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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879040

ABSTRACT

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi provided is beneficial to Salvia miltiorrhiza for increasing yield, promoting the accumulation of active ingredients, and alleviating S. miltiorrhiza disease etc. However, the application of fungicides will affect the benefit of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and there is little research about it. This article study the effect of four different fungicides: carbendazim, polyoxin, methyl mopazine, and mancozeb on mycorrhiza benefit to S. miltiorrhiza by the infection intensity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, and the content of active ingredients. RESULTS:: showed that different fungicides had different effects. The application of mancozeb had the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycorrhizal benefit to S. miltiorrhiza. Mancozeb significantly reduced the mycorrhizal colonization and the beneficial effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth and the accumulation of active components of S. miltiorrhiza. The application of polyoxin had no significant effect on mycorrhizal colonization. Instead, it had a synergistic effect with the mycorrhizal benefit to promoting the growth and accumulation of rosmarinic acid of S. miltiorrhiza. The inhibitory strengths of four fungicides are: mancozeb>thiophanate methyl, carbendazim>polyoxin. Therefore, we recommend applying biological fungicides polyoxin and avoid applying chemical fungicides mancozeb for disease control during mycorrhizal cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza.


Subject(s)
Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Mycorrhizae , Plant Roots , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Symbiosis
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687313

ABSTRACT

A GC-MS fingerprint of rosemary oil and an UPLC fingerprint of non-volatile compounds of rosemary were established. Sixty-three kinds of volatile compounds and thirty-eight kinds of non-volatile compounds were identified tentatively using GC-MS and UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, respectively, and most of them are flavonoids, oxygenated monoterpenes, and diterpenoids, etc. According to multivariate data analysis, chemical differences existed among commercial rosemary samples, for example, the essential oil of imported rosemary sample belongs to Morocco/Tunisian type and the one of domestic sample belongs to Spanish type. The results of principal components analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that the imported and domestic rosemary samples were classified into two groups and fourteen components including eucalyptol, (+)-α-pinene, and carnosic acid, were found as the discrimination markers. In comparison with imported rosemary, it can be found that the contents of ten markers such as (+)-α-pinene, o-cymene, and carnosic acid were higher, nonetheless, lower contents for the other markers, in those domestic rosemary samples. Moreover, rosmarinic acid, an important bioactive component in rosemary extract, extensively varied among different samples, indicating that the quality evaluation of rosemary should be concerned.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689892

ABSTRACT

By comparing the effects of soil pH on the efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis on Salvia miltiorrhiza, the study is aimed to provide guidance for the use of mycorrhiza in the cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza. In this experiment, the inoculant treated and the non-inoculant treated control were grown in different soil pH. The data was collected after 60 days of cultivation including rate of mycorrhizal infection, biomass, and three chemical constituents with known medicinal action. The results showed that Glomus versiforme was more apt to infect S. miltiorrhiza (F>94.00%; M>69.45%; m>73.66%) and promote the growth of S. miltiorrhiza under pH 5-9 soil. The mycorrhizal contribution to the growth of S. miltiorrhiza was the highest when grown in pH 8 soil. Plants grown with mycorrhiza in pH 8 soil had above-ground biomass more than 2 times and root biomass more than 5 times. The uninoculated plants grew better under acidic and neutral conditions, but the inoculated plants grew better under alkaline (pH 8) conditions. This result showed mycorrhiza can play a role in the adaptability of S. miltiorrhiza to the environment. Inoculation of mycorrhiza significantly increased the accumulation of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, and dihydrotanshinone by 6.59,5.03 and 2.20-folds. Based on our results alkaline soil (pH 8) is most suitable for the cultivation of S. miltiorrhiza by inoculation with the mycorrhiza G. versiforme.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689891

ABSTRACT

Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii is a rare and endangered Chinese medicine. In the collection of Notopterygium franchetii fruits, we collected a sample of N. forrestii , which is a spurious breed. Fruits of N. franchetii and N. forrestii are very similar in morphology and can be easily confused. Until now the morphological identification of the fruits of Notopterygium has not been reported. To provide a scientific basis for the identification of N. franchetii and N. forrestii fruits, the morphology and microscopic identification were studied in this paper. In this study, stereomicroscope and paraffin sections were used to compare the morphological characteristics and microscopic characteristics of these two fruits. Our results showed that these two fruits were different in size, surface texture and the number of vertical edges on the back. These traits can be used as diagnostic characteristic of these two fruits. The difference between the number of tubing and the endosperm cell contents can be used as microscopic identification features. The above discriminative characteristics can distinguish the two fruits and provide scientific basis for the identification and germplasm evaluation of Notopterygium fruits.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335774

ABSTRACT

Paecilomyces hepiali is a new species of fungus isolated from a field collection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis from Baima snow mountain, Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province by the Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences. The specimen was identified and named as Paecilomyces hepiali by Qing-Tao Chen, the professor of the Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Paecilomyces hepiali) (2008), who identified a dried culture of living strain 82-2 as the holotype. Until now, the holotype (the voucher specimen) was deposited in the Herbarium of the Institute of Chinese Materia Medica (HICMM), China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing. The P. hepiali neotype designated by the paper "Neotypification of P. hepiali (Hypocreales)" published in TAXON 64 (1) by Yao Yi-Jian et al. in February 2015 is untenable.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250448

ABSTRACT

In order to obtain the fungicides with minimal impact on efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis, the effect of five fungicides including polyoxins, jinggangmycins, thiophanate methylate, chlorothalonil and carbendazim on the growth of medicinal plant and efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis were studied. Pot cultured Glycyrrhiza uralensis was treated with different fungicides with the concentration that commonly used in the field. 60 d after treated with fungicides, infection rate, infection density, biomass indexes, photosyn- thetic index and the content of active component were measured. Experimental results showed that carbendazim had the strongest inhibition on mycorrhizal symbiosis effect. Carbendazim significantly inhibited the mycorrhizal infection rate, significantly suppressed the actual photosynthetic efficiency of G. uralensis and the most indicators of biomass. Polyoxins showed the lowest inhibiting affection. Polyoxins had no significant effect on mycorrhizal infection rate, the actual photosynthetic efficiency of G. uralensis and the most indicators of biomass. The other three fungicides also had an inhibitory effect on efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis, and the inhibition degrees were all between polyoxins's and carbendazim's. The author considered that fungicide's inhibition degree on mycorrhizal effect might be related with the species of fungicides, so the author suggested that the farmer should try to choose bio-fungicides like polyoxins.


Subject(s)
Fungi , Physiology , Fungicides, Industrial , Pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza uralensis , Chemistry , Microbiology , Physiology , Mycorrhizae , Physiology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Symbiosis
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246113

ABSTRACT

Astragalus adsurgens seed is one of the most common adulterants of Astragali Complanati Semen in the market, whose morphological characteristics are very similar with A. complanatus seeds (Astragali Complanati Semen). Many identification methods have been reported, such as morphological identification, fluorescence method, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, TLC, HPLC, protein electrophoresis and so on, but there's no much about microscopic identification. In the present study, the morphological characteristics and microscopic characteristics of these two seeds were investigated, which could provide scientific evidence for the identification and classification of Astragali Complanati Semen. Our results showed that these two seeds were slightly different in the color and the appearance, but significantly different in the microstructure of the seed coat and the hilum, and the distribution of fat droplets in the cotyledon cells. So these microscopic characteristics can be applied for the identification of Astragali Complanati Semen.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Chemistry , Color , Discriminant Analysis , Microscopy , Methods , Quality Control , Seeds , Chemistry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330362

ABSTRACT

In this study, Actin, 18S rRNA, PAL, GAPDH and CPR of Artemisia annua were selected as candidate reference genes, and their gene-specific primers for real-time PCR were designed, then geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT and RefFinder were used to evaluate their expression stability in the leaves of A. annua under treatment of different concentrations of Cd, with the purpose of finding a reliable reference gene to ensure the reliability of gene-expression analysis. The results showed that there were some significant differences among the candidate reference genes under different treatments and the order of expression stability of candidate reference gene was Actin > 18S rRNA > PAL > GAPDH > CPR. These results suggested that Actin, 18S rRNA and PAL could be used as ideal reference genes of gene expression analysis in A. annua and multiple internal control genes were adopted for results calibration. In addition, differences in expression stability of candidate reference genes in the leaves of A. annua under the same concentrations of Cd were observed, which suggested that the screening of candidate reference genes was needed even under the same treatment. To our best knowledge, this study for the first time provided the ideal reference genes under Cd treatment in the leaves of A. annua and offered reference for the gene expression analysis of A. annua under other conditions.


Subject(s)
Artemisia annua , Genetics , Metabolism , Cadmium , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Genetics , Metabolism , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Methods , Reference Standards , Reference Standards
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321339

ABSTRACT

Tibetan Herbal medicine has its own complete theory based on five sources doctrine. And the theories of "Liuwei", "Baxing" and "Shiqi Gongxiao" formed the basic core components of the property theory of Tibetan medicine. However, books and literature of Tibetan medicine have never been systematically expounded and discussed about it specially which thus will limit the further development of Tibetan medicine theory. In this thesis, we firstly introduced three basic core components of the property theory-the "Liu Wei", "Baxing", and "Shiqi Gongxiao" and their interactions as well. At the same time, the links and similarities between the theory of Tibetan medicine and Chinese medicine theory were compared. The job of the thesis done above is to lay the foundation for further systematic reveal and development of Tibetan medicine theory.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346874

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To digitalize the changes in characters of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex after perspiration with colorimeter and electronic nose.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>With perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex as objective, colorimeter and electronic nose were used to detect their color characteristic parameter and odor characteristic parameter. Finally, an identification model was established.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>In terms of drug color, the color characteristic parameter model was established for perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex on the basis of L*, a*, b* color spaces. The range of 90% of reference values of perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (52.22-59.42), a* (5.36-7.68), b* (22.04-27.05). The range of 90% of reference values of non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (38.42-47.31), a* (9.63-11.85), b* (18.48-25.53). In terms of drug odor, the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares method (PLS) showed significant difference between perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The difference in drug color and odor of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex before and after perspiration can be digitalized according to color and odor characteristic parameters tested with colorimeter and electronic nose.</p>


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Color , Colorimetry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Magnolia , Chemistry , Odorants , Quality Control
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294091

ABSTRACT

This paper put forward a more accurate identification method for identification of Chinese materia medica (CMM), the systematic identification of Chinese materia medica (SICMM) , which might solve difficulties in CMM identification used the ordinary traditional ways. Concepts, mechanisms and methods of SICMM were systematically introduced and possibility was proved by experiments. The establishment of SICMM will solve problems in identification of Chinese materia medica not only in phenotypic characters like the mnorphous, microstructure, chemical constituents, but also further discovery evolution and classification of species, subspecies and population in medical plants. The establishment of SICMM will improve the development of identification of CMM and create a more extensive study space.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287644

ABSTRACT

Salvia miltiorrhiza is a highly valued traditional chinese medicine for the treatment of atherosclerosis-related disorders in china, such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. The wilt disease is serious in the culture of S. miltiorrhiza. Wilt disease cause biomass of plant shoots and roots is lessened, active components are decreased. To solve these problems, we research the pathogen causing wilt disease of S. miltiorrhiza. The suspected pathogen is identified by morphology and etiological test. The identification was further confirmed by alignment the sequences of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplified by PCR. Our result show the wilt disease of S. miltiorrhiza mostly occurred in July and August, which is hot and wetter. The wilt disease rate of S. miltiorrhiza continuous cropping for one year in S. miltiorrhiz stubble is 10%, but the wilt disease rate of S. miltiorrhiza continuous cropping for three years in S. miltiorrhiz stubble is 60%-70%. The root rot of S. miltiorrhiz caused by the wilt disease, so the wilt disease was mistaken for the rot root in production. Morphological characteristics show the pathogen is Fusarium oxysporum. The sequence of ITS wes determined and found by BLAST shared 99% identity to that of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. So it comes to the conclusion that the causing agent of wilt disease on S. miltiorrhiza belongs to F. oxysporum.


Subject(s)
DNA, Intergenic , Genetics , Fusarium , Genetics , Physiology , Plant Diseases , Microbiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Microbiology , Seasons
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308620

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the soil borne disease of medicinal plants becomes severely during the process of cultivation and directly endangered the production and quality of raw materials used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The chemical pesticides have been constantly used to prevent and control the soil borne disease, but only a few are effective. Meanwhile, the excessive uses of chemical pesticides also lead pesticide residues in TCM, which often exceed limit of the standard, and harm the human health and cause environmental pollution. Therefore, biological control has become a hot research point for its environmental advantages. This paper mainly discussed the mechanisms of different species of microorganisms, which could control the soil borne disease of medicinal plants, from the following aspects: improving host plants' nutrient absorption, the nutrient and space competition with the pathogenic bacteria, changing the morphology and anatomical structure of roots, adjusting the host plants' endogenous hormones, restoring the balance of host rhizosphere soil microecology and activating the host plants' defense system etc. Then put forward the prospect of biocontrol agents in the future.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pest Control, Biological , Methods , Plant Diseases , Plants, Medicinal , Soil Microbiology
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264902

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECT</b>To study the effects of different kinds and amounts of fertilizers on spring shoots growth yield of Akebia trifoliate.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>By applying orthogonal design method, the effects of fertilizers on spring shoots growth yield were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The optimization project of applying fertilizers was K3N3J2P2, the amount of potassium fertilizer was 0.075 kg per m2, nitrogenous fertilizers was 0.090 kg per m2, organic fertilizer was 0.300 kg per m2, phosphate fertilizer was 0.090 kg per m2. The effect sequence of different fertilizer on spring shoots growth was K > N > J > P.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Spring shoots growth yield of A. trifoliate can increase significantly by reasonable applying fertilizer.</p>


Subject(s)
Fertilizers , Magnoliopsida , Nitrogen , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Phosphorus , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Shoots , Potassium , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Seasons
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283838

ABSTRACT

As products of interaction of time and space, geoherbs, which are essential parts of Chinese Materia Medica, were characterized in different morphology, unique habitat, continuous and changeable sites. The main fields in molecular mechanism of geoherbs focus on: biodiversity and molecular identification, genetic different and evolutionary genetics, geo-variation and environmental adaptation, germplasm and aimed genus choosing, expression and control of functional gene, gene transfer and bio-safety evaluation. The main tasks are to discover the genetic variation at molecular level, ascertain the molecular characteristics of geoherbs and the effect of environment on gene expression of geoherbs, confirm the genetic factors attribute to the forming of geoherbs, and find out the genetic basis of geoherbs at individual level and population level, respectively. This paper pointed out that the essential of geoherbs is continuers quantities variation at population level, geoherb's populations are different in gene frequency with the others'; geohersm are quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlled by multi - gene or combination with multiple-gene and major gene at individual level. It is very important to pay more attention to the scale effect of geoherbs, refer the theories and methods of quantities genetic, and concern more about the interaction of environment and gene in geoherbs' molecular mechanism research.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Geography , Plants, Medicinal , Classification , Genetics , Quantitative Trait Loci
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295424

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the germination property of the seeds of Achyranthes bidentata from different producing area, providing foundation for choosing the better seed resources.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The germination rate, germination energy, germination index, vigor and the characteristics of the seeds of A. bidentata from different producing area were compared, and the relative electric conductivity was measured. The characteristics of the seed were recorded through the Anymicro DSS YT-5M microscope digital camera, and the differences were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Seed from Henan Boai and Hebei Anguo showed the better germination rate, germination energy, germination index and vigor.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The seeds from both Henan Boai and Hebei Anguo showed the better quality.</p>


Subject(s)
Achyranthes , Metabolism , Physiology , China , Geography , Germination , Physiology , Seeds , Metabolism , Physiology
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-235299

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the inductive factors of effect on Akebia trifoliata and establish culture method for A. trifoliata callus.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>To study the possible effective factors of culture condition by comparing with different explantation, nutrient medium, pH, temperature, illumination, growth substance of plant and its ratio.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The inductivity of leaves was the highest about 87.5%, followed with the stem section and leafstalk; The inductivity of nutrient medium such as MS, B5 callus was higher than the ones like H, SH and the White callus amended one; It was found that low-grade Phvalue benefits the growth of callus. The experiment result showed that different pH showed little difference in quality. The best condition of culture was 25 degrees C in temperature.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The best culture condition for callus was the leaves as explantation. The A. trifoliata callus culture's best inductive condition was MS +2, 4-D 4.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 1.0 mg x L(-1) + KT 1.0 mg x L(-1) (pH 5.8), cultural temperature was 25 degrees C, cultivation was dark.</p>


Subject(s)
Culture Media , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Magnoliopsida , Plant Leaves , Plant Stems , Plants, Medicinal , Temperature , Tissue Culture Techniques , Methods
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287887

ABSTRACT

In this paper,the structures, data sources, data codes of "the spacial analysis database of geoherbs" based 3S technology are introduced, and the essential functions of the database, such as data management, remote sensing, spacial interpolation, spacial statistics, spacial analysis and developing are described. At last, two examples for database usage are given, the one is classification and calculating of NDVI index of remote sensing image in geoherbal area of Atractylodes lancea, the other one is adaptation analysis of A. lancea. These indicate that "the spacial analysis database of geoherbs" has bright prospect in spacial analysis of geoherbs.


Subject(s)
Atractylodes , Chemistry , Classification , China , Databases, Factual , Ecosystem , Geographic Information Systems , Geography , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Classification , Software
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350918

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To provide reference for breeding Scutellaria baicalensis from different germplasms,and to explore their genetic diversities and different strains.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The RAPD method was applied to the study on S. baicalensis from different germplasms by use of 14 random primers about 10 bp, and SAPD-analysis of 34 S. baicalensis from different germplasms was carried out by using the method of withingroups-linkage in SPSS 10.0.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>14 among 115 primers were selected to amplify about 165 segments of DNA. Among them, 132 segments of DNA, 80.0% of the total, can represent genetic of diversities of S. baicalensis. According to RAPD analysis, 34 germplasms of S. baicalensis were classified into A, B, C and D categories.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>S. baicalensis from different germplasms shows abundant genetic diversities. Germplasms from Shandong like Mengyin 3, Menyin 2 and Pingyi have close distance (0.315) in genetic background, which can be chosen for breeding of cultivated. Though genetic characters are similar in the morphology, the geological distribution of S. baicalensis and its morphology have not certain correlation. The complex genetic background of S. baicalensis indicate that the work of the selective breeding and management for breeding of S. baicalensis have to be strengthened.</p>


Subject(s)
Breeding , Cluster Analysis , DNA Primers , Genetics , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Ecosystem , Genetic Variation , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , Methods , Scutellaria baicalensis , Genetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-316002

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the genetic diversity of Eucommia ulmoides.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>260 samples of 20 populations were analyzed through radom amplified polymorphic DHA (RAPD).</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Total polymorphic loci percentage was 96.36 and the average was 38.92. 110 bands were produced with 10 random primers and 106 were polymorphic. Nei's gene diversity (H) was 0.246 1, Shannon's Information index(I) was 0.386 8, Gst was 0.424 4, indicating that 42.44% of the genetic variation was distributed among populations and 57.65% within populations.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The genetic variation was relatively high in E. ulmoides, so the genetic diversity conservation principle should mainly focus on protection of the populations.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Conservation of Natural Resources , DNA, Plant , Genetics , Eucommiaceae , Classification , Genetics , Genetics, Population , Phylogeny , Plants, Medicinal , Genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique
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