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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880491

ABSTRACT

Biological complexity and the need for personalized medicine means that biomarker development has become increasingly challenging. Thus, new paradigms for research need to be created that bring together a different classifier of individuals. One potential solution is collaboration between biomarker development and Chinese medicine pattern classification. In this article, two examples of rheumatoid arthritis are discussed, including a new biomarker candidate casein kinase 2 interacting protein 1 (CKIP-1) and a micro RNA 214. The authors obtained a "snapshot" of pattern classification with disease in biomarker identification. Bioinformatics analyses revealed underlying biological functions of two biomarker candidates, in varying degrees, are correlated with Chinese medicine pattern of rheumatoid arthritis. The authors' initial attempt can provide a new window for studying the win-win potential correlation between the biomarkers and pattern classification in Chinese medicine.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the molecular-level mechanism on the hematopoiesis effect of Angelicae sinensis Radix (ASR) with systems-based interactome analysis.@*METHODS@#This systems-based interactome analysis was designed to enforce the workflow of "ASR (herb)→compound→target protein→internal protein actions→ending regulated protein for hematopoiesis". This workflow was deployed with restrictions on regulated proteins expresses in bone marrow and anemia disease and futher validated with experiments.@*RESULTS@#The hematopoiesis mechanism of ASR might be accomplished through regulating pathways of cell proliferation towards hemopoiesis with cross-talking agents of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), and interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK). The hematopoietic function of ASR was also validated by colony-forming assay performed on mice bone marrow cells. As a result, SYK, JAK2 and ITK were activated.@*CONCLUSION@#This study provides a new approach to systematically study and predict the therapeutic mechanism for ASR based on interactome analysis towards biological process with experimental validations.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Syndrome is one of the most important concepts in Chinese medicine (CM) theory. However, it was not well accounted in most of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).@*OBJECTIVES@#To determine whether CM syndrome differentiation affects the treatment results, functional constipation (FC) was selected as a target disease, and MaZiRenWan (, MZRW), a classic CM formula commonly used for constipation with excessive heat syndrome, was selected for study.@*METHODS@#It is an 18-week prospective double-blinded, doubledummy RCT, including 2-week run-in, 8-week treatment and 8-week post treatment follow-up. A total of 120 FC patients diagnosed as excessive heat syndrome will be recruited from the First Teaching Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Baokang Affiliated Hospital of Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Patients will be randomly allocated into fixed MZRW (f_MZRW) granule group, modified MZRW (m_MZRW) granule group or bisacodyl group. For m_MZRW group, no more than two herbal granules can be added according to the syndrome differentiation for individual participants. The primary end point is the mean of complete spontaneous bowel movements (CSBMs) per week during the treatment period. Secondary end points include mean of CSBMs per week during follow-up, stool form, global symptom improvement, constipation and constipation-related symptoms assessment, CM syndrome change, and reported adverse events.@*DISCUSSION@#This trial is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these three interventions for FC patients with the CM syndrome of excessive heat, and to determine the change of CM syndrome and the progress of disease during the treatment course. The results are important to explore whether syndrome differentiation is important for the therapeutic effect of a formula on a disease. [Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (Reg No. ChiCTR-TRC-13003742); protocol version: MZRW/NSFC-81173363 (2015.05.04)].


Subject(s)
Constipation , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Double-Blind Method , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691387

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the quality and consistency of recommendations in the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for hypertension in Chinese medicine (CM).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>CM CPGs were identified from 5 electronic databases and hand searches through related handbooks published from January 1990 to December 2013. Three reviewers independently appraised the CPGs based on the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument, and compared the CPGs' recommendations on CM syndrome pattern classification and treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Five CM CPGs for hypertension were included. The quality score of the evidence-based (EB) guideline was higher than those of the consensus-based with no explicit consideration of evidence-based (CB-EB) and the consensus-based (CB) guidelines. Three out of five patterns in the CPGs were recommended by the EB guideline. Tianma Gouteng Formula () in the EB guideline was recommended mostly for hypertension patients with pattern of ascendant hyperactivity of Gan (Liver)-yang and pattern of yin deficiency with yang hyperactivity in the CPGs. Acupuncture and massage were recommended for Grade I and Grade II hypertension with severe symptoms weakening the quality of life in the EB guideline. For Grade I and Grade II hypertension, CM could be used alone, while for Grade III hypertension, they should be used in combination with Western medicines.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The quality of EB guideline was higher than those of CB and CB-EB CPGs in CM for hypertension and CM should be prescribed alone or combined with Western medicines based on the grade of hypertension.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Hypertension , Therapeutics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods , Reference Standards , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Reference Standards , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Quality of Health Care , Reference Standards , Quality of Life
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691346

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify the commonalities between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and diabetes mellitus (DM) to understand the mechanisms of Chinese medicine (CM) in different diseases with the same treatment.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A text mining approach was adopted to analyze the commonalities between RA and DM according to CM and biological elements. The major commonalities were subsequently verified in RA and DM rat models, in which herbal formula for the treatment of both RA and DM identified via text mining was used as the intervention.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Similarities were identified between RA and DM regarding the CM approach used for diagnosis and treatment, as well as the networks of biological activities affected by each disease, including the involvement of adhesion molecules, oxidative stress, cytokines, T-lymphocytes, apoptosis, and inflammation. The Ramulus Cinnamomi-Radix Paeoniae Alba-Rhizoma Anemarrhenae is an herbal combination used to treat RA and DM. This formula demonstrated similar effects on oxidative stress and inflammation in rats with collagen-induced arthritis, which supports the text mining results regarding the commonalities between RA and DM.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Commonalities between the biological activities involved in RA and DM were identified through text mining, and both RA and DM might be responsive to the same intervention at a specific stage.</p>

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301070

ABSTRACT

Stomach pain in Chinese medicine (CM) is a very common disorder in clinical practice and it has been listed as one of the pilot three conditions in Hong Kong to develop evidence-based CM clinical practice guidelines (CM CPGs). The aim of this stomach Pain CPG is to summarize the treatment methods of stomach pain with CM and evaluate reasonably, then to guide local licensed CM practitioners and provide beneficial reference for social medical decision makers and patients. In this manuscript, we defined stomach pain in CM and the category of chronic gastritis in Western medicine. The clinical manifestation, CM pattern classification, and CM intervention including herbal medicine treatment based on pattern differentiation, symptomatic treatment, acupuncture treatment, regulation and nursing were illustrated.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229537

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To review the current situation and progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) international standards, standard projects and proposals in International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/ technical committee (TC) 249.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>ISO/TC 249 standards and standard projects on the ISO website were searched and new standard proposals information were collected from ISO/TC 249 National Mirror Committee in China. Then all the available data were summarized in 5 closely related items, including proposed time, proposed country, assigned working group (WG), current stage and classifification.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In ISO/TC 249, there were 2 international standards, 18 standard projects and 24 new standard proposals proposed in 2014. These 44 standard subjects increased year by year since 2011. Twenty-nine of them were proposed by China, 15 were assigned to WG 4, 36 were in preliminary and preparatory stage and 8 were categorized into 4 fifields, 7 groups and sub-groups based on International Classifification Standards.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A rapid and steady development of international standardization in TCM can be observed in ISO/TC 249.</p>

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229516

ABSTRACT

The development of an effective classification method for human health conditions is essential for precise diagnosis and delivery of tailored therapy to individuals. Contemporary classification of disease systems has properties that limit its information content and usability. Chinese medicine pattern classification has been incorporated with disease classification, and this integrated classification method became more precise because of the increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms. However, we are still facing the complexity of diseases and patterns in the classification of health conditions. With continuing advances in omics methodologies and instrumentation, we are proposing a new classification approach: molecular module classification, which is applying molecular modules to classifying human health status. The initiative would be precisely defining the health status, providing accurate diagnoses, optimizing the therapeutics and improving new drug discovery strategy. Therefore, there would be no current disease diagnosis, no disease pattern classification, and in the future, a new medicine based on this classification, molecular module medicine, could redefine health statuses and reshape the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Disease , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Medicine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287145

ABSTRACT

Controlled clinical trials of integrative therapies available to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) improved dramatically in the past 20 years, largely because of the growing need and the methodologies improvement. Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F., a typical example of popular use herb, has been extensively studied in trials. However, clear and convincing evidence of integrative therapy, effectiveness and safety, remains insufficient to make decision. Many research efforts are hampered by standing problems with 'syndrome' recruitment failure. In addition, the outcome multiplicity induces the findings inefficiency to generalize to RA patients at large. Development of validated syndrome outcomes and methodologies has also been critical. Current efforts to enhance the understanding of integrative treatment options for patients with RA include the development of drug-specific rather than disease-specific strategies, studies in predictive biomarkers, and development of peer-review trial protocol for regular clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Drug Therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Tripterygium , Chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262649

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To systematically review the clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for ischemic stroke in Chinese medicine (CM) with the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>CM CPGs for ischemic stroke were searched in 5 online databases and hand-searches in CPGrelated handbooks published from January 1990 to December 2012. The CPGs were categorized into evidence based (EB) guideline, consensus based with no explicit consideration of evidence based (CB-EB) guideline and consensus based (CB) guideline according to the development method. Three reviewers independently appraised the CPGs based on AGREE II instrument, and compared the CPGs' recommendations on CM pattern classification and treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Five CM CPGs for ischemic stroke were identified and included. Among them, one CPG was EB guideline, two were CB guidelines and two were CB-EB guidelines. The quality score of the EB guideline was higher than those of the CB-EB and CB guidelines. Five CM patterns in the CPGs were recommended in the EB CPG. The comprehensive protocol of integrative Chinese and Western medicine recommended in the EB CPG was mostly recommended for ischemic stroke in the CPGs. The recommendations varied based on the CM patterns.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The quality of EB CPG was higher than those of CB and CB-EB CPGs in CM for ischemic stroke and integrative approaches were included in CPGs as major interventions.</p>


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Brain Ischemia , Therapeutics , Health Planning Guidelines , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Stroke , Therapeutics
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267196

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To re-analyze the data published in order to explore plausible biological pathways that can be used to explain the anti-aging effect of curcumin.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Microarray data generated from other study aiming to investigate effect of curcumin on extending lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster were further used for pathway prediction analysis. The differentially expressed genes were identified by using GeneSpring GX with a criterion of 3.0-fold change. Two Cytoscape plugins including BisoGenet and molecular complex detection (MCODE) were used to establish the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network based upon differential genes in order to detect highly connected regions. The function annotation clustering tool of Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) was used for pathway analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 87 genes expressed differentially in D. melanogaster melanogaster treated with curcumin were identified, among which 50 were up-regulated significantly and 37 were remarkably down-regulated in D. melanogaster melanogaster treated with curcumin. Based upon these differential genes, PPI network was constructed with 1,082 nodes and 2,412 edges. Five highly connected regions in PPI networks were detected by MCODE algorithm, suggesting anti-aging effect of curcumin may be underlined through five different pathways including Notch signaling pathway, basal transcription factors, cell cycle regulation, ribosome, Wnt signaling pathway, and p53 pathway.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Genes and their associated pathways in D. melanogaster melanogaster treated with anti-aging agent curcumin were identified using PPI network and MCODE algorithm, suggesting that curcumin may be developed as an alternative therapeutic medicine for treating aging-associated diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Aging , Genetics , Animals , Cell Cycle , Genetics , Curcumin , Pharmacology , Drosophila Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Drosophila melanogaster , Genetics , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genes, Insect , Protein Biosynthesis , Genetics , Protein Interaction Maps , Genetics , Receptors, Notch , Genetics , Metabolism , Ribosomes , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Genetics , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Genetics
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294338

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of Qubi Recipe (QR) on the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha in rats with type II collagen-I induced arthritis (CIA), and to explore its therapeutic roles and mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 72 male SD rats of SPF grade were recruited. Twelve were randomly selected as the blank control group. The CIA model was established in the rest 60 rats by subcutaneously injecting type II collagen of bovine emulsion from the tail root and induction of incomplete Freund's adjuvant. On day 15 after primary immunization rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e., the CIA model group, the Tripterygium Glycosides (TG) group (at the daily dose of 9.68 mg/kg body weight), the high dose QR group (at the daily dose of 6.66 g/kg body weight), and the low dose QR group (at the daily dose of 3.33 g/kg body weight), 15 in each group. Corresponding medication was given to rats in all groups by gastrogavage once daily for 4 successive weeks. An equal volume of pure water was given to rats in the blank control group and the CIA model group by gastrogavage, once daily for 4 successive weeks. The swelling degree of the joints was measured. Rats were sacrificed after 4-week treatment. Plasma levels of SOD, MDA, and GSH-Px were measured with colorimetric method. The expression of HIF-1alpha was detected by immunohistochemistry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) Compared with the CIA model group, the swelling degree of the joints was significantly alleviated in the TG group and the high dose QR group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05), and it was obviously milder in the high dose QR group than in the TG group (P < 0.05). (2) Compared with the CIA model group, the activities of GSH-Px could be obviously elevated and activities of MDA lowered in the TG group, the high dose QR group, and the low dose QR group (P < 0.05). Plasma activities of SOD could be obviously elevated in the high dose QR group and the TG group (P < 0.05). (3) Compared with the CIA model group, the expression of HIF-1alpha obviously decreased in the TG group and the high dose QR group (P < 0.05), and it showed a decreasing tendency in the low dose QR group with no statistical difference (P > 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>QR could markedly alleviate the swelling degree of ankle joints in CIA model rats. Its therapeutic efficacy was superior to that of TG. Its mechanism might be achieved through down-regulating expression of HIF-1alpha in the joint, and regulating activities of SOD, MDA and GSH-Px in the plasma.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glutathione Peroxidase , Blood , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit , Metabolism , Joints , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Malondialdehyde , Blood , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Blood
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262669

ABSTRACT

Syndrome differentiation is a key feature of Chinese medicine (CM) system. With CM receiving more and more attention from the mainstream medical systems, researchers from both traditional medical systems and the Western medical system are putting more effort into studying why and how the CM system works, particularly about CM syndromes. This paper reviews the current status of syndrome study and its future development. The major aspects include: (1) Usage of syndrome differentiation in clinical practice; (2) Formalization of syndrome diagnostic criteria; (3) Evidence-based determination of the common syndrome(s) of a disease; (4) Systems biology study of syndromes; and (5) Usage of syndrome in randomized controlled trials. It is expected to integrate the syndrome concept into the main stream medical system, in terms of diagnosis, treatment and prevention.


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Syndrome
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-359322

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the rules of clinical application of Shenmai Injection (SI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The data sets of SI were downloaded from CBM database by the method of literature retrieved from Jan. 1980 to May 2012. Rules of Chinese medical patterns, diseases, symptoms, Chinese patent medicines (CPM), and Western medicine (WM) were mined out by data slicing algorithm, and they were demonstrated in frequency tables and two-dimension based network.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Totally 3 159 literature were recruited. Results showed that SI was most frequently correlated with stasis syndrome and deficiency syndrome. Heart failure, arrhythmia, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, and shock were core diseases treated by SI. Symptoms such as angina pectoris, fatigue, chest tightness/pain were mainly relieved by SI. For CPM, SI was most commonly used with Compound Danshen Injection, Astragalus Injection, and so on. As for WM, SI was most commonly used with nitroglycerin, fructose, captopril, and so on.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The syndrome types and mining results of SI were the same with its instructions. Stasis syndrome was the potential Chinese medical pattern of SI. Heart failure, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction were potential diseases treated by SI. For CPM, SI was most commonly used with Danshen Injection, Compound Danshen Injection, and so on. And for WM, SI was most commonly used with nitroglycerin, fructose, captopril, and so on.</p>


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Databases, Factual , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-306224

ABSTRACT

The STandards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials Of Moxibustion (STRICTOM), in the form of a checklist and descriptions of checklist items, were designed to improve reporting of moxibustion trials, and thereby facilitating their interpretation and replication. The STRICTOM checklist included 7 items and 16 sub-items. These set out reporting guidelines for the moxibustion rationale, details of moxibustion, treatment regimen, other components of treatment, treatment provider background, control and comparator interventions, and precaution measures. In addition, there were descriptions of each item and examples of good reporting. It is intended that the STRICTOM can be used in conjunction with the main CONSORT Statement, extensions for nonpharmacologic treatment and pragmatic trials, and thereby raise the quality of reporting of clinical trials of moxibustion. Further comments will be solicited from the experts of the CONSORT Group, the STRICTA Group, acupuncture and moxibustion societies, and clinical trial authors for optimizing the STRICTOM.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Methods , Reference Standards , Humans , Moxibustion , Methods , Reference Standards , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Reference Standards
16.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 801-805, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-288203

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the expression and prognostic significance of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in different melanocytic lesions.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 in 39 cases of benign nevus, 58 cases of primary cutaneous melanoma, 24 cases of primary mucosal melanoma, 69 cases of melanoma with lymph node metastasis and 8 cases of melanoma with distant metastasis were studied by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 was higher in benign nevi than in melanomas (P < 0.01). The nuclear expression of galectin-3 was higher in primary cutaneous melanomas than in primary mucosal melanomas or melanomas with metastases (P < 0.01, respectively). The expression correlated with age of patients (P < 0.05), necrosis (P < 0.05) and survival time (P < 0.01). Clark's level also correlated with survival time in patients with cutaneous melanomas (P = 0.037). TNM staging was the only independent prognostic factor for melanomas (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 is decreased in melanomas. The decrease in nuclear expression of galectin-3 may represent a poor prognostic factor for melanomas. TNM staging is an independent prognostic factor which influences the survival time.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Galectin 1 , Metabolism , Galectin 3 , Metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Liver Neoplasms , Lung Neoplasms , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Melanoma , Metabolism , Pathology , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa , Metabolism , Neoplasm Staging , Nevus , Metabolism , Pathology , Skin Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pathology , Survival Rate , Young Adult
17.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 178-181, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256225

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the correlations among Ki-67 expression, mitosis and other clinicopathological parameters of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma, and search for prognostic factors of malignant melanoma.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 127 cases of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma were collected from Beijing Cancer Hospital. Immunohistochemical study for Ki-67 was performed, and the mitosis was calculated referring to "hot spot" method recommended by the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system. The correlations of Ki-67 expression, mitosis and other clinicopathological parameters were analyzed, and the survival analysis of all these risk factors including TNM and Clark level was conducted based on follow up data.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The expression level of Ki-67 was associated with necrosis and Breslow thickness (P < 0.05). Mitosis was correlated with Clark level and Ki-67 expression (P < 0.05). Univariate analysis indicated Ki-67 expression level (P = 0.043), mitosis (P = 0.030) and TNM stage (P < 0.001) might influence the survival of patients. However, multivariate analysis showed that the TNM staging was the only independent prognostic factor affecting survival.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The prognosis of patients with primary cutaneous malignant melanoma was closely related to the TNM staging at the fist examination. Ki-67 expression and mitosis are two important clinicopathological parameters of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cell Proliferation , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ki-67 Antigen , Metabolism , Male , Melanoma , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Middle Aged , Mitosis , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Proportional Hazards Models , Skin Neoplasms , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , Survival Rate , Young Adult
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-293341

ABSTRACT

The Q method, combining qualitative and quantitative methods, refers to the qualitative analysis of Q-sorts based on quantitative techniques. It is used to research individual subjective experience, analyzing consensus and divergence to identify and categorize subjects' viewpoints. The sorting process is completely performed by the subjects, independent of study researchers. The Q method in medical research has been applied in many fields, including nursing care, clinical studies, doctor and patient's perceptions, health evaluation and decision making. The authors used the Q method to research Chinese medicine (CM) group decision making, exploring its practical feasibility in this important field. Four primary domains are addressed: (1) integration of expert opinion; (2) expert classification; (3) ascertaining the entire viewpoint orientation of a certain type of expert; and (4) comparison of expert opinion using an additional perspective. The essence of the Q method caters to the CM thinking model and should be introduced into CM and explored more deeply.


Subject(s)
Decision Making , Expert Testimony , Feasibility Studies , Health Policy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Research Design
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231671

ABSTRACT

One of effective measures for controlling toxic reactions is to use toxic herbs according to corresponding indication syndrome. It is important to develop toxicity theory of Chinese medicine in a sound and international way using modern language to elucidate its scientific connotation. We expect to explain scientific connotation of controlling toxic reaction while toxic herbs are used to the indication syndrome by using holistic research ideas and methods capable of reflecting governing exterior to infer interior, establish appropriate corresponding syndrome animal models by cutting into dose-effect/toxicity of toxic Chinese herbs, construct and analyze multi-layer molecular network using theories and technologies of metabonomics, network biology, and bioinformatics.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Toxicity , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methods
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289697

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the clinical practice guideline (CPG) development on 11 common diseases with Chinese medicine (CM) interventions in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The CPGs of 11 common diseases which could be treated effectively with CM had been published between 1980 and 2010 in China. The 11 diseases include coronary heart disease (angina pectoris), hypertension, chronic gastritis, rheumatoid arthritis, cerebral infarction, migraine, diabetes, primary osteoporosis, insomnia, common cold, and IgA nephropathy. The issuing organization, date of publication, development methods, and citation rate of the CPGs were analyzed. According to the development method, each guideline was categorized as consensus-based (CB), evidence-based (EB), or consensus based with no explicit consideration of evidence-based (CB-EB).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Thirty-three CPGs on the 11 common diseases were found: 20 guidelines were classified as CB, 13 as CB-EB and none as EB. Fifteen CPGs were issued by the China Association of Chinese Medicine, 8 by professional working groups, and 4 by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Six guidelines were published between 1980 and 1990, 9 between 1991 and 2000, and 18 between 2001 and 2010. Fifty-eight percent of these guidelines have not been amended timely. Only 54.5% (18/33) of the 33 guidelines were cited by other researchers and 45.5% (15/33) percent had never been cited.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Most CPGs developed for 11 common diseases with CM approaches in China are consensus, and their citation rates are relatively low. The results suggest that more EB CPG or CPG strictly based on expert consensus could be developed, and great efforts should be made for future CM CPG application.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Disease , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Practice Guidelines as Topic
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