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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-799595

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of gastroenteritis virus in foodborne diseases from three cities in Shandong.@*Methods@#From January to December 2017, six sentinel hospitals in Jinan, Yantai and Linyi city of Shandong Province were selected as the research sites. Stool samples of 1 397 diarrhea patients were collected, as well as basic information and clinical symptoms. Duplex quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect Norovirus genogroupⅠ (Nov GⅠ) and genogroupⅡ (Nov GⅡ), Sapovirus (SAV) and Human astrovirus (HAstV), respectively, quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect group A Rotavirus (RVA), and quantitative PCR was used to detect Enteric adenovirus (EAdV). The specific gene of the virus were sequenced and typed. It was compared that the gastroenteritis virus rate in cases with different characteristics and the clinical symptoms difference between the virus positive and negative cases.@*Results@#The median age (P25, P75) was 23 (1, 42) , mainly male, 57.48% with 803 cased and children under 5 years old, 36.36% with 508 cases. The positive rate of gastroenteritis virus was 33.93% (474 cases), and that of Jinan, Linyi and Yantai City were 32.03% (147/459), 41.54% (189/455) and 28.57% (138/483), respectively (P<0.001). Nov GⅡ had the highest positive rate, 16.54% (231 cases), which, mainly GⅡ.P16/GⅡ.2 (48.28%, 56/116), peaked in May (24.75%, 50/202) and June (19.59%, 38/194). In patients of gastroenteritis virus positive, 44.51% (211/474) had vomiting symptoms, higher than that of patients of gastroenteritis virus negative (34.13%, 315/923). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001).@*Conclusion@#In Shandong Province, the majority of gastroenteritis patients were male and children under 5 years old. Nov GⅡ possessed highest epidemic intensity, and peaked in spring and summer. Viral gastroenteritis had atypical clinical symptoms.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-798039

ABSTRACT

Construction and application of immunization information system is an important part of health information, which is very useful to improve the quality, efficiency and safety of vaccination. The background, system architecture, functions and applications, working conditions and characteristics of Shandong province Immunization Information System (IIS) are introduced in this article. It is expected to provide experiences for the development of immunization information system of other provinces.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810539

ABSTRACT

Based on the data from Shandong Province death registration system in 2015, the mortality rate was adjusted by the results of underreporting rate investigation, and the probability of premature death of non-communicable diseases was calculated by life table method. A total of 728 287 deaths caused by four main non-communicable diseases (NCDs) including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, malignant tumor, diabetes, and chronic respiratory disease, accounting for 85.83% of the total death in 2015. The death of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and malignant tumor accounted for 50.90% and 25.69% respectively. The probability of premature death was 17.84%. The probability in males was higher than that in females (23.12% vs 12.25%). The highest probability of premature death in urban was cancer, but in rural was cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The probability increased from the East areas to the West. The highest probability reached at 21.50% in the Western underdeveloped areas, and the lowest probability was in Dongying City (14.84%) and Weihai City (14.94%) in the coastal areas.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810478

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze epidemiological characteristics of acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) cases and the common pathogens infected in Jinan, Shandong Province.@*Methods@#Epidemiological and clinical informations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood specimens of acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome (AMES) cases (total 3 918 cases) were collected in the six sentinel hospitals from 2013 to 2016. neisseria meningitidis (Nm), streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) and haemophilus influenza (Hi) were detected by the methods of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR), bacterial culture and latex agglutination. χ2 test was used to compare ABM cases with different feasures, and compare the difference of Nm, Sp and Hi cases in clinical and epidemiological characteristics.@*Results@#A total of 479 cases were diagnosed as ABM from 2013 to 2016, 82 cases of which were laboratory confirmed, including 54 cases infected with Nm, 25 cases infected with Sp, and 3 cases infected with Hi. The disease course in different age groups of ABM cases has statistically difference (χ2=40.95, P<0.001). The disease course of under 6 (63.6%, 161/253) and 7 to 17 (55.9%, 33/59) years old ABM cases mainly required 14-28 days, and over 18 years old cases mainly required less than 14 days (59.9%, 100/167). For Nm cases, there was a main onset period from October to March (75.9%, 41/54); on the disease course, under 6 (81.0%, 17/21) and 7 to 17 (16/18) years old cases mainly required less than 14 days, while over 18 years old cases mainly required 14-28 days (8/15), and there was a statistically difference in different age groups (χ2=8.44, P=0.015). For Sp cases, the major onset period was from December to May (84.0%, 21/25); on the disease course, all of under 6 and 7 to 17 years old cases were required 14-28 days, while over 18 years old cases mainly required less than 14 days (9/17), and there was a statistically difference in different age groups (χ2=6.62, P=0.037). 91.0% of the ABM cases (436/479) were healed or improvement, with the relatively higher ratio in under 6 (94.9%, 240/253) and 7 to 17 (98.3%, 58/59) years old groups, and poorer ratio in over 18 years old group (82.6%, 138/167), and the difference was significant in different age groups (χ2=22.77, P<0.001). For Nm, Sp and Hi cases, the ratio of cases that were healed or improvement were 87.0% (47/54), 92.0% (23/25) and 3/3, respectively, and there were no death cases.@*Conclusion@#ABM cases were found mostly in under 18 years old group in Jinan, Shandong Province, and the bigger age group had poor prognosis. Nm was the major pathogen causing ABM, followed by Sp and Hi. Distinguished differences of epidemiological characteristics were found on ABM cases suffered with different pathogens infected.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810477

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To characterize the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of the acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome (AMES) in Jinan city in 2013-2016.@*Methods@#The epidemiological data, clinical diagnosis, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens were collected from 3 577 AMES cases in 6 sentinel hospitals in Jinan city in 2013-2016. Samples of all cases were made sero-diagnosis for Immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and negative cases of JEV for enterovirus (EV), mumps virus (MuV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Virus isolation and molecular identification were performed. Positive rates were analyzed by Chi-square test.@*Results@#In 2013-2016, the positive rates of JEV, EV, MuV and HSV were 9.0% (322/3 577 cases), 22.1% (643/2 916 cases), 9.9% (289/2 916 cases), 26.9% (783/2 916), respectively. Of these, the positive rates of JEV were 32.9% (261/794), 1.2% (14/1 175), 1.0% (8/807) and 4.9% (39/801 cases); EV: 19.5% (91/466), 35.1% (342/974 cases), 15.5% (115/743) and 13.0% (95/733); MuV: 9.2% (43/466), 14.4% (140/974), 9.0% (67/743) and 5.3% (39/733). HSV: 35.4% (165/466), 38.5% (375/974), 25.7% (191/743) and 7.1% (52/733). There were significant differences in positive rates of 4 kinds of viruses in 2013-2016 (P<0.001). A total of 81 EV strains belonging to 8 serotypes were isolated from 1 020 CSF specimens. The positive rates were 4.8% (6 cases), 13.1% (55 cases), 4.1% (7 cases) and 4.2% (13 cases) from 2013 to 2016. Coxsackievirus (CV) B5, echovirus (E) 6 and E30 accounted for 46% (37 isolates), 22% (18 isolates) and 21% (17 isolates) of all strains.@*Conclusion@#The AMES cases in Jinan city in 2013-2016 were mainly caused by HSV, EV, MuV, JEV. CVB5, E6 and E30 were the dominant serotypes of EV associated with AMES cases in Jinan city.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810476

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of laboratory confirmed epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases.@*Methods@#Epidemiological and clinical informations and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood specimens of AMES (acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome) cases were collected in the six sentinel hospitals from 2007 to 2016. neisseria meningitides (Nm) species and serogroup identification were detected by the methods of real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and bacterial culture, and epidemiological and clinical characteristics of laboratory confirmed epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases were analyzed.@*Results@#6 809 AMES cases were reported from 2007 to 2016. Total 4 422 cases were detected, and 90 cases were Nm positive. Through the methods of Real-time PCR, bacterial blood culture and CSF culture, the numbers of Nm positive cases were 90, 2 and 1 respectively. Twenty-two Nm cases were identified from 2007 to 2011 (4 cases were ungrouped), which with the highest incidence in serogroup C cases (17/18), and one cases was ungroupable Nm. Nm laboratory confirmed cases (68 cases) were increased dramatically and mainly occurred in serogroup B cases (43/67, 64.2%) from 2012 to 2016, with serogroup C cases highly decreased (5/67, 7.5%) and ungroupable Nm cases increased (13/67, 19.4%) meanwhile. Serogroup W135 and X cases were first detected at 2012 and 2014, and serogroup A remaining a low level which only detected one case at 2013. The morbidity of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis was occured in the whole year, and mainly in winter and spring. The ratio of Nm laboratory confirmed cases to AMES cases during November to May (3.5%, 67/1 920) was higher than that during June to October (0.9%, 23/2 502) (χ2=34.45, P<0.001). Most Nm cases were children, students and farmers, and account for 30.0% (27/90), 31.1% (28/90), 18.9% (17/90), respectively. The majority of Nm cases were under 20 years old (60/90, 66.67%), and serogroup C cases (17/22, 77.3%) mainly occurred in over 12 years old population, while serogroup B (24/43, 55.8%) and ungroupable (6/14) cases mainly occurred in under 12 years old population. The main clinical symptoms of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases were fever (78/90, 86.7%), headache (59/90, 65.6%) and vomiting (51/90, 56.7%). Misdiagnosis rate of admitting diagnosis was up to 87.8% (79/90) for the reason of atypical features in specific symptoms and blood or CSF positive index. The well-healed ratio in correct diagnosed group (7/11) was higher than that in misdiagnosed group (2.5%, 2/79) (χ2=40.61, P<0.001).@*Conclusion@#The clinical symptoms of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis cases were atypical, and the diagnosed sensitivity and accuracy would be improved by enhanced molecular biology detection. The predominant epidemic serogroup of Nm switched from serogroup C to B, and the key work was surveaylance of serogroup transition.

7.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 924-929, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805742

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To describe the mortality trend of major malignant tumors in Shandong province, from 1970 to 2013.@*Methods@#Data related to cancer mortality were obtained from the Shandong Death Registration System and three nationwide retrospective cause-of-death surveys. Trends of overall mortality and major causes of death were described using the indicators as: mortality rates and age-standardized mortality rates, through comparing the three large-scale mortality surveys in Shandong province. Difference decomposing method was applied to estimate the contribution of demographic and non-demographic factors for the change of mortality.@*Results@#From 1970 to 2013, the crude mortality rate of malignant tumors in Shandong was increasing. The age standard mortality rate was increasing and then decreasing. The composition of cancer deaths in the all-cause-deaths was seen increasing and then decreasing as well. Both demographic and non-demographic factors contributed to the increase of crude cancer mortality rate. With the gradual increase of the proportion of population, its role exceeded the non-demographic factors. The age-standardized mortality rate of malignant tumors in 2011-2013 was lower than that in 2004-2005. Lung cancer mortality rose from the fifth to the first place, with an increase of 6.81 times from 1970-1974 to 2011-2013. Ranking of gastric cancer mortality dropped from first to the third place, with esophageal cancer dropped from second to the fourth. After adjusted by China’s standard population in 1964, the mortality rate of lung cancer was still rapidly increasing, but the age-standardized mortality rates of esophageal cancer was gradually decreasing. The crude and age-standardized mortality rates of cervical cancer showed a rapid downward trend, reduced 87.00% and 93.00% respectively from 1970-1974 to 2011-2013.@*Conclusions@#Malignant tumors were still major threats to the residents of Shandong province. The changing trend of different malignant tumors presented an inconsistent nature which called for different intervention strategies be carried out, accordingly.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805266

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To estimate the immune memory at 12 years after hepatitis B vaccination and its risk factors among adults.@*Methods@#The study was conducted in 20 villages of Qudi town in Jiyang county, Shandong province, China in 2003. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were tested for all healthy residents aged 15-40 years in these villages. Those who had no history of hepatitis B vaccination and were negative for all three indicators were divided into two groups randomly. Hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) was administrated to them on 0-6 month schedule or 0-1-6 month schedule respectively. Blood samples were obtained at one month after the last dose for each receipt and were quantitatively detected for anti-HBs. Finally a total of 629 participants completed HepB vaccination and anti-HBs testing, including 288 of two-dose group and 341 of three-dose group respectively. In 2015, an additional dose of HepB (challenge dose) was administrated to those who were negative for anti-HBs at follow-up (anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml) to evaluate the immune memory. A total of 93 blood samples, including 50 of two-dose group and 43 of three-dose group respectively, were drawn at 14 days after the challenge dose and anti-HBs was quantitatively detected. The anti-HBs geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) after the challenge dose were compared between the two groups. Multivariate linear regression model was built to find the independent risk factors associated with immune memory response (anti-HBs GMC after the challenge dose).@*Results@#The challenge dose of HepB and post-challenge anti-HBs detection were completed among 93 participants. Totally 92 (98.92%, 92/93) participants were found holding immune memory (anti-HBs after the challenge dose was ≥10 mIU/ml). The immune memory positive rates were 100% (50/50) and 97.67% (42/43) in the two-dose group and three-dose group respectively and the corresponding anti-HBs GMC after challenge dose were 2 684.30 (95%CI: 1 721.71-4 185.08) mIU/ml and 3 527.48 (95%CI: 2 145.15-5 800.58) mIU/ml (P=0.410). The anti-HBs GMC after the challenge dose were 1 908.33 (95%CI: 1 190.01-3 060.27) mIU/ml, 4 004.20 (95%CI: 2 257.90-7 101.12) mIU/ml and 8 682.16 (95%CI: 5 813.94-12 965.36) mIU/ml among the participants whose anti-HBs titer was<4, 4-6 and 7-9 mIU/ml at follow-up, respectively (P=0.002). There was no correlation between immune schedule and anti-HBs GMC after the challenge dose; β (95%CI) was -0.07 (-0.34-0.20), P=0.601.@*Conclusion@#The immune memory after primary hepatitis B vaccination lasted for at least 12 years among adults. The immune memory response was independently associated with ant-HBs titer at follow-up, but might be similar between 0-6 month schedule and 0-1-6 month schedule.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805146

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To understand the genotype distribution and molecular epidemiological characteristics of the group A rotavirus (RVA) in domestic sewage, and further explore the importance of environmental surveillance in investigating RVA regional circulation.@*Methods@#Sewage samples were collected monthly in the city of Yantai from January 2014 to December 2016. After concentration, total RNA was extracted, and RVA VP7 and VP4 coding regions were amplified via RT-PCR. PCR products were purified, cloned and Sanger sequenced. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on the sequences.@*Results@#Thirty-six sewage samples were collected and 86.1% was positive with VP7 and VP4 sequences. A total of 205 VP7 and 239 VP4 nucleotide sequences were obtained, belonging to 4 G genotypes and 6 P genotypes. Among these, G9 (95.6%, 196/205), P[8] (58.6%, 140/239) and P[4] (28.0%, 67/239) were the most common genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis for G9, P[8] and P[4] sequences revealed co-circulation of multiple transmission chains in local population.@*Conclusions@#This study describes the genotype distribution and sequence characteristics of local RVA in Shandong province, and the result demonstrate that surveillance on environmental sewage is an effective way in investigating RVA molecular epidemiology.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806267

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the effectiveness of mumps prevention and control after implementation of two doses mumps-containing combined vaccine (MuCV) policy by analyzing epidemiological characteristics of mumps and mumps antibody levels in general population.@*Methods@#We obtained data on cases of mumps reported during 2004-2015 from National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS). Descriptive analysis methods were used to describe the epidemiological characteristics of mumps during 2004-2015. MuCV immunization information from 2005 to 2015 was obtained from the immunization information management system in Shandong Province. Antibody data of mumps in healthy people were from a cross-sectional survey according to the principle of stratified random sampling from 0 to 60 years old healthy people in 2015. Commercial ELISA kits were used to detect and quantify human IgG antibodies against mumps virus in sera, and the results were analyzed statistically.@*Results@#The average incidence of mumps from 2004 to 2015 was 11.43/100 000 in Shandong. The incidence of mumps in the central region (14.64/100 000) was higher than that in the eastern and western regions (11.14/100 000, 11.33/100 000). The incidence of mumps was still high in 2009-2013 (stage of one-dose MuCV free, 16.07/100 000) with the highest incidence of 25.33/100 000 and 24.45/100 000 occurred in 2012 and 2013 and the cases were mainly 6 to 9 years old group (172.67/100 000). Since the second dose MuCV was introduced into NIP for 6 years old children in May 2013 in Shandong, the incidence of mump decreased significantly in 2014-2015 (7.81/100 000), especially in children of 6-8 years old who were vaccinated with two doses of MuCV (2009-2013 was 114.02/100 000; 2014-2015 was 45.66/100 000) and lower than 3-5 years old vaccinated one doses of MuCV. A total of 1 785 serum samples were collected from the healthy population, the average seroprevalence was 80.62% and Geometric Mean Concentration (GMC) was 38.11 IU/ml (95%CI: 37.03-39.19 IU/ml) . There was no significant difference about seroprevalence in different regions, while the GMC in middle region was significantly higher compared to east and west region. The prevalence and GMC in children aged 19 months-2 years and 3-5 years old who received one dose of MuCV were significantly higher than those of <19 months old children. The GMC (46.88 IU/ml, 95%CI: 39.43-55.74 IU/ml) in children aged 6-9 years old who received the two doses MuCV was significantly higher than that of aged 3-5 years old children (31.71 IU/ml, 95%CI: 27.23-36.93 IU/ml).@*Conclusion@#The incidence of mumps in Shandong was still at a high level in spite of coverage one doses MuCV to children. Compared with the period of the 1 dose MuCV immunization strategy, the incidence the groups coverage two doses MuCV was significantly reduced and lower the groups coverage one dose MuCV, but the prevalence and GMC were higher than that of the groups coverage one dose MuCV.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805997

ABSTRACT

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an infection that can be sexually transmitted and result in health consequences. Persistent high-risk HPV infection can lead to various cancers and is the essential cause of cervical cancer. HPV vaccine can prevent the HPV infection and thus the incidence of cervical cancer. In this review we introduced the prevalence of HPV infection and vaccination, and the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. We also introduced the present knowledge and awareness of HPV infection and HPV vaccine in Chinese. Propaganda all over China should be performed on HPV vaccination to improve the vaccination rate, thus preventing the incidence of cervical cancer.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-805909

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analysis the genotype of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in mosquitoes from Shandong province.@*Methods@#Mosquitoes were collected between August and September in Weishan county, Junan county, and Kenli county of Shandong province in 2016. Viruses were isolated by BHK-21 cell and identified by molecular method . Real-Time RT-PCR was conducted to detect the Japanese encephalitis virus carried by the mosquitoes.@*Results@#A total of 8418 mosquitoes divided into 81 pools including 3 species, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Anopheles sinensis and Armigeres obturbans. Eight Japanese encephalitis viruses were isolated; 23 pools were positive by JEV specific real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis on E sequence of JEV showed all JEV strains belonged to genotype Ⅰ JEV, and new strains that were homogenous with previous JEV strains isolated from Shandong.@*Conclusions@#Genotype Ⅰ JEV was the dominant genotype in Shandong province.

13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1156-1160, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737794

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the antibody persistence 5 years after primary immunization with 5 μg and 10 μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among newborns with normal and high response.Methods Newborns who completed three doses of 5 μ g HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Saccharomyces (HepB-SC) or 10 μg HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Hansenula polymorpha (HepB-HP) were recruited.Standardized questionnaire was used and blood samples were collected 1-6 months (T0) and five years (T1) after the third dose respectively.The titer of anti-HBs was detected by chemiluminescence microparticle imunoassay (CMIA).Those who achieved normal or high antibody response (anti-HBs titer ≥100 mIU/ml) were included in the study and the positive rate (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and titer of anti-HBs at T1 were compared between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group.Multivariable analysis was conducted to identify the independent factors associated with the antibody persistence.Results The positive rate of anti-HBs at T1 was 49.92% (943/1 883) and 75.92% (1 135/1 495) respectively in 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group,the difference was significant (x2=237.75,P<0.001).The anti-IBs geometric mean concentrations at T1 were 10.23 mIU/ml (95%CI:9.38-11.16) and 28.91 mIU/ml (95%CI:26.65-31.35) in the two groups respectively,the difference was also significant (F=280.36,P<0.001).Among those whose anti-HBs titer was < 10 mIU/ml at T1,the distributions of anti-HBs titer were significantly different between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group (x2=39.75,P< 0.001).The multivariable analysis showed that dosage of HepB was independently associated with both positive rate and titer of anti-HBs at T1 after excluding the other factors [P<0.001,OR=1.44(95% CI:1.20-1.73);P<0.001,β =0.27 (95% CI:0.14-0.40)].Conclusion Five year anti-HBs persistence after primary immunization with 10 μg HepB might be better than that after primary immunization with 5 μg HepB among infants who achieved normal or high anti-HBs response after primary HepB immunization.

14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 868-876, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-737738

ABSTRACT

Objective Less surveys on the economic burden of hepatitis B (HB)-related diseases have been conducted in China,so the socioeconomic harm caused by the diseases is not clear and the key parameters for economic evaluation of hepatitis B prevention and treatment are lacking.This study aimed to analyze the direct,indirect and intangible expenditures of hospitalized patients with HB-related diseases during hospitalization and during a year in different areas of China.Methods The hospitals for infectious diseases and the large general hospitals in 12 areas in China were selected in the study.All the inpatients with HB-related diseases were surveyed by cluster sampling of consecutive cases.The direct expenditure included direct medical cost and direct non-medical cost.The indirect expenditure,including work loss of patients and caregivers,were calculated by using human capital method for urban and rural populations in 12 areas.The intangible expenditure were reflected by willing to pay and stochastic tournament.The influencing factors of direct and indirect costs were identified by stepwise linear multi-variation regression analysis.Results A total of 27 hospitals in 12 areas were included in the survey.A total of 4 718 cases were surveyed,the overall response rate was 77.7%.The average hospital stay was 29.2 days (27-34) and the hospitalization expenditure was averagely 16 832.80 yuan (RMB) per case,in which the highest proportion (61.2%)was medicine fees [10 365.10 yuan (RMB)].The average direct expenditure and indirect expenditure were consistent with the severity of illness,which were 18 336.10 yuan (RMB) and 4 759.60 yuan (RMB) respectively,with the ratio of 3.85:1.The direct medical expenditure [17 434.70 yuan (RMB)] were substantially higher than the direct non-medical expenditure [901.40 yuan (RMB)].It was found that the hospitalization expenses was highest in direct medical expenditure and the transportation expenses was highest in direct non-medical expenditures.Among the average indirect expenditure,the loss of income for the patients [3 832.50 yuan (RMB)] was higher than that for the caregivers [927.20 yuan (RMB)],The total direct and indirect expenditure was highest for liver transplantation,followed by severe hepatitis,hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis,acute hepatitis B,compensated cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B.The influencing factors for both direct and indirect expenditure were high hospital level,severity of hepatitis B,living in urban area,antiviral therapy,long hospitalization and monthly income of family.For average 3.74 outpatient visits and 1.51 hospitalization,the average annual direct,indirect and intangible expenditure for HB-related diseases were 30 135.30,6 253.80 and 44 729.90 yuan (RMB) [totally 81 119.00 yuan (RMB)],accounting for 37.3%,7.7% and 55.0%,respectively.Of the annual direct medical expenditure [28 402.80 yuan (RMB)],which were much higher than non-medical expenditure [1 732.50 yuan (RMB)],hospitalization expenditure [26 074.20 yuan (RMB)] was higher than outpatient visit expenditure [4 061.10 yuan (RMB)].The annual indirect expenditures for outpatient visit and hospitalization were 763.60 and 5 490.10 yuan (RMB),respectively.Of the annual intangible expenditure,the highest was that for/primary hepatocellular carcinoma,followed by cirrhosis,chronic hepatitis B,severe hepatitis B,liver transplantation and acute hepatitis B.Conclusions A heavy economic burden has been caused by HB-related diseases in China,and patients are more likely to rely on medical service rather than non-medical service.It is necessary to take effective treatment measures to prevent the adverse outcome of HB related diseases and achieve significant economic benefits.The influence of HB related diseases on mental health of the people can be reflected by an economics term,intangible expenditure.

15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1156-1160, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736326

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the antibody persistence 5 years after primary immunization with 5 μg and 10 μg recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among newborns with normal and high response.Methods Newborns who completed three doses of 5 μ g HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Saccharomyces (HepB-SC) or 10 μg HepB made by recombinant dexyribonucleic acid technique in Hansenula polymorpha (HepB-HP) were recruited.Standardized questionnaire was used and blood samples were collected 1-6 months (T0) and five years (T1) after the third dose respectively.The titer of anti-HBs was detected by chemiluminescence microparticle imunoassay (CMIA).Those who achieved normal or high antibody response (anti-HBs titer ≥100 mIU/ml) were included in the study and the positive rate (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and titer of anti-HBs at T1 were compared between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group.Multivariable analysis was conducted to identify the independent factors associated with the antibody persistence.Results The positive rate of anti-HBs at T1 was 49.92% (943/1 883) and 75.92% (1 135/1 495) respectively in 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group,the difference was significant (x2=237.75,P<0.001).The anti-IBs geometric mean concentrations at T1 were 10.23 mIU/ml (95%CI:9.38-11.16) and 28.91 mIU/ml (95%CI:26.65-31.35) in the two groups respectively,the difference was also significant (F=280.36,P<0.001).Among those whose anti-HBs titer was < 10 mIU/ml at T1,the distributions of anti-HBs titer were significantly different between 5 μg HepB group and 10 μg HepB group (x2=39.75,P< 0.001).The multivariable analysis showed that dosage of HepB was independently associated with both positive rate and titer of anti-HBs at T1 after excluding the other factors [P<0.001,OR=1.44(95% CI:1.20-1.73);P<0.001,β =0.27 (95% CI:0.14-0.40)].Conclusion Five year anti-HBs persistence after primary immunization with 10 μg HepB might be better than that after primary immunization with 5 μg HepB among infants who achieved normal or high anti-HBs response after primary HepB immunization.

16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 868-876, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-736270

ABSTRACT

Objective Less surveys on the economic burden of hepatitis B (HB)-related diseases have been conducted in China,so the socioeconomic harm caused by the diseases is not clear and the key parameters for economic evaluation of hepatitis B prevention and treatment are lacking.This study aimed to analyze the direct,indirect and intangible expenditures of hospitalized patients with HB-related diseases during hospitalization and during a year in different areas of China.Methods The hospitals for infectious diseases and the large general hospitals in 12 areas in China were selected in the study.All the inpatients with HB-related diseases were surveyed by cluster sampling of consecutive cases.The direct expenditure included direct medical cost and direct non-medical cost.The indirect expenditure,including work loss of patients and caregivers,were calculated by using human capital method for urban and rural populations in 12 areas.The intangible expenditure were reflected by willing to pay and stochastic tournament.The influencing factors of direct and indirect costs were identified by stepwise linear multi-variation regression analysis.Results A total of 27 hospitals in 12 areas were included in the survey.A total of 4 718 cases were surveyed,the overall response rate was 77.7%.The average hospital stay was 29.2 days (27-34) and the hospitalization expenditure was averagely 16 832.80 yuan (RMB) per case,in which the highest proportion (61.2%)was medicine fees [10 365.10 yuan (RMB)].The average direct expenditure and indirect expenditure were consistent with the severity of illness,which were 18 336.10 yuan (RMB) and 4 759.60 yuan (RMB) respectively,with the ratio of 3.85:1.The direct medical expenditure [17 434.70 yuan (RMB)] were substantially higher than the direct non-medical expenditure [901.40 yuan (RMB)].It was found that the hospitalization expenses was highest in direct medical expenditure and the transportation expenses was highest in direct non-medical expenditures.Among the average indirect expenditure,the loss of income for the patients [3 832.50 yuan (RMB)] was higher than that for the caregivers [927.20 yuan (RMB)],The total direct and indirect expenditure was highest for liver transplantation,followed by severe hepatitis,hepatocellular carcinoma and decompensated cirrhosis,acute hepatitis B,compensated cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis B.The influencing factors for both direct and indirect expenditure were high hospital level,severity of hepatitis B,living in urban area,antiviral therapy,long hospitalization and monthly income of family.For average 3.74 outpatient visits and 1.51 hospitalization,the average annual direct,indirect and intangible expenditure for HB-related diseases were 30 135.30,6 253.80 and 44 729.90 yuan (RMB) [totally 81 119.00 yuan (RMB)],accounting for 37.3%,7.7% and 55.0%,respectively.Of the annual direct medical expenditure [28 402.80 yuan (RMB)],which were much higher than non-medical expenditure [1 732.50 yuan (RMB)],hospitalization expenditure [26 074.20 yuan (RMB)] was higher than outpatient visit expenditure [4 061.10 yuan (RMB)].The annual indirect expenditures for outpatient visit and hospitalization were 763.60 and 5 490.10 yuan (RMB),respectively.Of the annual intangible expenditure,the highest was that for/primary hepatocellular carcinoma,followed by cirrhosis,chronic hepatitis B,severe hepatitis B,liver transplantation and acute hepatitis B.Conclusions A heavy economic burden has been caused by HB-related diseases in China,and patients are more likely to rely on medical service rather than non-medical service.It is necessary to take effective treatment measures to prevent the adverse outcome of HB related diseases and achieve significant economic benefits.The influence of HB related diseases on mental health of the people can be reflected by an economics term,intangible expenditure.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-809057

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the sero-epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Shandong province, and thereby to provide evidence for the policy-making of hepatitis E prevention and control.@*Methods@#The inhabitants aged between 1-59 years old were randomly selected to participate in the study by two-stage stratified random sampling method from 12 counties in Shandong province in October, 2014. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. A total of 5 229 participants aged 1-59 years old were selected by stratified random sampling method. All the participants finished a questionnaire survey and a venous blood sample (3-5 ml) was collected from each to test anti-HEV IgG by enzyme-linked assay (ELISA). The weighted prevalence of anti-HEV IgG with different demographic characteristics was estimated. The variance of the positive rate of anti-HEV IgG was calculated by Taylor series linearization method, as well as its 95%CI. A statistical test was conducted to compare the rate of its 95%CI, and the results in the present study were compared with those in sero-survey in 2006.@*Results@#A total of 5 229 subjects entered the final analysis in 2014. The overall weighed prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 9.19% (95%CI: 6.18%-12.20%) among natural population in Shandong province, decreased by 19.88% in comparison with that in 2006 sero-survey (11.47%, 95%CI: 8.92%-14.02%). The prevalence increased with age increasing (χ2trend=288.11, P<0.001) in 2014, which was similar to the result in 2006 sero-survey. Except for 1-4 years old group, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in the other age groups were lower than it in the corresponding groups in 2006. The prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in urban (8.19%, 95%CI: 0.00-22.23%), rural areas (9.69%, 95%CI: 4.99%-14.38%), eastern areas (12.70%, 95%CI: 0.00-27.72%), central areas (4.74%, 95%CI: 0.00-9.91%) and western areas (9.32%, 95%CI: 0.69%-17.94%) in 2014 were all lower than the corresponding prevalences (11.39%, 95%CI: 8.17%-14.62%; 11.92%, 95%CI: 8.75%-15.08%; 22.77%, 95%CI: 14.99%-30.55%; 7.97%, 95%CI: 4.75%-11.20%; 10.59%, 95%CI: 6.37%-14.82%) in 2006 survey. The prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in coastal areas (16.56%, 95%CI: 12.94%-20.18%) and inland areas (7.63%, 95%CI: 5.16%-10.10%) in 2014 were lower than it in the corresponding areas (28.04%, 95%CI: 20.45%-35.64%; 9.50%, 95%CI: 7.31%-11.70%) in 2006 survey. The prevalence among peasant (11.98%, 95%CI: 8.20%-15.76%), worker (9.68%, 95%CI: 4.48%-14.88%), cadre (13.90%, 95%CI: 7.47%-20.33%), service provider (12.26%, 95%CI: 1.80%-22.73%) in 2014 survey were lower than it among the corresponding populations (13.76%, 95%CI: 10.15%-17.38%; 21.11%, 95%CI: 12.67%-29.55%; 17.81%, 95%CI: 7.63%-28.00%; 21.08%, 95%CI: 0.03%-42.12%) in 2006 survey.@*Conclusion@#The prevalence of anti-HEV IgG has decreased in Shandong province in the recent years, but the epidemiological characteristics found no obvious changes. HEV susceptibility in natural population was generally high. Hepatitis E vaccines were recommended to be used in HEV high-risk population in the province.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808927

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Assess the 4-year antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) persistence after revaccination with 3-dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) among low-responder infants following primary vaccination.@*Methods@#According to stratified cluster sampling, a total of 4 147 infants were enrolled and primarily vaccinated with 5 μg HepB derived in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (HepB-SC) at 0-1-6 months schedule from 75 towns of Jinan, Weifang, Yantai, Weihai prefectures, Shandong Province, China in Aug and Sep 2009. Blood samples were collected one to six months after the third dose of primary immunization and tested for anti-HBs using chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). 717 infants who appeared low response (10 mU/ml ≤ anti-HBs<100 mU/ml) were revaccinated with 3-dose of HepB. Blood samples were collected from a total of 315 infants one month (T0), four years (T1) after revaccination and anti-HBs, antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were detected by CMIA. Information about their birth, primary vaccination were collected. The risk factors associated with positive rate of anti-HBs and GMC of anti-HBs were identified by multiple non-conditional logistic regression analysis and multifactor linear regression model analysis, respectively.@*Results@#Among 315 children, 165 (52.38%) were male and 150 (47.62%) were female. The positive rate was 83.81% (264/315) at T0 and it decreased to 16.51% (149/529) at T1. The corresponding GMC decreased from 473.15 mU/ml to 17.37 mU/ml. The average annual decreasing rate of positive rate and GMC was 33.38% and 56.23% from T0 to T1. Multivariable analysis showed the positive rate and GMC among those whose anti-HBs titer higher at T0 were significantly higher at T1. The positive rate at T1 among those whose anti-HBs titer 400-<600, 600-<800, 800-<1 000, ≥1 000 mU/ml at T0 were significantly higher than those whose anti-HBs titer less than 200 mU/ml. The OR (95%CI) of the positive rate was 4.29 (1.03-17.84), 4.53 (1.25-16.47), 4.19 (1.10-15.97) and 9.13 (2.91-28.63), respectively. The GMC at T1 among those whose anti-HBs titer 400-<600, 600-<800, 800-<1 000 mU/ml and those whose anti-HBs titer ≥1 000 mU/ml at T0 were higher than those whose anti-HBs titer<200 mU/ml. The b value (95% CI) of GMC was 0.84 (0.06-1.62), 1.13 (0.46-1.79), 1.33 (0.65-2.01) and 1.88 (1.33-2.44), respectively. GMC among full-term infants were significantly higher than premature infants at T1. The b value (95% CI) of GMC was 0.86 (0.04-1.68).@*Conclusion@#Anti-HBs GMC decreased rapidly 4 years after revaccination among low-responder infants, but still kept good protection. The anti-HBs persistence after revaccination was associated with anti-HBs level of titer one month after revaccination.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808925

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate prevalence of hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV IgG) among population covered by different hepatitis A vaccine immunization strategies in Shandong Province in 2015.@*Methods@#In October 2015, according to the geographical location of Shandong Province, the stratified random sampling method was used to stratify the 17 municipal distrcts, and the random number table method was used for sampling, First, two eastern cites (Qingdao, Rizhao), two western cities (Liaocheng, Zaozhuang) and three central cities (Jinan, Zibo and Laiwu) were selected; secondly, one county was drawn from each city. Finally, the participants were divided into five age groups including ≤7 years (age group covered by free hepatitis A vaccination strategy), 8-11 years (age group who receive hepatitis A vaccination at their own charge), 12-24 years (age group covered by catch-up vaccination of hepatitis A), 25-34 years (age group born before hepatitis A vaccine was used) and ≥35 years (age group born before hepatitis A vaccine was used). After all the paticipants or their guardians asked and registered basic information such as age, gender, home address, blood samples were collected from them and anti-HAV IgG was detected by ELISA method. The positive rate of anti-HAV IgG and 95%CI were calculated.@*Results@#A total of 1 654 participants were involved in the final analysis, including 856 males (51.75%) and 798 females (48.25%) whose mean age was (13.44±13.06) years. The crude positive rate of anti-HAV IgG was 91.41% (1 512/1 654, 95%CI: 89.96%-92.72%) and the age-adjusted rate was 90.93% (95%CI: 90.92%-90.94%). The positive rates of anti-HAV IgG was at the highest level in the age group of ≤7 years (95.90%, 95%CI: 95.88%-95.91%) and was at the lowest level in the age group of 25-34 years (83.23%, 95%CI: 83.21%-83.25%). The age-specific positive rates of anti-HAV IgG in eastern areas (96.79%, 95%CI: 96.78%-96.80%) were higher than those in both middle areas (86.66%, 95%CI: 86.65%-86.67%) and western areas (91.96%, 95%CI: 91.95%-91.97%).@*Conclusion@#The positive rate of anti-HAV IgG was high among the general population in Shandong Province, but relatively low among young and middle-aged adults. Besides the routine immunization of hepatitis A among the children, more efforts should be taken for the prevention and control of hepatitis A among young and middle-aged adults in Shandong Province, especially in central and western areas.

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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808924

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To know the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, providing references to the improvement of HBV control strategy.@*Methods@#The participants were randomly selected by two-stage sampling method from 12 counties which were representative for the whole province. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. Then participants aged 1-4 years, 5-14 years, 15-29 years and 30-59 years were selected by stratified random sampling method. The women in child-bearing age (20-49 years) were involved in this study. Questionnaire survey and 5 ml blood collection were conducted among all participants. Blood samples were detected for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Those who were positive for HBsAg were further detected for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg), antibody against HBeAg (anti-HBe) and the load of HBV DNA. The basic information of the participants including age, gender, occupation, nationality and residence place were collected. The prevalence of HBV infection indicators after weight adjustment were calculated and compared between participants with different demographic characteristics.@*Results@#A total of 1 151 women in child-bearing age were involved in this study. Twenty-seven participants were positive for HBsAg and the prevalence rate was 2.10% (95% CI: 0.97%-3.23%). Five participants were positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg and the prevalence rate was 0.36% (95% CI: 0-0.84%). There were 567 and 291 participants who were positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc respectively and the corresponding prevalence rates were 47.72% (95%CI: 41.68%-53.75%) and 24.40% (95% CI: 18.50%-30.30%). The number of participants susceptible for HBV was 527 and the percentage of HBV susceptible women was 47.55% (95% CI: 41.63%-53.47%).@*Conclusion@#HBV infection among women in child-bearing age has attained very low level in Shandong Province, China. However, the high proportion of women in child-bearing age were still susceptible for HBV and hepatitis B immunization should be improved among them.

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