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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925598

ABSTRACT

Melanogenesis is the production of melanin from tyrosine by a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, in which tyrosinase and DOPA oxidase play key roles. The melanin content in the skin determines skin pigmentation. Abnormalities in skin pigmentation lead to various skin pigmentation disorders. Recent research has shown that the expression of EMP2 is much lower in melanoma than in normal melanocytes, but its role in melanogenesis has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the role of EMP2 in the melanogenesis of MNT1 human melanoma cells. We examined TRP-1, TRP-2, and TYR expression levels during melanogenesis in MNT1 melanoma cells by gene silencing of EMP2. Western blot and RT-PCR results confirmed that the expression levels of TYR and TRP-2 were decreased when EMP2 expression was knocked down by EMP2 siRNA in MNT1 cells, and these changes were reversed when EMP2 was overexpressed. We verified the EMP2 gene was knocked out of the cell line (EMP2 CRISPR/Cas9) by using a CRISPR/Cas9 system and found that the expression levels of TRP-2 and TYR were significantly lower in the EMP2 CRISPR/Cas9 cell lines. Loss of EMP2 also reduced migration and invasion of MNT1 melanoma cells. In addition, the melanosome transfer from the melanocytes to keratinocytes in the EMP2 KO cells cocultured with keratinocytes was reduced compared to the cells in the control coculture group. In conclusion, these results suggest that EMP2 is involved in melanogenesis via the regulation of TRP-2 expression.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875201

ABSTRACT

Background@#Differentiating between verruca plana (VP) and VP-like seborrheic keratosis (SK) is difficult and little research has been performed on the topic. @*Objective@#The aim of this study was to elucidate clinical differences between these two diseases. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective review of cases of VP and VP-like SK identified by biopsy. Demographics (age and gender) and clinical information (location, color, distribution, and shape) were collected. @*Results@#A total of 224 cases were identified. Thirty-nine cases were finally diagnosed with VP (17.4%) and 159 cases with VP-like SK (71.0%). The rest of the diagnoses accounted for 26 cases. On multivariate analysis, extremities (odds ratio [OR] 7.91, confidence interval [CI] 2.61∼23.93), flesh color (OR 3.69, CI 1.43∼9.49), erythematous color (OR 36.83, CI 7.50∼180.84), and clustered distribution (OR 4.73, CI 1.66∼13.46) were significantly associated with VP. Shape is not predictive in VP occurence. @*Conclusion@#We provide clinical information regarding the differentiation of VP and VP-like SK, which should prove useful in clinical dermatological practice.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832750

ABSTRACT

Background@#Causative antigens in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) can be changed by several variables, including time and place. Change in antigens over a period of time in the same institution is one way to reduce the variables; however, these investigations have rarely been performed in Korea. @*Objective@#To investigate the change in patch test results by comparing with the results obtained 10 years ago at the same hospital. @*Methods@#Patch test results were analyzed retrospectively through the medical records of patients with suspected ACD who underwent the patch test using Korean standard series between September 2015 and September 2018. The institutional Review Board of the Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital approved this study. The results of the patch test were compared with those obtained 10 years ago. @*Results@#A total of 360 patients (males: 142, females: 218) were included. Compared with the results obtained 10 years ago, the positivity rates of metal-related allergens (nickel sulfate, cobalt chloride, and potassium dichromate), fragrance allergens, and 4-phenylenediamine base were increased, whereas the positivity rates of mercury ammonium chloride, thimerosal, and formaldehyde were decreased. @*Conclusion@#The patch test results obtained at the same hospital over a 10-year interval suggest that causative allergens in ACD could change with time lapse. In the future, collaborative studies including a number of participating hospitals are needed for obtaining more reliable results.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832653

ABSTRACT

Background@#Despite the numerous treatment options for cutaneous warts, choosing the appropriate method for optimum results can be challenging. Treatment strategies should be individualized according to the patient and lesion characteristics. However, there is a paucity of research on the clinical factors predicting treatment response. @*Objective@#To investigate the efficacy of diphenylcyclopropenone immunotherapy for warts, based on anatomical location @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 262 wart lesions from 99 patients treated with diphenylcyclopropenone immunotherapy for warts between 2007 and 2018. The lesions were divided into three groups−periungual wart, palmoplantar wart, or hair-bearing skin wart−according to anatomical location. Periungual warts were divided into hyponychium, proximal nail fold, and lateral nail fold-type subgroups. Treatment success rates were compared between the groups. @*Results@#The treatment success rate of periungual warts (75.3%) was significantly higher than those of palmoplantar (60.4%) and hair-bearing skin (60.3%) warts. No significant differences were observed between the treatment success rates of the periungual wart subgroups. @*Conclusion@#Diphenylcyclopropenone immunotherapy is an effective treatment modality for periungual warts.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901925

ABSTRACT

Rhus is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), particularly in East Asia. Rhus can cause localized contact dermatitis following direct contact with the skin, and systemic contact dermatitis following its ingestion, causing pruritus, erythema, and occasionally blistering. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an acquired subepidermal autoimmune bullous disease that typically occurs in the elderly. Although BP usually occurs sporadically, some precipitating factors of BP have been suggested, such as other autoimmune diseases, drugs, and malignancies. We report a rare case of BP induced by ingestion of Rhus in a 54-year-old man who presented with itchy erythematous rash and blisters on the whole body, initially misdiagnosed as ACD, and treated with systemic steroids.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894221

ABSTRACT

Rhus is a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), particularly in East Asia. Rhus can cause localized contact dermatitis following direct contact with the skin, and systemic contact dermatitis following its ingestion, causing pruritus, erythema, and occasionally blistering. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an acquired subepidermal autoimmune bullous disease that typically occurs in the elderly. Although BP usually occurs sporadically, some precipitating factors of BP have been suggested, such as other autoimmune diseases, drugs, and malignancies. We report a rare case of BP induced by ingestion of Rhus in a 54-year-old man who presented with itchy erythematous rash and blisters on the whole body, initially misdiagnosed as ACD, and treated with systemic steroids.

9.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 678-680, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762386

ABSTRACT

Orofacial granulomatosis is a rare granulomatous inflammatory disease, characterized by recurrent orofacial swelling. Infectious, genetic, and immunologic etiologies are suggested, but not fully understood. Herein, we report a case of synchronous orofacial granulomatosis with brain cavernous hemangioma in a 44-year-old female patient, which may be considered paraneoplastic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Brain , Female , Granulomatosis, Orofacial , Hemangioma, Cavernous , Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System , Humans , Paraneoplastic Syndromes
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739659

ABSTRACT

Coculture with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) can stimulate proliferation and migration of melanocytes. To enhance outcomes of skin disorders caused by melanocyte loss or death, mixed transplantation with ADSCs has been suggested. However, role of cocultured ADSCs in proliferation and migration of melanocytes remains unclear. This study determined the effect of ADSCs on production of growth factors and expression levels of intergrins in primary culture of adult human melanocytes with or without ADSCs and in nude mice grafted with such melanocytes. Higher amounts of growth factors for melanocytes, such as bFGF and SCF were produced and released from ADSCs by coculturing with melanocytes. Relative levels of integrins β1, α5, and α6 as well as adhesion to fibronectin and laminin were increased in melanocytes cocultured with ADSCs. Such increases were inhibited by neutralization of bFGF or SCF. Relative levels of bFGF, SCF and integrins were increased in nude mice skin after grafting with melanocyte+ADSC cocultures. Collectively, these results indicate that ADSCs can stimulate proliferation and migration of melanocytes by increasing expression of integrins in melanocytes through upregulation of production/release of melanocyte growth factors such as bFGF and SCF.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Coculture Techniques , Extracellular Matrix , Fibronectins , Humans , Integrins , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , Laminin , Melanocytes , Mice , Mice, Nude , Skin , Stem Cells , Transplants , Up-Regulation
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716676

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) has been recognized as the most important genetic risk factor for severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) caused by certain drugs. However, cumulated observations suggest the presence of genetic risk factors for SCARs other than drug-specific HLA. We aimed to identify a common genetic risk factor of SCARs across multiple drugs. METHODS: We performed 2 independent genome-wide association studies (GWASs). A total of 68 and 38 subjects with a diagnosis of SCAR were enrolled in each GWAS. Their allele frequencies were compared to those of healthy subjects in Korea. RESULTS: No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with genome-wide significance was found in either GWAS. We next selected and annotated the 200 top-ranked SNPs from each GWAS. These 2 sets of annotated genes were then entered into the web interface of ConsensusPathDB for a pathway-level analysis. The Fas signaling pathway was significantly over-represented in each gene set from the 2 GWASs. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that the Fas signaling pathway may be a common genetic risk factor for SCARs across multiple drugs.


Subject(s)
Cicatrix , Diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Gene Frequency , Genome-Wide Association Study , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Korea , Leukocytes , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715612

ABSTRACT

Extracellular interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) released from keratinocytes is one of the endpoints for in vitro assessments of skin irritancy. Although cells dying via primary skin irritation undergo apoptosis as well as necrosis, IL-1α is not released in apoptotic cells. On the other hand, active secretion has been identified in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), which was discovered to be a common, upregulated, differentially-expressed gene in a microarray analysis performed with keratinocytes treated using cytotoxic doses of chemicals. This study examined whether and how IL-1ra, particularly extracellularly released IL-1ra, was involved in chemically-induced keratinocyte cytotoxicity and skin irritation. Primary cultured normal adult skin keratinocytes were treated with cytotoxic doses of chemicals (hydroquinone, retinoic acid, sodium lauryl sulfate, or urshiol) with or without recombinant IL-1ra treatment. Mouse skin was administered irritant concentrations of hydroquinone or retinoic acid. IL-1ra (mRNA and/or intracellular/extracellularly released protein) levels increased in the chemically treated cultured keratinocytes with IL-1α and IL-1β mRNAs and in the chemically exposed epidermis of the mouse skin. Recombinant IL-1ra treatment significantly reduced the chemically-induced apoptotic death and intracellular/extracellularly released IL-1α and IL-1β in keratinocytes. Collectively, extracellular IL-1ra released from keratinocytes could be a compensatory mechanism to reduce the chemically-induced keratinocyte apoptosis by antagonism to IL-1α and IL-1β, suggesting potential applications to predict skin irritation.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Apoptosis , Epidermis , Hand , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-1alpha , Keratinocytes , Mice , Microarray Analysis , Necrosis , RNA, Messenger , Skin , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate , Tretinoin
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-210005

ABSTRACT

Diagnostic methods for drug allergy include the patient's history, in vivo skin test, in vitro laboratory test, and provocation test. However, the history is often not reliable, procedures for in vivo and in vitro tests are not standardized, and provocation tests are sometimes harmful to patients. Generally, skin prick and intradermal tests are useful for immediate reactions; in contrast, patch test and delayed reading of both skin prick and intradermal tests are helpful for delayed reactions. A drug provocation test is the gold standard for both responses, and it is necessary to be aware of exact indications and contraindications with appropriate drugs, doses, and intervals. To date, several methods have been developed to detect culprit agents for drug hypersensitivity reactions, but they are neither completely well validated nor standardized. Based on this awareness and necessity, the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology launched the Standardization Committee to review the international guidelines and the literature, and then developed the consensus report on the procedures and applications of diagnostic tests for drug allergy.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Asthma , Consensus , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Drug Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , In Vitro Techniques , Intradermal Tests , Patch Tests , Skin , Skin Tests
16.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 715-721, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroquinone (HQ) is frequently combined with retinoic acid (RA) to enhance lightening efficacy, which may also affect skin irritancy. Although skin irritation leads to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, little research has been performed to compare skin irritancy between each component and the combination. OBJECTIVE: This study was done to examine whether HQ-RA combination increased skin irritation induced by HQ or RA alone. METHODS: Patch testing was performed using maximum therapeutic and higher concentrations of HQ and RA in 10 volunteers, and then, it was performed using their popular therapeutic concentrations and combination in the other 20 volunteers. In vitro irritation was also assessed in primary cultured normal human keratinocytes treated with 80% and 50% cell survival doses of HQ, 80% cell survival dose of RA, and their combination. RESULTS: The combination in patch testing induced stronger erythema than the corresponding concentrations of HQ and RA, which was remarkable with use of combination of higher concentrations. In cultured keratinocytes, the RA combination significantly decreased cell viability, but increased cytotoxicity and extracellular interleukin 1 alpha release with corresponding doses of HQ. CONCLUSION: The results of patch tests and in vitro irritation assessment tests suggested that HQ and RA increased skin irritation when used in combination.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Erythema , Humans , Hyperpigmentation , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-1alpha , Keratinocytes , Patch Tests , Skin , Tretinoin , Volunteers
17.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 728-734, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Palmar hyperhidrosis is a common disorder of excessive sweating. A number of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of iontophoresis in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis. However, controlled clinical studies on iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis have been limited. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of iontophoresis in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis with a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, and parallel-designed study. METHODS: Twenty nine patients with significant palmar hyperhidrosis were enrolled in this study. They received active iontophoresis treatment (group A) or sham treatment (group B). Iontophoresis was performed 20 minutes each time, five times per week, for 2 weeks. Its efficacy was assessed with starch-iodine test, mean sweat secretion rate, and hyperhidrosis disease severity scale. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of the 29 patients completed the 2-week treatment. After completion of 10 times of treatment, results of the starch-iodine test showed clinical improvement in 92.9% of patients in group A and 38.5% of patients in group B (p=0.001). The mean sweat secretion rate was reduced by 91.8% of patients in group A and by 39.1% of patients in group B (p<0.001). Improvement in quality of life was reported by 78.6% of patients in group A and by 30.8% of patients in group B (p=0.028). In group A, one case of localized adverse event was noted, although no adverse event was encountered in group B. CONCLUSION: Tap water iontophoresis could be used as an effective and safe treatment modality for palmar hyperhidrosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperhidrosis , Iontophoresis , Placebos , Quality of Life , Sweat , Sweating , Water
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49801

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Humans
19.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 335-343, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is one of the most common skin disorders and negatively affects quality of life. However, a large-scale multicenter study investigating the clinical features of patients with hand eczema has not yet been conducted in Korea. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of various hand diseases, which is defined as all cutaneous disease occurring in hands, and to investigate the clinical features of patients with hand eczema and the awareness about hand eczema in the general population and to compare the prevalence of hand eczema between health care providers and non-health care providers. METHODS: To estimate the prevalence of hand diseases, we analyzed the medical records of patients from 24 medical centers. Patients were assessed by online and offline questionnaires. A 1,000 from general population and 913 hand eczema patients answered the questionnaire, for a total of 1,913 subjects. RESULTS: The most common hand disease was irritant contact dermatitis. In an online survey, the lifetime prevalence of hand eczema was 31.2%. Hand eczema was more likely to occur in females (66.0%) and younger (20~39 years, 53.9%). Health care providers and housewives were the occupations most frequently associated with hand eczema. Winter (33.6%) was the most common season which people experienced aggravation. The 63.0% and 67.0% answered that hand eczema hinders their personal relationship and negatively affects daily living activities, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hand eczema is a very common disease and hinders the quality of life. The appropriate identification of hand eczema is necessary to implement effective and efficient treatment.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Dermatitis, Contact , Eczema , Female , Hand , Health Personnel , Humans , Korea , Medical Records , Occupations , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Seasons , Skin , Surveys and Questionnaires
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