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1.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 401-409, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000112

ABSTRACT

Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression and of several psychiatric disorders. Anhedonia has however expanded from its original definition to encompass a spectrum of reward processing deficits that received much interest in the last decades. It is a relevant risk factor for possible suicidal behaviors, and that it may operate as an independent risk factor for suicidality apart from the episode severity. Anhedonia has also been linked to inflammation with a possible reciprocal deleterious effect on depression. Its neurophysiological bases mainly include alterations in striatal and prefrontal areas, with dopamine being the most involved neurotransmitter. Anhedonia is thought to have a significant genetic component and polygenic risk scores are a possible tool for predicting an individual’s risk for developing anhedonia.Traditional antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, showed a limited benefit on anhedonia, also considering their potential pro-anhedonic effect in some subjects. Other treatments may be more effective in treating anhedonia, such as agomelatine, vortioxetine, ketamine and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Psychotherapy is also widely supported, with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral activation both showing benefit. In conclusion, a large body of evidence suggests that anhedonia is, at least partially, independent from depression, therefore it needs careful assessment and targeted treatment.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 46-52, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874496

ABSTRACT

Objective@#The genetic background of mood disorders is gradually emerging through the use of large multicenter samples but a detailed phenotyping is complementary in elucidating the role of modulating variants. @*Methods@#In the present paper we focused on the possible modulatory effects of ARC gene variants on two independent mood disorder samples of European (n = 246 bipolar disorder) and Korean (n = 132 bipolar disorder; n = 242 major depressive disorder [MDD]) ancestry. @*Results@#No result survived Bonferroni correction, however we evidenced promising trend toward possible association between ARC gene variants and mood disorder phenotypes. In particular, we evidenced weak correlations of ARC single nucleotide polymorphisms with depressive symptoms severity (evaluated through Hamilton depression rating scale scores) in the MDD Korean (rs7465272) and European (rs11167152) samples. Additionally rs10110456 was found to be related to Family History, while rs7465272 was related to suicide risk in the Korean sample. Finally, rs7465272 was associated with body mass index in the European sample. @*Conclusion@#Overall, ARC gene variants may have a partial role in modulatory effect on treatment efficacy or phenotypes of mood disorders. Further studies, on larger samples may provide a better understanding on the role of ARC gene variants in the symptom severity and treatment outcomes in patients with mood disorders.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 160-165, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874483

ABSTRACT

Objective@#We report the results of pharmacogenomics-based antidepressant treatment (PGXt) results in treating treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (TRD) patients in real practice. @*Methods@#Nine patients were prescribed NeuropharmagenⓇ for selection of antidepressants for individual patient and their clinical outcomes were followed. @*Results@#After treatment by PGXt results from current antidepressants, substantial reduction of depressive symptoms was observed at some point and maintained during observation period in six patients. @*Conclusion@#Our case series potentially shows the clinical utility and benefit of PGXt for treatment of TRD patients.

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 484-492, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832091

ABSTRACT

Depression is the single largest contributor to non-fatal health loss and affects 322 million people globally. The clinical heterogeneity of this disorder shows biological correlates and it makes the personalization of antidepressant prescription an important pillar of treatment. There is increasing evidence of genetic overlap between depression, other psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders, which varies across depression subtypes. Therefore, the first step of clinical evaluation should include a careful assessment of psychopathology and physical health, not limited to previously diagnosed disorders. In part of the patients indeed the pathogenesis of depression may be strictly linked to inflammatory and metabolic abnormalities, and the treatment should target these as much as the depressive symptoms themselves. When the evaluation of the symptom and drug tolerability profile, the concomitant biochemical abnormalities and physical conditions is not enough and at least one pharmacotherapy failed, the genotyping of variants in CYP2D6 /CYP2C19 (cytochromes responsible for antidepressant metabolism) should be considered. Individuals with altered metabolism through one of these enzymes may benefit from some antidepressants rather than others or need dose adjustments.Finally, if available, the polygenic predisposition towards cardio-metabolic disorders can be integrated with non-genetic risk factors to tune the identification of patients who should avoid medications associated with this type of side effects.A sufficient knowledge of the polygenic risk of complex medical and psychiatric conditions is becoming relevant as this information can be obtained through direct-to-consumer genetic tests and in the future it may provided by national health care systems.

5.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 231-240, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832067

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Genetic variations in the gene encoding zinc finger protein 804A gene (ZNF804A) have been associated with major depression and bipolar disorder. In this work we focused on the potential influence of ZNF804A variations on the risk of developing specific sub-phenotypes as well as the individual response to available treatments. @*Methods@#We used two samples of different ethnic origin: a Korean sample, composed by 242 patients diagnosed with major depression and 132 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 326 healthy controls; an Italian sample composed 151 major depression subjects, 189 bipolar disorder subjects and 38 outpatients diagnosed for a primary anxiety disorder. @*Results@#Our analyses reported an association of rs1344706 with psychotic phenotype in the cross-diagnostic pooled sample (geno p = 4.15 × 10−4, allelic p = 1.06 × 10−4). In the cross-diagnosis Italian sample but not in the Korean one, rs7597593 was involved with depressive symptoms improvement after treatment (geno p = 0.025, allelic p = 0.007). @*Conclusion@#The present study evidenced the role of ZNF804A alterations in symptoms improvement after treatment. Both manic and depressive symptoms seem to be modulated by ZNF804A, though the latter was observed in the bipolar pooled sample only. The role of this factor is likely related to synaptic development and maintenance; however, further analyses will be needed to better understand the molecular mechanics involved with ZNF804A.

6.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 1-9, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832054

ABSTRACT

Pharmacogenetic testing is a useful and increasingly widespread tool to assist in antidepressant prescription. More than ten antidepressants (including tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and venlafaxine) have already genetic biomarkers of response/side effects in clinical guidelines and drug labels. These are represented by functional genetic variants in genes coding for cytochrome enzymes (CYP2D6 and CYP2C19). Depending on the predicted metabolic activity, guidelines provide recommendations on drug choice and dosing. Despite not conclusive, the current evidence suggests that testing can be useful in patients who did not respond or tolerate at least one previous pharmacotherapy. However, the current recommendations are based on pharmacokinetic genes only (CYP450 enzymes), while pharmacodynamic genes (modulating antidepressant mechanisms of action in the brain) are still being studied because of their greater complexity. This may be captured by polygenic risk scores, which reflect the cumulative contribution of many genetic variants to a trait, and they may provide future clinical applications of pharmacogenetics. A more extensive use of genotyping in clinical practice may lead to improvement in treatment outcomes thanks to personalized treatments, but possible ethical issues and disparities should be taken into account and prevented.

7.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 364-368, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Genetics factors are likely to play a role in the risk, clinical presentation and treatment outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we investigated the role of three candidate genes for MDD; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C (CACNA1C), cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 7 subunit (CHRNA7), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). METHODS: Two-hundred forty-two MDD patients and 326 healthy controls of Korean ancestry served as samples for the analyses. Thirty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CACNA1C, CHRNA7, and MAPK1 genes were genotyped and subsequently tested for association with MDD (primary analysis) and other clinical features (symptoms’ severity, age of onset, history of suicide attempt, treatment outcome) (secondary analyses). Single SNPs, haplotypes and epistatic analyses were performed. RESULTS: Single SNPs were not associated with disease risk and clinical features. However, a combination of alleles (haplotype) within MAPK1 was found associated with MDD-status. Secondary analyses detected a possible involvement of CACNA1C haplotype in resistance to antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a role for MAPK1 and CACNA1C in MDD risk and treatment resistance, respectively. However, since many limitations characterize the analysis, the results must be considered with great caution and verified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Age of Onset , Alleles , Calcium , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Genetics , Haplotypes , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 , Neuronal Plasticity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Suicide , Treatment Outcome
8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 645-653, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760984

ABSTRACT

Depression leads the higher personal and socio-economical burden within psychiatric disorders. Despite the fact that over 40 antidepressants (ADs) are available, suboptimal response still poses a major challenge and is thought to be partially a result of genetic variation. Pharmacogenetics studies the effects of genetic variants on treatment outcomes with the aim of providing tailored treatments, thereby maximizing efficacy and tolerability. After two decades of pharmacogenetic research, variants in genes coding for the cytochromes involved in ADs metabolism (CYP2D6 and CYP2C19) are now considered biomarkers with sufficient scientific support for clinical application, despite the lack of conclusive cost/effectiveness evidence. The effect of variants in genes modulating ADs mechanisms of action (pharmacodynamics) is still controversial, because of the much higher complexity of ADs pharmacodynamics compared to ADs metabolism. Considerable progress has been made since the era of candidate gene studies: the genomic revolution has made possible to assess genetic variance on an unprecedented scale, throughout the whole genome, and to analyze the cumulative effect of different variants. The results have revealed key information on the biological mechanisms mediating ADs effect and identified hypothetical new pharmacological targets. They also paved the way for future availability of polygenic pharmacogenetic panels to predict treatment outcome, which are expected to explain much higher variance in ADs response compared to CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 only. As the demand and availability of AD pharmacogenetic testing is projected to increase, it is important for clinicians to keep abreast of this evolving area to facilitate informed discussions with their patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Biomarkers , Clinical Coding , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 , Cytochromes , Depression , Genetic Variation , Genome , Metabolism , Negotiating , Pharmacogenetics , Precision Medicine , Treatment Outcome
9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 469-480, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pharmacogenomic-based antidepressant treatment (PGATx) may result in more precise pharmacotherapy of major depressive disorder (MDD) with better drug therapy guidance. METHODS: An 8-week, randomized, single-blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of PGATx in 100 patients with MDD. All recruited patients were randomly allocated either to PGATx (n=52) or treatment as usual (TAU, n=48) groups. The primary endpoint was a change of total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17) from baseline to end of treatment. Response rate (at least 50% reduction in HAMD-17 score from baseline), remission rate (HAMD-17 score ≥7 at the end of treatment) as well as the change of total score of Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Ratings (FIBSER) from baseline to end of treatment were also investigated. RESULTS: The mean change of HAMD-17 score was significantly different between two groups favoring PGATx by −4.1 point of difference (p=0.010) at the end of treatment. The mean change in the FIBSER score from baseline was significantly different between two treatment groups favoring PGATx by −2.5 point of difference (p=0.028). The response rate (71.7 % vs. 43.6%, p=0.014) were also significantly higher in PGATx than in TAU at the end of treatment, while the remission rate was numerically higher in PGATx than in TAU groups without statistical difference (45.5% vs. 25.6%, p=0.071). The reason for early drop-out associated with adverse events was also numerically higher in TAU (n=9, 50.0%) than in PGATx (n=4, 30.8%). CONCLUSION: The present study clearly demonstrate that PGATx may be a better treatment option in the treatment of MDD in terms of effectiveness and tolerability; however, study shortcomings may limit a generalization. Adequately-powered, well-designed, subsequent studies should be mandatory to prove its practicability and clinical utility for routine practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Drug Therapy , Generalization, Psychological , Precision Medicine
10.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 247-249, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61679

ABSTRACT

In this study we evaluated the role of a candidate gene for major psychosis, Sialyltransferase (ST8SIA2), in the risk to develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorders, taking into account exposure to stressful life events (SLEs). Eight polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested in 94 Schizophreniainpatients and 176 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients were also evaluated for SLEs in different life periods. None of the SNPs showed association with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, when crossing genetic variants with childhood SLEs, we could observe trends of interaction with age of onset. Though several limitations, our results support a protective role of ST8SIA2 in individuals exposed to moderate childhood stress.


Subject(s)
Humans , Age of Onset , Gene-Environment Interaction , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Psychotic Disorders , Schizophrenia
11.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 118-124, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A relevant part of the social and personal burden caused by Bipolar Disorder (BD) is related to depressive phases. Authors investigated the genetic impact of a set of variations located in CRY1, a gene involved in the control of the circadian rhythms, towards depressive episodes in a sample of bipolar patients from the STEP-BD sample. As a secondary analysis, CYR1 variations were analyzed as predictors of sleep disruption. METHODS: 654 bipolar patients were included in the analysis. Data were available genome-wide. The part of the genome coding for the CRY1 was imputed and pruned according to standards in the field. 7 SNPs were available for the analysis. A correction for multitesting was applied and we had sufficient power (0.80) to detect a small-medium effect size (0.22) between two allelic frequencies each one represented by at least 300 subjects. RESULTS: Intronic rs10861688 was associated with the number of depressive events corrected for the times patients were assessed during the period of observation. In particular, AA subjects (n=21) had 4.46+/-3.15 events, AG (n=141) had 3.08+/-3.17 and GG (n=342) 2.65+/-2.97 (p=0.0048, beta=-0.22). No other significant associations were reported. CONCLUSION: We bring further evidence that genes involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms may be relevant to depressive bipolar phases. Independent confirmation analyses are mandatory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bipolar Disorder , Circadian Rhythm , Clinical Coding , Genes, vif , Genome , Introns , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Recurrence
12.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 48-52, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-167406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at exploring associations between a continuous measure of distorted thought contents and a set of demographic and clinical features in a sample of unipolar/bipolar depressed patients. METHODS: Our sample included 1,833 depressed subjects. Severity of mood symptoms was assessed by the 21 items Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D). The continuous outcome measure was represented by a delusion (DEL) factor, extracted from HAM-D items and including items: 2 ("Feelings of guilt"), 15 ("Hypochondriasis"), and 20 ("Paranoid symptoms"). Each socio-demographic and clinical variable was tested by a generalized linear model test, having depressive severity (HAM-D score-DEL score) as the covariate. RESULTS: A family history of major depressive disorder (MDD; p=0.0006), a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, type I ( p=0.0003), a comorbid general anxiety disorder (p<0.0001), and a higher number of manic episodes during lifetime (p<0.0001), were all associated to higher DEL scores. Conversely, an older age at onset (p<0.0001) and a longer duration of hospitalization for depression over lifetime (p=0.0003) had a negative impact over DEL scores. On secondary analyses, only the presence of psychotic features (p<0.0001) and depressive severity (p<0.0001) were found to be independently associated to higher DEL scores. CONCLUSION: The retrospective design and a non validated continuous measure for distorted thought contents were the main limitations of our study. Excluding the presence of psychotic features and depressive severity, no socio-demographic or clinical variable was found to be associated to our continuous measure of distorted thinking in depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety Disorders , Bipolar Disorder , Delusions , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Diagnosis , Hospitalization , Linear Models , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Psychotic Disorders , Retrospective Studies , Thinking
13.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 200-203, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225626

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present work is to investigate the existence of epistatic interactions possibly influencing psychotropic agents' response between rs6740584 within Cyclic adenosine monophosphate Response Element Binding (CREB) and rs12775799 within cAMP response element-modulator (CREM) variants in bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). All BD and MDD patients were administered with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline and at endpoint, respectively. A multiple regression model was employed to investigate the existence of possible epistatic interactions between the two variants and diverse clinical factors including drug response in affective disorders. No significant epistatic interaction was observed between rs6740584 within CREB and rs12775799 within CREM on both symptom improvement and other clinical factors in affective disorders. Our preliminary results suggest that no epistatic interaction between rs6740584 within CREB and rs12775799 within CREM should exist on clinical improvement and clinical factors in affective disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenosine Monophosphate , Bipolar Disorder , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mood Disorders , Response Elements
14.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 481-486, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114483

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore whether 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the AHI1 gene could be associated with major depressive disorder (MD) and bipolar disorder (BD), and whether they could predict clinical outcomes in mood disorders. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-four (184) patients with MD, 170 patients with BD and 170 healthy controls were genotyped for 4 AHI1 SNPs (rs11154801, rs7750586, rs9647635 and rs9321501). Baseline and final clinical measures for MD patients were assessed through the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). Allelic and genotypic frequencies in MD and BD subjects were compared with those of each disorder and healthy group using the chi2 statistics. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to test possible influences of SNPs on treatment efficacy. RESULTS: The rs9647635 A/A was more represented in subjects with BD as compared with MD and healthy subjects together. The rs9647635 A/A was also more presented in patients with MD than in healthy subjects. With regard to the allelic analysis, rs9647635 A allele was more represented in subjects with BD compared with healthy subjects, while it was not observed between patients with MD and healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide potential evidence of an association between some variants of AHI1 and mood disorders susceptibility but not with clinical outcomes. However, we will need to do more adequately-powered and advanced association studies to draw any conclusion due to clear limitations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Bipolar Disorder , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mood Disorders , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Treatment Outcome
15.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 180-189, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gene variants within the serotonin pathway have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) treatment outcomes, however a possible different modulation on pharmacological or psychological treatments has never been investigated. METHODS: One hundred sixty MDD patients were partially randomized to either inter-personal counseling (IPC) or antidepressants. The primary outcome was remission at week 8. Five serotonergic polymorphisms were investigated (COMT rs4680, HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs2224721, HTR2A rs7997012 and SLC6A4 rs421417). RESULTS: IPC (n=43) and antidepressant (n=117) treated patients did not show any difference in remission rates at week 8 (corrected for baseline severity, age and center). None of the studied gene variants impacted on response and remission rates at week 8 neither in the IPC nor in the antidepressant group. An analysis of the whole sample showed a trend of association between rs7997012 AA genotype and a better treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that IPC is an effective psychological intervention comparable to antidepressants in mild-moderate MDD. Polymorphisms related to the serotonin system did not exert a major effect on clinical outcomes in none of the treatment groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Counseling , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Genotype , Psychotherapy , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A , Serotonin , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
16.
JMS-Journal of Medical Sciences. 2008; 1 (2 Supp.): 25-36
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-87692

ABSTRACT

The serotonin system modulates affective, cognitive and behavioral processes. A key molecular structure of this system, the serotonin transporter [SERT] gene, has been associated with many human behaviors, both normal and pathological. The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive overview of the human behavioral features influenced by SERTPR insertion/deletion polymorphism and to suggest same comprehensive hypotheses. In particular, SERTPR has been related to hippocampal volume and amygdala response and it has been found to influence anxiety-related personality traits and anxiety disorders; in mood disorders it showed some influences on age at onset, periodicity, illness recurrence, rapid cycling, antidepressants response and depressive reaction to stressful life events. Suicide, substance abuse, psychosomatic disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer Disease were also found related to SFRTPR variants. Therefore, SERTPR seems to modulate a wide range of aspects in both normal and affected individuals, many of which are possibly due to indirect correlations between such human features


Subject(s)
Humans , Behavior , Amygdala , Personality , Anxiety Disorders , Mood Disorders , Age of Onset , Bipolar Disorder , Antidepressive Agents , Substance-Related Disorders , Mental Disorders , Life Change Events , Suicide , Psychophysiologic Disorders , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Autistic Disorder , Schizophrenia , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
17.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 102-105, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-33386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We previously reported an association between dysbindin gene (DTNBP1) variants and bipolar I disorder (BID). This paper expands upon previous findings suggesting that DTNBP1 variants may play a role in the response to acute mood stabilizer treatment. METHODS: A total of 45 BID patients were treated with antimanic agents (lithium, valproate, or carbamazepine) for an average of 36.52 (+/-19.87) days. After treatment, the patients were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and genotyped for their DTNBP1 variants (rs3213207 A/G, rs1011313 C/T, rs2005976 G/A, rs760761 C/T and rs2619522 A/C). RESULTS: There was no association between the variants investigated and response to mood stabilizer treatment, even after considering possible stratification factors. CONCLUSION: Although the small number of subjects is an important limitation in our study, DTNBP1 does not seem to be involved in acute antimanic efficacy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimanic Agents , Bipolar Disorder , Pharmacogenetics , Valproic Acid
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