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International Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases ; (12): 215-219, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989215


Carotid artery stenosis is an important cause of ischemic stroke. Carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting are the effective methods for treating carotid artery stenosis, but postoperative restenosis remains a challenge. The pathogenesis of postoperative restenosis is currently not fully understood. However, multiple factors, including biomarkers, imaging features, and surgical related factors, have been proven to be associated with postoperative restenosis and can predict the occurrence of postoperative restenosis. This article reviews the predictors of restenosis after carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting.

Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 1181-1184, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907927


Objective:To investigate the effect and mechanism of NACK knockdown on the proliferation and apoptosis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) Jurkat cells. Methods:Lentivirus transfection technology was used to transfect Jurkat cells and knock down NACK gene.Real time fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot were used to detect the silencing efficiency of NACK gene.CCK-8 method and flow cytometry were used to detect the effects of NACK knockdown on the proliferation and apoptosis of Jurkat cells.The expressions of protein related with Notch1 pathway, such as Hes1 and c-Myc, were detected by Western blot. Results:After NACK-shRNA was successfully transfected into Jurkat cells by lentiviral vector, the expression of NACK mRNA and protein was reduced signi-ficantly ( P<0.05). Compared with the negative control group and the blank control group, the CCK-8 method showed that the cell proliferation in the experimental group was significantly inhibited [The inhibition rates of cell proliferation in the experimental group, negative control group and blank control group were (37.27±4.48)%, (4.25±2.10)% and (2.43±1.40)%, respectively]( F=132.640, P<0.05), and the flow cytometry test showed that the apoptosis in the experimental group increased significantly [The apoptosis rates of experimental group, negative control group and blank control group were (26.38±3.03)%, (6.07±2.61)% and (3.40±1.98)%, respectively]( F=90.534, P<0.05). Western blot results confirmed that the expression of Notch1 pathway-related proteins Hes1 and c-Myc was down-regulated compared with the negative control group and the blank control group, and the difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05). Conclusions:Targeting silent NACK can down-regulate the expression of Notch1 pathway-related proteins, which leads to the inhibition of Jurkat cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, thereby exerting its anti-T-ALL effect.

Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery ; (12): 1241-1258, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930869


The clinical application of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has significantly improved the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. With the widespread applica-tion of ICIs in HCC, the management of immune-related adverse events (irAE) gained more and more attention. However, the complicated disease characteristics and various combination therapies in HCC throw out challenges to irAE management. Therefore, the editorial board of the 'Chinese expert consensus on the management of immune-related adverse events of hepatocellular carcinoma treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (2021 edition)' organizes multidisciplinary experts to discuss and formulate this consensus. The consensus focuses on issues related to HCC irAE manage-ment, and puts forward suggestions, in order to improve standardized and safety clinical medication, so as to maximize the benefits of immunotherapy for patients.

Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3685-3695, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921457


Biological denitrification is the most widely used technology for nitrate removal in wastewater treatment. Conventional denitrification requires long hydraulic retention time, and the nitrate removal efficiency in winter is low due to the low temperature. Therefore, it is expected to develop new approaches to enhance the denitrification process. In this paper, the effect of adding different concentrations of Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles on the denitrification catalyzed by Pseudomonas stutzeri was investigated. The maximum specific degradation rate of nitrate nitrogen improved from 18.0 h⁻¹ to 23.7 h⁻¹ when the concentration of Fe₃O₄ increased from 0 mg/L to 4 000 mg/L. Total proteins and intracellular iron content also increased along with increasing the concentration of Fe₃O₄. RT-qPCR and label-free proteomics analyses showed that the relative expression level of denitrifying genes napA, narJ, nirB, norR, nosZ of P. stutzeri increased by 55.7%, 24.9%, 24.5%, 36.5%, 120% upon addition of Fe₃O₄, and that of denitrifying reductase Nap, Nar, Nir, Nor, Nos increased by 85.0%, 147%, 16.5%, 47.1%, 95.9%, respectively. No significant difference was observed on the relative expression level of denitrifying genes and denitrifying reductases between the bacteria suspended and the bacteria adhered to Fe₃O₄. Interestingly, the relative expression level of electron transfer proteins of bacteria adhered to Fe₃O₄ was higher than that of the bacteria suspended. The results indicated that Fe₃O₄ promoted cell growth and metabolism through direct contact with bacteria, thereby improving the denitrification. These findings may provide theoretical support for the development of enhanced denitrification.

Aerobiosis , Denitrification , Nitrates , Nitrogen , Pseudomonas stutzeri/genetics
Chinese Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases ; (6): 182-188, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869300


Objective:To evaluate the effectiveness of multi-disciplinary treatment (MDT) for reducing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections in intensive care unit(ICU).Methods:Patients admitted in the emergency ICU (EICU) and neurosurgical ICU (NICU) of the First People’s Hospital of Lianyungang during January 2018 to December 2019 were enrolled in the study, which was analyzed by historical control study. For patients admitted in 2018, the conventional method was adopted for prevention and control of drug-resistant bacteria (control group, n=1, 076), and for patients admitted in 2019, the MDT was adopted for the prevention and control of CRE (intervention group, n=1, 237). Chi-square test was used to compare the incidence rate of CRE infection, CRE detection rate, rate of rational antibiotic use and compliance with implementation of prevention and control measures between two groups. Results:Compared to control group, the incidence rate of CRE infection in EICU and NICU decreased from 3.45% (14/406) and 3.58% (24/670) to 1.65% (9/547) and 2.32% (16/690) in intervention group, respectively; while the detection rate of CRE decreased from 66.21% (96/145) and 57.72% (86/149) to 41.11% (51/124) and 33.06% (40/121), the pathogens were mainly carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). The rational medication rate of carbapenem antibiotics was significantly increased from 65.00%(78/120) in 2018 to 92.73%(319/344) in 2019 ( χ2=55.382, P<0.05). In addition, the single room isolation rate, the rate of specialized nursing care, the cleaning and disinfection quality of bench surface and the special use rate of articles were also significantly improved( χ2=21.646, 18.116, 39.869 and 19.713, P<0.01). Conclusion:The establishment of multi-department collaborative management based on MDT can effectively improve the prevention and control effect of CRE in ICU and significantly reduce the prevalence of CRE infection.

Journal of International Oncology ; (12): 303-306, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751711


Hypothyroidism is a common adverse reaction in clinical multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) and may be used as a predictor of efficacy of TKI drugs.Studies show that hypothyroidism is significantly associated with good prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with multi-target TKI,which may be related to inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathway,potential off-target effects and inhibition of cell proliferation.Whereas in the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who received multi-target TKI therapy,hypothyroidism is an indicator of poor prognosis,which is related to the T3/TR pathway regulating liver cancer growth and invasion.The predictive function and mechanism of thyroid hormone levels in different tumor patients receiving multi-target TKI drugs are different,and further research is still needed.

International Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases ; (12): 543-548, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751594


Studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation can restore the sensory and motor function of patients with ischemic stroke. BMSCs transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy because of its ability to differentiate into neuron-like cells. This article reviews the inducers that promote BMSCs to differentiate into neuron-like cells in vitro.

International Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases ; (12): 309-314, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751554


Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has high disability and mortality.Cerebral vasospasm is the main cause of ischemic neurological deficit and even cerebral infarction after aSAH.At present,there are many studies on molecular signaling pathways of cerebral vasospasm.This article reviews the signaling pathways of cerebral vasospasm after aSAH.

Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing ; (36): 401-404, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743629


Objective To explore the application of limbs and fingers movement combined with moxibustion in patients with PICC catheterization. Methods A total of 346 PICC catheterized patients treated from August 2014 to July 2017 were randomly divided into control group (173 cases) and observation group (173 cases) according to random number table method. The control group was given local hot-wet compression at 3-4 cm of puncture point after 24 h of catheterization, and the observation group was given preventive moxibustion with the direction of the punctured vein at the same site in the control group, and then was given limbs and fingers movement. The levels of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein- 1 (MCP- 1), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α) and interleukin- 8 (IL- 8), hemorheological parameters [rate of high and low shear whole blood viscosity (RBV), rate of plasma specific viscosity (RPV), hematocrit (HCT)] and the incidence rates of mechanical phlebitis and venous thrombosis were compared between the two groups after intervention. Results The levels of MCP-1, TNF-αand IL-8 were (53.03±7.86), (85.93±10.72), (54.65±9.23) ng/L in the observation group, (60.27± 8.45), (94.74±11.36), (63.08±10.07) ng/L in the control group, and there were significant differences (t=8.252, 7.419, 8.117, all P<0.05). The levels of high shear RBV, low shear RBV, RPV and HCT were (3.94 ± 0.85) mPa · s, (6.55 ± 1.22) mPa · s, (1.70 ± 0.54) mPa · s and (43.71 ± 4.82)% respectively in the observation group, (4.18±0.74) mPa·s, (6.97±1.25) mPa·s, (1.92±0.59) mPa·s and (45.13±4.65)%in the control group, and there were significant differences (t=2.789-3.618, P<0.05). The incidence rates of venous thrombosis and phlebitis were 1.16%(2/173) and 5.78%(10/173) respectively in the observation group, 5.78%(10/173) and 13.29%(23/173) in the control group, there were significant differences (χ2=4.230, 5.661, P<0.05). Conclusions Limbs and fingers movement combined with moxibustion can effectively improve the blood flow status, and reduce the occurrence of mechanical phlebitis and venous thrombosis in patients with PICC catheterization.

Chinese Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics ; (24): 546-548, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743510


Objective To study the effect of Tamibarotene on the SH-SY5Y cell proliferation inhibition ability and the mRNA and protein expressions of tyrosine kinase receptor a (TrkA) and N-myc (MYCN) in order to provide some experimental bases for the treatment of neuroblastoma.Methods The SH-SY5Y cells were treated with different concentrations of Am80 (0,10,20,40,80,160 μmol/L) for 48 h,then Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to test the cell proliferation.Reverse transcription PCR(RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to test the mRNA and protein expressions of TrkA and MYCN at 48 hours.Results When the concentration was 10 μmol/L,Am80 had no significant inhibitory effect on SH-SY5Y cells [(3.51 ± 1.68)%,inhibition ratio < 5 %];but when the concentration was 20 μmol/L,it showed weak inhibition [(9.60 ± 1.97) %,inhibition ratio < 10%].The inhibition rate of SH-SY5Y cell proliferation[(57.43 ± 4.95)%] was significantly enhanced at Am80 with a concentration of 80 μmol/L.The concentrations of Am80 could effectively inhibit SH-SY5Y cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner(P <0.05).The expression of TrkA increased with the increase of Am80 concentration.Am80 significantly decreased the expression of MYCN in SH-SY5Y cells(10 μmol/L:0.65 ±0.05 vs.20 μmol/L:0.36 ±0.06),and the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.05).Conclusions It is suggested that Am80 can effectively inhibit SH-SY5Y cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner.The underlying mechanism involves increasing the expression of TrkA by down-regulation of MYCN.

Journal of Clinical Pediatrics ; (12): 5-8, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-694629


Objective To explore the dynamic changes and significance of costimulatory molecules CD40 and lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of children with eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG). Methods The CD40 expression and lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) in 15 children with EG (acute stage and remission stage) and 15 healthy controls. The level of serum interleukin (IL) -4 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The eosinophil (EOS) was count by blood cell analyzer. Results In acute stage, the children with EG had significantly higher expression of CD40, CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, and CD19+CD23+ in peripheral blood, higher serum IL-4 level, higher EOS count and lower CD8+ than in remission stage and control group (P all<0.05). There were no differences between remission stage and control group (P>0.05). In acute stage, the expression of CD40 in peripheral blood in children with EG was positively correlated with the expression of CD4+ and IL-4 (P all<0.05). Conclusions CD40 may be involved in the pathogenesis of EG. That the increase of IL-4 secreted by CD4+ T cells that were induced by CD40 results in abnormal increase of EOS may be one of mechanisms of the pathogenesis of EG.

International Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases ; (12): 615-619, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693043


The incidence, mortality and disability of ischemic stroke are higher, which has caused serious harm to people's health. In recent years, red blood cell distribution width as an independent risk factor and predictor of various diseases is receiving increasing attention. This article reviews the relationship between red blood cell distribution width and ischemic stroke.

International Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases ; (12): 145-149, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-692960


Reducing plasma homocysteine levels by B vitamins supplementation may be an effective intervention to prevent ischemic stroke, but early relevant clinical trials have show n that patients do not benefit from it.Recent trials have show n that folic acid supplementation can significantly reduce the risk of ischemic stroke.Therefore,the potential benefits of B vitamins in the prevention of ischemic stroke still need further study.

Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 469-474, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-711688


Objective To compare lateral orbital keyhole approach(LOK) with conventional keyhole approach including supraorbital keyhole approach (SOK) and pterional approach(PTK) for exposuring the sellar region and oper-ation ability, to provide theoretical and practical basis for the clinic. Methods From January, 2017 to Feburary, 2018, 15 cadaver head specimens of Chinese (30 sides) fixed by formalin were randomly divided into 3 groups, simu-lating SOK, LOK and PTK, application of frameless neuronavigation system, intersection of the posterior margin of the optic chiasma and the lamina terminalis served as the base point. Six different reference points were selected to radi-ate into the parasellar region of the skull base. The direction of the 2 adjacent reference points were connected to the base point to form a triangle. Six triangles constituted the sellar region to represent the total area. The supratentorial area, ipsilateral area, inferior area and contralateral area were calculated by stacking triangle. The comparison was made between groups. The Salma operation exposure scale was used to simulate the aneurysms of the common parts in the brain and the quantitative scores were performed. Results The total parasellar regions by SOK, LOK and PTK respectively were:(1641.6±295.6)mm2, (1782.3±294.6)mm2 and (1552.5±307.4)mm2. There was no statistical differ-ence(P>0.05); To compare the supratentorial region, SOK and LOK were both bigger than PTK ( P<0.05); To compare the ipsilateral and infratentorial area, LOK and PTK were both bigger than SOK respectively ( P<0.05);To compare the contralateral area, SOK, LOK and PTK were increased in turn (P<0.05). Salma operation exposure scale was used to get the scores:the score of SOK was 29.7 (39.08%), LOK was 37.0 (48.68%), and PTK was 36.1 (47.50%). Conclusion Anatomical analysis displayed that the 3 keyhole approaches showed different exposure of each part the parasellar re-gions, the LOK had a good exposure to the parasellar region and so as the higher maneuverability. But the clinical appli-cation should be comprehensive analysis, pay attention to specific lesions and make an appropriate choice. It has impor-tant clinical significance to improve the prognosis of patients.

Chinese Journal of Medical Education Research ; (12): 502-505, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-616411


Objective To explore the application of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (Mini-CEX) in training the diagnostic thinking ability for clinical interns.Methods 83 interns who came to the First People's Hospital of Lianyungang for clinical practice in June 2015 were divided into the experimental group (45 interns) and the control group (38 interns) according to their schools.The two groups received the same clinical teaching according to internship program of five-year clinical medicine,while the experimental group had to take a weekly Mini-CEX training in chnical sections.The diagnostic thinking ability of the two groups was measured by the Diagnostic Thinking Inventory in Chinese version at the beginning and the end of the internship respectively.SPSS 21.0 was applied to processing the data.Measurement data were expressed as mean plus or minus standard deviation,and t test was used in the comparison between groups.Results At the end of the internship,the total score of diagnostic thinking,the score of knowledge structure in memory and the score of flexibility in thinking of the experimental group were higher than scores at the beginning statistically,and the experimental group had a statistically higher score than the control groups in knowledge structure in memory [(69.36 ± 4.28) vs.(66.95 ± 4.78),P=0.018].Conclusion Mini-CEX training can enhance the clinical diagnostic thinking ability of interns by improving their knowledge structure in memory.

Herald of Medicine ; (12): 883-887, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615533


Objective To evaluate the application and efficacy of 6S quality management methods in drug clinical trials of oncology department.Methods By using 6S (Seiri,Seiton,Seiso,Seiketsu,Shitsuke,Safety) quality management methods,quality about mastering level of good clinical practice (GCP) knowledge,sample collection and drug management etc.were controlled,and efficacy after the quality control was evaluated.Results After implemention of 6S quality management,rate of achieving GCP certificate was increased to 77.80%,accuracy rate of sample collection and accuracy rate of medicine preparation were increased to 100.00%,and the rate of relearning study protocol was increased to 100.00%,and subjects' satisfaction was improved significantly.Conclusion The implementation of 6S quality management methods could effectively enhance the quality of drug clinical trials in oncology department.

International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 863-865, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615507


MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey has been widely recognized, but the application in the field of traditional Chinese medicine rheumatism was less. This article aimed to summarize the application of MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey in Chinese medicine for rheumatism. This may provide certain reference for the future application.

Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 53-57, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-506179


Objective To estabhsh an ischemic model of intratemporal facial nerve (IFN) via the mastoid process approach.Methods From February,2015 to December,2015,45 SD rats were divided randomly into an operation group (n=35) and a shame group (n=10) in random,the right side facial nerve was used for the operation and the left side served as the control in both groups.Establish the IFN ischemia model by interrupting the petrosal artery through the mastoid process approach.Facial nerve function were evaluated at the 12h and everyday postoperatively for 28 days.The degree of IFN swelling were studied by taking paraffin sections of the decalcified temporal bone containing the IFN instantly and at the 1st,3rd,7th,14th and 21st days postoperatively.Then calculated the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the IFN and the facial canal (FN/FC).The data of behavior assessment and FC/FN were analyzed using ANOVA.Twenty-eight days after the insult,took continuous sections of brainstem containing facial nucleus,then counted the number of the facial neurons.At last,analysed the results of both operation and control sides in each group by using the student-t test.Results Facial nerve paralysis developed at 12 hour after surgery,then continued deteriorated till the 7th day.By the 28th day postoperatively,all rats in surgery group recovered and data showed no significance statistically when compared with the shame group (P<0.05).From the value of FN/FC in different groups,the nerve were found swelling in the facial canal was increasing from the 1st postoperatively and reach the peak value at the 7th day after surgery.By the 21st day,the FN/FC come to steady but remain significant statistically when compared with the contralateral side(P<0.05).In the operation group,facial neurons of injury side exhibited significantly loss [(41.5±3.8)%] when compared with the shame group [(98.1±4.0)%](P<0.05).Conclusion Rats with petrosal artery interrupted exhibited significant deficits.This approach involved less tissue injury,studies on the mechanisms and therapy could become more reliable using this approach.

Chinese Journal of Digestion ; (12): 88-93, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-505608


Objective To explore clinical pathological characteristics and treatment changed with time in patients with colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LST) from 2001 to 2015.Methods The clinical data of 549 patients with colorectal LST who received endoscopic resection or surgical operation between 2001 and 2015 were retrospectively collected.According to the time of diagnosis,patients were divided into 2001 to 2005,2006 to 2010 and 2011 to 2015 groups.The gender,age,lesion size and lesion subtypes,clinical pathologic features and their therapeutic methods were analyzed.Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.Results The detective rates of colorectal LST in 2001 to 2005 period,2006 to 2010 period and 2011 to 2015 period were 0.38% (50/13 319),(0.60% (144/23 912) and 0.79% (355/ 44 715),respectively,and the differences were statistically significant (x2 =29.34,P < 0.01).During these three period,the male to female ratio was about 1:1,mean age about 59 years old,and the mean maximum diameter of the LST lesions remained about 30 mm.The percentages of granular type laterally spreading tumor (LST-G) in 2001 to 2005 period,2006 to 2010 period and 2011 to 2015 period were 82.4%(42/51),67.7% (105/155) and 78.2%(283/262),respectively;while those of non-granular type laterally spreading tumor (LST-NG) were 17.6 % (9/51),32.3 % (50/155) and 21.8 % (79/362),respectively;and the differences were statistically significant (x2 =7.77,P =0.02).The proportions of LST located at the proximal colon in the three periods were 21.6 % (11/51),34.2 % (53/155) and 41.4 % (150/362),respectively;while the percentages of LST at distal colon were 78.4% (40/51),65.8% (102/ 155) and 58.6 % (212/362),respectively;and the differnces were statistically significant (x2 =8.61,P=0.01).The percentages of high grade neoplasia (HGN) in the three periods were 13.7 % (7/51),21.9 %(34/155) and 48.6%(176/362),respectively;while the percentages of invasive carcinoma were 2.0%(1/51),5.2% (8/155) and 8.3% (30/362),respectively;and the differnces were statistically significantly (x2 =58.89,P<0.01).The percentages of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in the three periods were 56.9%(29/51),58.7% (91/155) and 32.0% (116/362),respectively;the percentages of endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection (EPMR) were 41.2 % (21/51),23.9 % (37/155) and 14.1% (51/362),respectively;the percentages of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) were 0,12.3% (19/155) and 46.1 % (167/362),respectively;the percentages of surgical operation were 0,5.2 % (8/155) and 7.7 % (28/362),respectively;and the differences were statistically significant (x2 =112.46,P< 0.01).Conclusions From 2001 to 2015,the clinical pathological features and therapeutic methods of colorectal LST changed along with time.The proportion of colorectal LST located at proximal colon increased,and the percentage of LST-G decreased.ESD became the primary treatment,and the proportion of pathological diagnosis of HGN and invasive carcinomas increased after operation.

KMJ-Kuwait Medical Journal. 2016; 48 (4): 317-322
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-183983


Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness using adult flexible bronchoscopy via laryngeal mask airway [LMA] under general anesthesia in children aged 2 - 5 years

Design: Retrospective study

Setting: Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai, China

Subjects: The procedures of bronchoscopy were performed with an adult flexible bronchoscope via LMA under general anaesthesia. Indications and complications were analyzed, retrospectively

Intervention[s]: Expanding the wide use of pediatric flexible bronchoscopy to diagnostic and interventional bronchoscopy

Main outcome measure[s]: Performed using SPSS17.0

Results: The indications for bronchoscopy included tracheal mucous plugs removal in 108 cases with pneumonia, tracheobronchial foreign bodies removal in 82 cases, endobronchial biopsy in 66 cases, bronchoscopic cryosurgery in 23 cases with tracheal granulation tissue formation after long-term endotracheal intubation, balloon dilatation in 11 cases with lobar bronchial stenosis and bronchoscopic management in 12 cases with traumatic tracheobronchial injuries. Complications were reported for 193 cases, with an overall complication rate of 63.9%. The incidence rate was highest in children aged 2 - 3 years, and decreased with age. Hypoxia and post bronchoscopy cough were the most complication in all patients. Acute hypoxia during bronchoscopy happened in 5 [1.6%] cases and was relieved quickly by intermittent withdrawal of the bronchoscope. Most post bronchoscopy cough without respiratory distress or hypoxia could be seen in 188 [62.3%] cases and resolved within four hours after inhalation of budesonide

Conclusion: An adult flexible bronchoscope via LMA could be safely and effectively used for interventional bronchoscopy in 2 - 5 years old children with different kinds of the proximal airway diseases