, 11 patients of the CLA group (37%) and three patients of the EPMM group (30%) had numbness around the cheek and upper lip area after surgery (P=0.715). In the CLA group, there were eight patients who had numbness lasting more than 3 months after surgery, and two patients had numbness for more than 1 year. However, facial numbness disappeared within 3 months in all patients in the EPMM group, in which epiphora was not observed. CONCLUSION: EPMM is the effective surgical approach for resecting benign maxillary sinus tumor compared with CLA. Although facial numbness was reported in EPMM, the duration of numbness was shorter than CLA.


Subject(s)
Ameloblastoma , Cheek , Endoscopy , Fibroma, Ossifying , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypesthesia , Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases , Lip , Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms , Maxillary Sinus , Medical Records , Papilloma, Inverted , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-626735

ABSTRACT

Seating comfort is one of the important indicators while driving especially for a long hour drive. The objective of this study was to execute a preliminary study of survey and identify the discomfort of body while driving and after driving session by conductinga survey. The questionnaire developed was tested for its reliability. By using Cronbach’s Alpha, this paper’s contribution was found to be significant in which it provides a survey with acceptable test reliability in which the alpha (α) was 0.887. The survey was conducted on 30 students of University Malaysia Pahang (20 male and 10 female) with driving experience and valid driving license. The subjects should have experiences in driving small size car or mini car as well. The results showed that the body area that the drivers felt discomfort while driving and after driving should be known. The findings showed that the discomfort was intense at the neck, upper back, and lumbar while and after driving.

11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164781

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite having a well documented relationship of cleft palate with middle ear effusion, little data exists regarding otopathology in Indian children with cleft palate. Objectives: Therefore, the present study was planned with an objective to determine the various otological manifestations that occur in patients with cleft palates seeking care at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Material and methods: The present study was carried out in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of a tertiary care teaching hospital of northern India during June 2012 to May 2014 among 30 cases of cleft palate. On the first visit, history and thorough clinical examination are undertaken. Next, common and special investigations are undertaken to evaluate and assess the status of disease. X-ray mastoids, Pure tone audiometry and Tympanometry were also carried out. Results: The ears are found affected in 86.7%, 60.1% ears had an intact but dull tympanic membrane whereas 16.7% ears had CSOM with a central perforation. On pure tone audiogram (n=18) 33.33% had a hearing loss in one ear and 44.44% had a hearing loss in both ears in the form of a mild or moderate degree of conductive deafness. On tympanogram, 23.3% had an ‘A’ type of tympanogram whereas 44 ears had a `B’ type of tympanogram indicative of recurrent effusions in the middle ear. Majority from this sub-group >80% had associated conductive hearing loss-mild to moderate degrees. Conclusion: Cleft palate individuals should always be evaluated for possible otological manifestations.

12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164778

ABSTRACT

Background: Sinusitis causes inflammation of the middle ear mucosa with increased and persistent mucoid/ mucopurulent discharge and remains as a active mucosal disease. Without correcting the sinusitis the management of ear including surgery has frequently led to failures and poor prognosis Objectives: To establish the role of Sinusitis as Focal sepsis in Chronic Otitis media active mucosal disease. An additional objective was to accentuate the need of proper diagnostic endoscopic evaluation and improvement in middle ear mucosal disease status after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Material and methods: A total of 50 patients aged 18-49 years with Chronic otitis media active mucosal disease (Tubotympanic type of C.S.O.M.) patients with persistent ear discharge even following culture directed topical and systemic antibiotics with 3 months and more of ear discharge seeking care at Otorhinolaryngology outpatient department were included in this study. Results: Mean age of patients was 42.5 ± 10.6 years. 76% subjects were found having septal deviation/ turbinoseptal deformity which was the most common anatomical variant, 34% had enlarged middle turbinate, 32% had medialised uncinate, 30% had enlarged bulla, 22% had enlarged bulla with prominent agger and 18% had paradoxical middle turbinate. Of these 22 patients had the accessory ostium in the posterior fontanel and 10 patients had accessory ostium in the anterior fontanel. Majority (26, 52%) of subjects had Grade I disease i.e. minimal disease limited to Osteo Meatal Complex followed by Grade II 24% i.e. moderate incomplete opacification of one or more sinuses. On otoendoscopy, 36 patients (72%) had a large central perforation, while 14 patients (28%) had a subtotal central perforation Conclusion: A thorough diagnostic nasal evaluation of all Chronic Otitis Media active mucosal type of patients is essential in comprehensive management of the disease. Deviated nasal septum, enlarged middle turbinate, medialised uncinate predispose to sinusitis.

13.
Tropical Biomedicine ; : 471-477, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-630614

ABSTRACT

Consumption of iced beverages is common in Malaysia although specific research focusing on its safety parameters such as presence of faecal coliforms and heavy metal elements remains scarce. A study conducted in Kelantan indicated that faecal coliforms were detected in the majority of the ice cube samples analyzed, largely attributable to improper handling. Hence, it was found pertinent to conduct similar study in other parts of the country such as Johor Bahru if the similar pattern prevailed. Therefore, this present crosssectional study which randomly sampled ice cubes from 30 permanent food outlets in Taman Universiti, Johor Bahru for detecting contamination by faecal coliforms and selected heavy metal elements (lead, copper, manganese and zinc) acquires significance. Faecal coliforms were detected in 11 (36.67%) of the samples, ranging between 1 CFU/100 mL to > 50 CFU/100 mL; two of the samples were grossly contaminated (>50 CFU/100 mL). Interestingly, while positive detection of lead was observed in 29 of the 30 ice cube samples (mean: 0.511±0.105 ppm; range: 0.489-0.674 ppm), copper, manganese and zinc were not detected. In addition, analysis on commercially bottled mineral water as well as in tap water samples did not detect such contaminations. Therefore, it appears that (1) contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes in food outlets in Malaysia may not be sporadic in pattern but rather prevalent and (2) the source of water used for manufacturing the ice cubes that contained significant amount of lead would suggest that (3) it was neither originated from the treated tap water supply nor bottled mineral water or (4) perhaps contaminated during manufacturing process. Further studies exploring the source of water used for manufacturing these ice cubes as well as the handling process among food operators deserve consideration.

14.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2013; 34 (8): 819-823
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-148030

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the prevalence of obstetrical anal sphincter injuries [OASIS], which include third and fourth degree perineal tears in primigravida in routine versus selective mediolateral episiotomy. Secondly, to determine the rate of episiotomy in local settings. This randomized control trial was carried out in the labor ward of a tertiary hospital of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between May and October 2009. The trial included 171 primigravida beyond 38 weeks gestation who achieved vaginal delivery, and randomly assigned to selective and routine episiotomy groups. The type of perineal injuries following childbirth among 171 women were evaluated. The overall episiotomy rate from both groups was 76.6%. The prevalence of third degree perineal tears was 3.7% in the routine compared with selective mediolateral episiotomy at 1.1%. There was no occurrence of fourth degree tears in both groups. However, selective mediolateral episiotomy was associated with an increased risk of periurethral and labial injury compared with the routine group [4.5% versus 0%]. Routine mediolateral episiotomy in primigravida is associated with a higher prevalence of obstetrical anal sphincter injuries. As anal sphincter injuries are known to have morbidities, selective mediolateral episiotomy in primigravida is therefore recommended in the implementation of new delivery practice, and in an attempt to reduce our high episiotomy rate

16.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2012; 33 (3): 330-330
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-151379
17.
Saudi Medical Journal. 2012; 33 (12): 1350-1351
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-151398
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-626646

ABSTRACT

Adolescents are known to obtain information regarding sexual and reproductive health from a variety of sources and not just during formal lessons in schools. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to determine the source of information on sexual and reproductive health among Form four secondary schools girls in the Klang Valley as well as parents’ relationship profile. A total of 520 secondary school girls were recruited for the study. In this study, the source of information on puberty and sexual topics were categorized as follows: first level of importance – mothers, second level of importance – siblings, third level of importance – fathers, fourth level of importance – friends, fifth level of importance – teachers and sixth level of importance – books/internet. A majority of respondents agreed that their mothers were the first level of importance they sought for information on puberty (74.8%) and sexual topics (53.8%). Thirty nine point three percent (39.3%) of respondents reported it was very easy to have a dialogue with their mothers while only 10.0% of the respondents said it was very easy to have a dialogue with their fathers. While this was the case, only 6.3% of the respondents reported discussing sex-related matter with their mothers.

20.
SDJ-Saudi Dental Journal [The]. 2010; 22 (2): 47-55
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-105811

ABSTRACT

The possibility of using a passive Robot Arm [3D method] in model surgery and comparing with manual technique model surgery. Seventeen patients undergoing orthognathic surgery gave consent for this study. Model surgery was performed by using a manual technique and using the Robot Arm. The model surgery that was performed by using the manual technique named group A and the one performed by the Robot Arm named group B. Patients' maxillary casts were measured before and after model surgery, and results were compared with those for the original treatment plan in the horizontal [X-axis], vertical [Y-axis], and transverse [Z-axis] planes. Statistical analysis using Mann-Whitney U test for X-and Y-axis and independent sample t test for Z-axis have shown significant differences between both groups in X-axis [P=.026] and Y-axis [P=.021] but not in Z-axis [P=.762]. Model surgery performed with a Robot Arm is more accurate in all dimensions X, Y, and Z than the manual model surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Models, Anatomic , Robotics
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