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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928133

ABSTRACT

Neuropathic pain is one of the common complications of diabetes. Tetrahydropalmatine(THP) is a main active component of Corydalis Rhizoma with excellent anti-inflammatory and pain-alleviating properties. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of THP on diabetic neuropathic pain(DNP) and the underlying mechanism. High-fat and high-sugar diet(4 weeks) and streptozotocin(STZ, 35 mg·kg~(-1), single intraperitoneal injection) were employed to induce type-2 DNP in rats. Moreover, lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce the activation of BV2 microglia in vitro to establish an inflammatory cellular model. Fasting blood glucose(FBG) was measured by a blood glucose meter. Mechanical withdrawal threshold(MWT) was assessed with von Frey filaments, and thermal withdrawal latency(TWL) with hot plate apparatus. The protein expression levels of OX42, inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS), CD206, p38, and p-p38 were determined by Western blot, the fluorescence expression levels of OX42 and p-p38 in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord by immunofluorescence, the mRNA content of p38 and OX42 in rat spinal cord tissue by qRT-PCR, and levels of nitric oxide(NO), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-10(IL-10), and serum fasting insulin(FINS) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). RESULTS:: showed that the mo-del group demonstrated significant decrease in MWT and TWL, with pain symptoms. THP significantly improved the MWT and TWL of DNP rats, inhibited the activation of microglia and p38 MAPK signaling pathway in rat spinal cord, and ameliorated its inflammatory response. Meanwhile, THP promoted the change of LPS-induced BV2 microglia from the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, suppressed the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway, decreased the expression levels of inflammatory factors NO, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and increased the expression level of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10. The findings suggested that THP can significantly ameliorate the pain symptoms of DNP rats possibly by inhibiting the inflammatory response caused by M1 polarization of microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Berberine Alkaloids , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Neuropathies/genetics , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Microglia , Neuralgia/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Signal Transduction , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Streptozocin/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771699

ABSTRACT

Genistein is a kind of isoflavone compounds, also called phytoestrogens, with clinical effects on cardiovascular disease, cancer and postmenopausal-related gynecological diseases, and also has the potentiality in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease(AD). In this study, the protective effect of genistein on Aβ₂₅₋₃₅-induced PC12 cell injury and effect on CaM-CaMKIV signaling pathway were observed to investigate its mechanism for AD. PC12 cells were cultured and then the safe concentration of genistein and the modeling concentration and optimal time point of administration of Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ were screened by MTT assay. After being pretreated with different concentrations of genistein(25, 50, 100 μmol·L⁻¹) on PC12 cells, the AD model of PC12 cells was induced by Aβ₂₅₋₃₅. Then the survival rate of cells was detected by MTT assay; morphological change of cells was observed under the inverted microscope, and apoptosis of cells was assessed by AO/EB fluorescence staining; the neuroprotective effects of genistein on AD cell model were observed and the optimal concentration of genistein was determined. Expressions of mRNA and protein levels of CaM, CaMKK, CaMKIV and tau were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot assay, respectively. The results showed that as compared with the blank group, the cell survival rate was decreased; the cell damage and apoptosis were increased; and the expressions of mRNA and protein levels of CaM, CaMKK, CaMKIV and tau were increased in AD model group. Genistein could significantly improve the cell survival rate, reduce the cell damage and apoptosis of AD cell model, and significantly down-regulate the expressions of mRNA and protein levels of CaM, CaMKK, CaMKIV and tau of AD cell model. These results indicated that genistein has obviously neuroprotective effect on the AD cell model induced by Aβ₂₅₋₃₅, and the mechanism may be related to the down-regulation of CaM-CaMKIV signaling pathway and Tau protein expression.


Subject(s)
Amyloid beta-Peptides , Animals , Apoptosis , Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 4 , Metabolism , Calmodulin , Metabolism , Cell Survival , Genistein , Pharmacology , PC12 Cells , Peptide Fragments , Protective Agents , Pharmacology , Rats , Signal Transduction
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690484

ABSTRACT

The loss of hippocampal neurons is one of the main pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is related to the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. Huangpu Tongqiao capsule is used for the treatment of AD, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. This study is to investigate the mechanism of neuroprotective effect of Huangpu Tongqiao capsule in the treatment of AD, through observing the effect of Huangpu Tongqiao capsule containing serum on cell injury of primary cultured hippocampal neurons induced by Aβ₂₅₋₃₅ via inhibiting the cell apoptosis. Primary cultured hippocampal neurons were cultured and identified by MAP-2 immunofluorescence staining, and cell growth state was observed by inverted microscope. The Huangpu Tongqiao capsule containing serum was prepared using the method of serum pharmacology. MTT assays were used to measure the optimum concentration range of Huangpu Tongqiao capsule containing serum, and optimum Aβ concentration for establishing the AD model. After primary cultured hippocampal neurons AD cell model was induced by Aβ₂₅₋₃₅, cell survival rate was detected by MTT, cell apoptosis rate was assayed by flow cytometry, and protein expressions of Bax, Cyt C and caspase-3 were determined by Western blot analysis. The results showed that the primary cultured hippocampal neurons were cultured successfully, and cells grew mature at seventh days; Compared with normal group, the survival rate of hippocampal neurons in AD cell model group was decreased, the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons was increased, and the protein expressions of Bax, Cyt C and caspase-3 were increased (<0.05, <0.01); Compared with AD cell model group, the survival rate of hippocampal neurons in Huangpu Tongqiao capsule containing serum group was increased, the apoptosis rate of hippocampal neurons was decreased, and the protein expressions of Bax, Cyt C and caspase-3 were decreased (<0.05, <0.01). These findings suggest that Huangpu Tongqiao capsule containing serum has a neuroprotective effect on cell injury of the primary cultured hippocampal neurons induced by Aβ₂₅₋₃₅, and its effect on the treatment of AD is associated with the inhibition the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons.

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