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1.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 26(5): e212118, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1345936

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Various surface pre-treatment methods have been adapted to optimize the bonding between the zirconia ceramics and the orthodontic brackets. Objective: This review is aimed at systematically analyzing the relevant data available in the literature, to find out the most effective and durable bonding protocol. Methods: Database search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect, during September 2020. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Results: Based on the inclusion criteria, 19 articles were selected for qualitative analysis. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of the methodology among the studies. Most of the studies scored medium risk of bias. Compared to the untreated surface, surface pretreatments like sandblasting and lasers were advantageous. Primers and universal adhesive were mostly used as an adjunct to the mechanical pretreatment of the zirconia surface. In most studies, thermocycling seemed to lower the shear bond strength (SBS) of the orthodontic brackets. Conclusion: Based on this qualitative review, surface pretreatments with lasers and sandblasting can be suggested to optimize the bracket bond strength. To clarify this finding, meta-analysis is anticipated. Hence, high heterogeneity of the included studies demands standardization of the methodology.


RESUMO Introdução: Diferentes métodos de pré-tratamento da superfície foram adaptados para otimizar a colagem entre os braquetes ortodônticos e as cerâmicas de zircônia. Objetivo: A presente revisão teve como objetivo analisar, de forma sistemática, os dados relevantes na literatura, para buscar o protocolo de colagem mais efetivo e duradouro. Métodos: As buscas foram feitas em setembro de 2020, nas seguintes bases de dados: PubMed, Scopus e ScienceDirect. A revisão foi feita de acordo com as diretrizes do PRISMA. Resultados: Com base nos critérios de inclusão, 19 artigos foram selecionados para análise qualitativa. A metanálise não pôde ser feita, devido à heterogeneidade na metodologia dos estudos incluídos. A maior parte dos estudos apresentou risco de viés moderado. Comparadas às superfícies não tratadas, as superfícies com pré-tratamento usando jateamento ou laser apresentaram vantagem. Primers e adesivos universais foram mais usados como adjuntos ao pré-tratamento mecânico da superfície de zircônia. Na maioria dos estudos, a termociclagem parece ter reduzido a resistência ao cisalhamento dos braquetes ortodônticos. Conclusões: Com base nessa revisão qualitativa, os pré-tratamentos de superfície com laser e jateamento podem ser sugeridos para otimizar a resistência ao cisalhamento dos braquetes. Para esclarecer esse achado, uma metanálise é necessária. Para isso, faz-se necessária a padronização da metodologia, para lidar com a alta heterogeneidade dos estudos incluídos.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Brackets , Zirconium , Ceramics/chemistry , Shear Strength
2.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143397

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic and clinic-pathological risk factors with oral cancer in Kelantan, Malaysia. Material and Methods: A 19-year cross-sectional survey was performed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Malaysia. Medical record of 301 oral cancer patients was retrieved from the Medical Records office. Results: The majority of the oral cancer cases were male (62.8%), non-smokers (57.5%), non-alcohol consumers (83.4%), non-betel quid chewers (96.7%), and belonged to Malay ethnicity (68.8%). At the time of diagnosis, most of the patients were at stage II (38.9%). Approximately one-third (30.6%) of the total OC patients experienced loco-regional/distant metastasis, whereas no metastasis was detected in around two-thirds of cases (69.4%). A combination of surgery and radiotherapy was the most commonly employed treatment modality (27.2%). At the time of this study, the survival status of most of the patients was alive (69.1%). The most frequently encountered oral cancer in the Kelantanese population was oral squamous cell carcinoma (70.1%), with the tongue being the most frequently involved oral cavity site (35.5%). Conclusion: More than three-fourths of the cases were alive at follow-up, which included the cases that did not undergo any form of treatment.


Subject(s)
Mouth Neoplasms/pathology , Salivary Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Tongue Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Risk Factors , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/pathology , Malaysia/epidemiology
3.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351205

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the cephalometric (Ceph.) norm by Ceph. for orthognathic surgery (COGS) analysis for Saudi population. Material and Methods: 500 adult Saudi samples (250 males and 250 females) with the age range of 18-30 years old were selected for this study. The selections of samples were based on a normal occlusal relationship, no history of facial trauma and no previous orthodontic treatment. Lateral Ceph. radiographs were tracing by CASSOS software and analyzed by SPSS software according to COGS analysis. Results: Significant differences were showed between the Saudi males and females on most of the Ceph. parameters. The Saudi males had a convex facial profile with chin prominent and more bimaxillary protrusion, upper and lower lip protrusion than the Saudi females. Conclusion: This study evaluated the craniofacial morphological difference between the male and the female population in Saudi Arabia by using COGS analysis. The finding of this study will help for better diagnosis of orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment planning and identify the morphological facial characteristics of Saudi patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Orthodontics , Saudi Arabia , Cephalometry/instrumentation , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/instrumentation , Orthognathic Surgery/instrumentation , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Data Interpretation, Statistical
4.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346679

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of oil pulling in the management of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF). Material and Methods: A total of 62 patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as OSMF were incorporated in the present study. The subjects are randomly divided equally into two groups, Group A (oil pulling group) and Group B (placebo group). Subjects in Group A were asked to perform OP with sesame oil on an empty stomach in the morning for 3 months and Group B was given placebo capsules for 3 months. Assessment of various clinical parameters was done regularly, and data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: Eighty-two percent had a habit of betel nut chewing, while 18% of the patients had tobacco chewing habits, which were among the main causative factors for OSMF. Clinical improvements in mouth opening, tongue protrusion, difficulty in speech and deglutition, and burning sensation were significant in the Group A. None of the patients reported any discomfort or side effects. The symptoms were not severe in nature and resolved in few days without stopping the therapy. Conclusion: Oil pulling can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like a mouth opening and tongue protrusion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Oral Submucous Fibrosis/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Therapeutics , Effectiveness , Sesame Oil , Chi-Square Distribution , Visual Analog Scale , India/epidemiology
5.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155002

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objctive: To assess the soft tissue characteristics of Bangladeshi adults to formulate soft tissue 3D CT standards using Holdaway's (HA) and lip morphology (LM) analyses. Another aim of this study was to assess the gender dimorphism of Bangladeshi population. Material and Methods: One hundred and seventeen (Eighty-five men and Thirty-two women) Bangladeshi adults have obtained their computed tomography (CT) scan at the Radiology Department for normal diagnosis. Craniofacial deformities were undetected in all cases. The CT images were prepared by a 3D imaging programming software (Mimics 11.02 Materialise). Parameters from the identified landmark points were measured in 3D through this software. Results: Upper lip thickness (ULT) (vermillion UL-A point) measurement was significant in HA and in LM analyses, upper lip protrusion (ULP) (Ls to Sn-SPog) measurement has demonstrated significant difference among both genders, where p-value was less than 0.05. Mean measurements of Bangladeshi adults were relatively comparable except the face convexity (FC) when compared with the HA cephalometric soft tissue values. Conclusion: By using HA and LM analyses, 3D CT soft tissue standards were established for Bangladeshi adults. Measurements for all parameters have remained equivalent with the HA standard data apart from the FC measurement. This consequently may demonstrate that the Bangladeshi population retains a convex shape with a slight protrusive lip or retruded chin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Orthodontics, Corrective , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Face/diagnostic imaging , Therapy, Soft Tissue , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Sex Characteristics
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250442

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To reconnoiter the IL-1A (-889) and IL-1RN (+2018) gene polymorphisms and their association with EARR. Material and Methods: The Science Direct, PubMed and Scopus databases were comprehensively searched by two independent reviewers. In addition, the bibliographies of all relevant publications and textbooks were searched manually. A meta-analysis was performed using data available up to May 9, 2020. Results: A total of 13 and 9 publications were selected for the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively for both IL-1A and IL-1RN genes. Odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate the association of the gene polymorphism and the risk of EARR. The risk of EARR was estimated using the overall OR from the published studies. No association was found for IL-1A gene for the risk of EARR. However, the dominant and co-dominant models of IL-1RN gene polymorphism were associated with the risk of EARR. Conclusion: More studies are warranted to determine the relationship between IL-1A and IL-1RN gene polymorphisms and EARR for a clearer understanding of their interactions.


Subject(s)
Orthodontics , Polymorphism, Genetic/immunology , Root Resorption , Genetic Heterogeneity , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Interleukin-1 , Malaysia
7.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180864

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the satisfaction with the dentist-patient interaction and factors associated with patient satisfaction among patients attending the outpatient dental clinic Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 229 patients who attended outpatient dental clinic Hospital USM that located in the East Coast region of Malaysia. A self-administered Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan - 11 (SKIP-11) questionnaire was used to assess the satisfaction towards dentist-patient interaction. Systematic random sampling was applied in this study. The data were analyzed using simple logistic regression analysis to determine the factors associated with patient satisfaction with dentist-patient interaction. Results: The mean age of patients was 32.6 ± 13.9 years, 71.6% of them study up to tertiary level, 31.5% came to for dental check up and 23.6% of them had tooth decay. More than half (64.6%) of the patients were satisfactory with dentist-patient interaction. The satisfaction percentage in the distress relief domain was 60.7%, 56.8% in the rapport domain, and 53.7% in the interaction outcome domain. Satisfaction with dentist-patient interaction was significantly associated with the dentists' characteristics such as age (OR = 0.583, 95%CI 0.44-0.76, p=0.001), gender (OR = 0.386, 95% CI 0.22-0.69, p=0.001) and years of service (OR = 0.294, 95% CI 0.15-0.57, p=0.001). Conclusion: The result showed that slightly more than half of the patients who attended the outpatient dental clinic HUSM were satisfied with the dentist-patient interaction, which was found to be influenced by the characteristics of the dentists. Efforts to improve patient-dentist interaction are recommended to ensure delivery of good quality oral health care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Personal Satisfaction , Professional-Patient Relations , Patient Satisfaction , Dental Clinics , Malaysia/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dentists
8.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180863

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effect of pain and swelling related to third molars on patients' quality of life prior to third molar surgery. Material and Methods: The effects on quality of life with reference to oral health of 246 healthy patients seeking treatment of third molars were analyzed using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) questionnaire before surgery. The patients' sociodemographic characteristics, medical and dental history, reasons for third molar removal were recorded. Adverse effects of pain and swelling on oral health-related quality of life were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients included in the study was 23.15 years, with maximum male patients and the mean OHIP-14 score of 8.01 ± 7.51. About 36.97% of patients reported that their chief complaint was pain/swelling due to third molar infection, and 27.9% of subjects reported one or more of the 14 OHIP items. The odds of reporting for age with ≥25 years was approximately 2 times greater than age with ≤25 years (OR=1.56, 95% CI: 1.01-2.57) and tooth loss due to traumatic history (OR=3.14, 95% CI: 2.12-6.54). Conclusion: Adverse influences on quality of life were seen in a significant number of patients seeking third molar removal. The probabilities increased by 3-fold for patients who had experienced pain or swelling than asymptomatic individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Surgery, Oral/instrumentation , Oral Health , Molar, Third/surgery , Logistic Models , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180853

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate dental age assessment reliability through Tooth Coronal Index (TCI) method. Material and Methods: The cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 160 individuals aged between 20-70 years were analyzed in the present study. The height of the crown, i.e., coronal height, and the height of the coronal pulp cavity, i.e., coronal pulp cavity height, of mandibular second premolars and first molars were calculated and then TCI was measured. The actual age of a subject was compared with TCI of tooth and the acquired data were subjected to Pearson's correlation and unpaired t-tests. Results: Negative correlation was observed between the real age and TCI of mandibular first molar (r = -0.094, p=0.382) and second premolar (r = -0.176, p=0.0961. Statistically significant difference was observed between actual age and TCI for mandibular second premolar and first molar (p<0.001). Conclusion: Tooth coronal index has the potential to estimate age of an individual on CBCT scans. It is simple, cost-effective than histological methods and can be applied to both living and unknown dead.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Age Determination by Skeleton , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/instrumentation , Bicuspid/anatomy & histology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Molar/anatomy & histology
10.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155014

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the effect of sprue design on the marginal accuracy of the casting. Material and Methods: It was an experimental in-vitro study. There are forty-four crowns of single sprue group with a forty-four double sprue group that was compared in 6 different locations of the margin. The sections were inspected under a microscope at 50X magnification and took a micrograph. The radius from an actual casting edge to a possibly excellent margin was then documented as marginal discrepancy (d), in µm. The marginal discrepancy was documented for each of the six sections per casting. Thus 264 sections were measured for each group. Data were analysed using (ANOVA) for analysis of variance. For bivariate analyses, Chi-square and Student t test were used. The significance level was set at < 0.05. Results: The marginal discrepancy was greater in the single sprue group of cast crown (43.1 ± 4.74 µm) and in double sprue group of cast crown was less (25.7 ± 4.25 µm). This difference is statistically significant (p<0.05). The correlation between single sprue group of casting with a double sprue group of casting by student's t-test where determination height was 95%. Conclusion: Double sprue design produces a higher accurate margin than single sprue design in the nickel-chromium alloy cast crown.


Subject(s)
Chromium Alloys , Crowns , Dental Alloys , Dental Casting Investment , Dental Materials , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Chi-Square Distribution , Analysis of Variance , Nickel
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and gender-wise distribution of peg-shaped maxillary permanent lateral incisors among populations in Saudi Arabia representing different geographical locations (Saudi, Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Philippine, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh). Material and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 9945 patients attending outpatient university dental clinics of College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia between February 2014 and January 2018 were collected from the archives randomly. Two calibrated investigators examined the data, which were collected from the dental radiology department archives with prior permission from the authorities. The anomalies of maxillary lateral incisors (right and left) were investigated. Results: Among all geographic locations, the prevalence of peg laterals was more in males in comparison to females except in Pakistani and Philippine populations. Among the Saudi population, peg laterals' prevalence was more in case of right lateral incisor than the left incisor. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of peg laterals was found in Saudi. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of peg laterals was found in Saudi region, followed by Egypt. Among all geographic locations, the prevalence of peg laterals was higher in males than females except for Pakistan and Philippines populations. Among Saudi population prevalence of peg laterals was found to be higher in case of right lateral incisor when compared to the left.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Tooth Abnormalities/pathology , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Radiography, Panoramic/instrumentation , Epidemiology , Incisor/anatomy & histology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135529

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To build an exponential regression model based on parameter estimation. Material and Methods: We developed a simple mathematical model to simulate the growth of bacteria and the exponential growth is often used to model population growth as such cell growth while the exponential decay is portraying a declining or decreases in the size of the population. An exponential regression method was used to fit the data and estimate growth parameter values Streptococcus sobrinus using statistical software SPSS version 20. Results: Based on the results of the parameter estimates, which is constant are 83.039 and b1 is 0.005 while R-square is 0.952. According to the R-Square results obtained, the model is good and appropriate. Conclusion: The model can be used to find the potential biological parameters, which may be able to predict the treatment outcome. This study helps researchers to understand the specific growth rate(s), which can be used to best grow the organism.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Regression Analysis , Streptococcus sobrinus , Viridans Streptococci , Models, Theoretical , Malaysia/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135506

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction and whether the impacted canine cases have had a potentially good or poor prognosis if interceptive treatment was practiced at earlier ages. Material and Methods: 1755 panoramic radiographs of patients, aged 13 to 60 years, attending the University of Babylon, College of Dentistry for the period from November 2016 to July 2018 were collected and assessed for the presence of impacted maxillary canines. Subsequently, four suggested prognostic factors for each impacted canine were analyzed and recorded. Results: The prevalence of maxillary canine impaction was 119 (6.78%) with 89 unilateral impaction and 30 bilateral impaction resulting in a total of 149 impacted canines. Regarding the gender, impaction was more evident in females 70 than in males 49 with no statistical significant difference. For the side, impaction was more prevalent on the left (77) than on the right (72), also with no statistical difference (p>0.05). Following the analysis of the four prognostic factors, most of the cases, 117 (78.5%) had at least one prognostic factor to be poor. Although 82 (55%) of the cases had at least one prognostic factor to be good, only 4 had all the prognostic factors to be good. Conclusion: Although the cases that had a potentially good prognosis were little (4 cases), interceptive extraction of primary canines would mostly be beneficial for these patients as it will minimize the treatment time, cost and complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Orthodontics, Interceptive , Tooth, Impacted/etiology , Radiography, Panoramic/instrumentation , Cuspid/anatomy & histology , Iraq/epidemiology , Prognosis , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Analysis of Variance
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135505

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency and characteristics of mesiodens in Indian school children. Material and Methods: 1232 radiographs of patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology of the age group of 4-15 years studied for the present retrospective study. The intraoral periapical radiographs and occlusal radiographs of the premaxilla were examined to determine the presence of mesiodens. The data regarding the presence of mesiodens, number, position, location on the arch, shape and associated complications were recorded. Results: Eleven patients had 14 mesiodens, with a frequency of 0.8%. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.2:1. Maximum mesiodens observed in the age group of 7-9 years. Most of the mesiodens were conical in shape and found on the palatal side. Fifty percent of the mesiodens were unerupted. The majority of patients (57.1%) had vertically positioned mesiodens. Midline diastema was the most common complication due to mesiodens (66.7%). Conclusion: Routine check-up during the primary dentition and mixed dentition stages helps for early detection of mesiodens and thus preventing complications. Early identification is useful for planning comprehensive management, initiating proper consultation and referral for evaluation and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tooth Abnormalities/epidemiology , Tooth, Supernumerary/epidemiology , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Retrospective Studies , India/epidemiology , Tooth, Deciduous/abnormalities , Epidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Statistics, Nonparametric
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135489

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare colony forming unit (CFU) of oral bacterial from buccal mucosa and lingual buccal tongue among patients with a dental implant and normal oral hygiene individuals without a dental implant. Material and Methods: Twenty-six individuals with a dental implant and twenty-six individuals without dental implants were included in this study. The samples were sent to the laboratory to culture with Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI), prepared serial dilution and then spread to the blood agar. CFU was counted when a single layer of bacteria is formed on the blood agar at any dilution level. An independent-T test was used to compare the means different of CFU oral bacterial between control and test groups from buccal mucosa and lingual buccal mucosa, respectively. Results: Buccal mucosa control group (186.19 ± 5.61) and test group (186.65 ± 6.24) (p>0.05). The result from the lingual buccal tongue control group (198.38 ± 6.12) and test group (197.96 ± 6.50) (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between the control group and test group CFU bacterial load. Conclusion: The presence of implants in the oral cavity do not interfere or worsen the oral condition; nevertheless, the effect of implants surrounding oral flora is similar to natural teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Oral Hygiene/education , Bacteria , Dental Implants , Dental Materials , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Tongue , Control Groups , Statistics, Nonparametric , Agar , Bacterial Load , Malaysia/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135567

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) for post-treated fixed dental prostheses in selected sample of patients. Material and Methods: 120 patients treated with fixed dental prostheses, either single crowns or fixed partial dentures in maxillary or mandibular arches were asked to express their views about their quality of life. Patients' files were randomly selected from the archives of Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, a self-structured questionnaire was prepared and their responses recorded. The responses were categorized on a 5 point scale and frequencies calculated. Results: Of 120 patients approached, 79 responded with the mean age group of 37 years. From the survey, it was noted that only three variables were statistically significant, those relating to the importance of natural teeth over fixed prostheses (p=0.046), the ability to chew all kinds of foods (p=0.021) and satisfaction with the occlusion (p<0.001). Conclusion: Oral health remains important, which directly or indirectly is related to many systemic diseases. In the present study, the majority of patients were satisfied with the treatment given.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Personal Satisfaction , Quality of Life/psychology , Oral Health/education , Dental Prosthesis , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135560

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To compare the amount of mercury in new and old dental amalgam restorations. Material and Methods: This study analyzed twenty samples of dental amalgam restorations, dividing into two groups. Group 1 consisted of samples of new dental amalgam restoration (n=10) and group 2 consisted of samples of old dental amalgam restoration (5-years old) (n=10). In each group, the mercury involved in the dental amalgam restoration was calculated using the cloud point extraction (CPE) method. The new dental amalgam restorations are taken from the patients' mouth after condensation and analyzed directly after setting. The old dental amalgam restorations are removed from the patients' mouth, after 5 years of use by the patients, and then they are analyzed. The independent-samples t-test was used to analyze the differences (p<0.05). Results: For new amalgam restorations, the mean of mercury was 0.1281 µg/mL, while for old restorations it was 0.1029 µg/mL. There was a significant difference between the new and old amalgam restorations in the amount of mercury available (p<0.001). Conclusion: There is a significant loss of mercury over a five years period in the patient mouth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Amalgam , Dental Materials , Mercury , Iraq
18.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To identify the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: Literature search for the present study aimed to include all the relevant studies conducted in Saudi Arabia that reported prevalence of dental fluorosis. A literature search was done using keywords (dental, fluorosis, prevalence) using three databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science). Grey literature was also searched using Google Scholar and research gate. Literature was searched from 1939 till April 2020. The risk of bias was reported using JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data. Twelve studies were included based on inclusive criteria. The only inclusive criteria were studies that were conducted among people living in Saudi Arabia, and studies that reported the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Samples from all age groups that reported prevalence of dental fluorosis were included. MedCalc statistical software was used to perform the analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 46.52%, 95 CI (26.52% to 67.12%). I2 value was reported 99.8%, 95 CI (99.78% to 99.83%), indicating high heterogeneity amongst the finding of studies. Funnel plots indicate the presence of a strong publication bias. Overall, we found some contrasting findings. One study reported prevalence of dental fluorosis as 0% and other with a comparatively large sample size found dental fluorosis to be 90.6%. Conclusion: The present study adds to the literature regarding dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia by providing an overview of its prevalence. It is concluded that prevalence of dental fluorosis was a bit high. However, findings indicate publication bias. We did not account for severity of dental fluorosis. All the available data was analyzed to measure dental fluorosis prevalence without considering the sample size and sampling technique.


Subject(s)
Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gray Literature , Fluorosis, Dental/prevention & control , Epidemiology , Data Interpretation, Statistical
19.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135544

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To obtain the standardized values of individuals of Malaysian Malay and Chinese for further relevant research, such as treatment planning and aesthetical considerations. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, 440 (305 were Malays and 135 were Chinese) standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontic patients selected through simple random sampling are profiled using Holdaway's analysis. The independent t-test was used to assess the disparities in race and gender. The significant level was p<0.05. Results: Significant differences were found between the Malays and Chinese in their skeletal profile convexity, superior sulcus depth, inferior sulcus to the H line and nose prominence. Between Malay females and males, there are significant differences in superior sulcus depth, soft tissue subnasale to H line, basic upper lip thickness, upper lip thickness and nose prominence. Between Chinese males and females, there were differences in their skeletal profile convexity, upper lip to H line, basic upper lip thickness and upper lip thickness. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated the difference between standardized norms and the unique profiles of Malaysian Malays and Chinese. There are significant gender disparities in the soft tissue cephalometric measurements among Malaysian Malay and Chinese subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontics , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/instrumentation , China , Cephalometry/instrumentation , Lip , Malaysia , Retrospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Asians
20.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135541

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the cephalometric norm for Saudi sample by Ricketts analysis (RA). Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cephalometric radiographs were taken for 500 samples. The subjects included 250 males and 250 females. The ages of the subjects ranged from 18-30years. The criteria of selection were based on Class I incisor relationship, no skeletal abnormality and no previous orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken, traced and digitized by SPSS software, according to RA. An independent t-test was used to test the level of significance between genders. Results: Significant disparities found between Saudi males and females in dental and soft tissue measurements. The result showed that the distal position of the maxillary first molar to pterygoid vertical plane (U6 to Ptv) measurement was highly significantly greater (p<0.001) in Saudi males than females. Lower incisor to A-Pog (L1 to A-Pog) and lower lip to E plane was significantly longer (p<0.05) in Saudi males than females. Other measurements had no significant difference between Saudi males and females. Conclusion: The craniofacial morphology of the Saudi males was different from Saudi females using Ricketts analysis. This study will help the clinicians to diagnosis and treatment planning of orthodontic and orthognathic patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Cephalometry/instrumentation , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/instrumentation , Incisor , Molar , Orthodontics , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Malaysia
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