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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255664, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360227

ABSTRACT

Abstract Magnolia biondii Pamp is an important ornamental tree species widely grown and used as a rootstock in the propagation of different Magnolia varieties. In the current studies, anatomical, physiological and endogenous hormones were studied to check the effect of IBA 750 mg/L on the adventitious rooting and to provide theoretical and technical support for the propagation of Magnolia biondii Pamp through stem cuttings. Two thousand stem cuttings were prepared and divided into two groups i.e., IBA treated cuttings and water control. For the evaluation of antioxidant enzyme activities, and endogenous hormones levels, samples were collected on the day of planting and each 5th day and further steps were carried out in the laboratory according to the protocols and proper precautions. For the anatomical observations, samples were collected on the 13th, 15th, and 17th day for IBA treated cuttings while 21st, 23rd, and 25th day for control. Collected samples were preserved in the FAA solution and further observations were carried out in the laboratory. Anatomical observations showed that it took 13 days for the differentiation of root primordia to the appearance of young adventitious roots in IBA treated cuttings, while it took 21 days to develop primordia in the control. Antioxidant enzyme activities involved in ROS were significantly higher in the IBA treated cuttings compared to control. POD showed a peak on the 13th day before the emergence of roots in IBA treated cuttings while it showed a peak on the 21st day in the control. PPO showed a peak on the 21st day in the IBA treated cuttings while it showed a peak on the 29th day in the control. SOD showed a peak on the 17th day in IBA treated cuttings, while it showed a peak on the 25th day in the control. Exogenous application of IBA enhanced the endogenous IAA and GA3 levels compared to CK, while it reduced the levels of ABA continuously at the time of rooting and then increased gradually. Inclusively, our study suggests that IBA 750 mg/L is efficient for the rooting of Magnolia biondii Pamp cuttings, as it enhanced the process of antioxidant enzyme activities, endogenous hormones levels and reduced the time of root formation which is evident from the anatomical observations.


Resumo Magnolia biondii Pamp é uma importante espécie de árvore ornamental muito cultivada e utilizada como porta-enxerto na propagação de diferentes variedades de Magnolia. Nos estudos atuais, hormônios anatômicos, fisiológicos e endógenos foram estudados para verificar o efeito do AIB na dose de 750 mg / L no enraizamento adventício e fornecer suporte teórico e técnico para a propagação de M. biondii Pamp por meio de estacas. Duas mil estacas foram preparadas e divididas em dois grupos, ou seja, tratadas com AIB e controle de água. Para a avaliação das atividades das enzimas antioxidantes e dos níveis de hormônios endógenos, as amostras foram coletadas no dia do plantio e a cada 5 dias, enquanto as demais etapas foram realizadas em laboratório de acordo com os protocolos e os devidos cuidados. Para as observações anatômicas, as amostras foram coletadas no 13º, 15º e 17º dias para estacas tratadas com AIB e no 21º, 23º e 25º dias para o controle. As amostras coletadas foram preservadas em solução FAA, e outras observações foram realizadas em laboratório. Observações anatômicas mostraram a necessidade de 13 dias para a diferenciação dos primórdios radiculares até o aparecimento de raízes adventícias jovens em estacas tratadas com AIB e de 21 dias para o desenvolvimento dos primórdios no controle. As atividades das enzimas antioxidantes envolvidas nas ROS foram significativamente maiores nas estacas tratadas com AIB em comparação com o controle. A POD apresentou pico no 13º dia antes da emergência das raízes nas estacas tratadas com AIB, enquanto no 21º dia apresentou pico no controle. A PPO teve pico no 21º dia nas estacas tratadas com AIB e no 29º dia no controle. A SOD apresentou pico no 17º dia nas estacas tratadas com AIB e no 25º dia no controle. A aplicação exógena de AIB aumentou os níveis endógenos de IAA e GA3 em relação ao controle, enquanto reduziu os níveis de ABA continuamente no momento do enraizamento e, em seguida, aumentou gradativamente. Inclusive, nosso estudo sugere que o AIB na dose de 750 mg / L é eficiente para o enraizamento de estacas de M. biondii Pamp, visto que potencializou o processo de atividades de enzimas antioxidantes e os níveis de hormônios endógenos, além de reduzir o tempo de formação de raízes, o que fica evidente nas observações anatômicas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Agaricus , Exploratory Behavior , Disease Models, Animal
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255755, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355898

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study involves the chemical and bacteriological analysis of water from different sources i.e., bore, wells, bottle, and tap, from Peshawar, Mardan, Swat and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. From each district, 50 water samples (10 samples from each source), regardless of urban and rural status, were collected from these sources and analysed for sulphates, nitrates, nitrites, chlorides, total soluble solids and coliforms (E. coli). Results indicated that majority of the water sources had unacceptable E. coli count i.e.> 34 CFU/100mL. E. coli positive samples were high in Mardan District, followed by Kohat, Swat and Peshawar district. Besides this, the some water sources were also chemically contaminated by different inorganic fertilizers (nitrates/nitrites of sodium, potassium) but under safe levels whereas agricultural and industrial wastes (chloride and sulphate compounds) were in unsafe range. Among all districts, the water quality was found comparatively more deteriorated in Kohat and Mardan districts than Peshawar and Swat districts. Such chemically and bacteriologically unfit water sources for drinking and can cause human health problems.


Resumo O presente estudo envolve a análise química e bacteriológica de água de diferentes fontes, ou seja, furo, poços, garrafa e torneira, dos distritos de Peshawar, Mardan, Swat e Kohat da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. De cada distrito, 50 amostras de água (10 amostras de cada fonte), independentemente do status urbano e rural, foram coletadas dessas fontes e analisadas para sulfatos, nitratos, nitritos, cloretos, sólidos solúveis totais e coliformes (E. coli). Os resultados indicaram que a maioria das fontes de água tinha uma contagem inaceitável de E. coli, ou seja, > 34 UFC / 100 mL. As amostras positivas para E. coli foram elevadas no distrito de Mardan, seguido por Kohat, Swat e distrito de Peshawar. Além disso, algumas fontes de água também foram contaminadas quimicamente por diferentes fertilizantes inorgânicos (nitratos/nitritos de sódio, potássio), mas em níveis seguros, enquanto os resíduos agrícolas e industriais (compostos de cloreto e sulfato) estavam em níveis inseguros. Entre todos os distritos, a qualidade da água foi considerada comparativamente mais deteriorada nos distritos de Kohat e Mardan do que nos distritos de Peshawar e Swat. Essas fontes de água química e bacteriologicamente impróprias para beber podem causar problemas à saúde humana.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drinking Water , Water Quality , Pakistan , Escherichia coli
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247190, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345532

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico contra doenças induzidas por estresse oxidativo e, portanto, podem ser usados ​​para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cannabis , Morus , Brain , Goats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251958, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339380

ABSTRACT

Abstract Odonates are important biological control agents for the control of insect pests and insect disease vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan from March to October 2019. A total of 200 specimens of odonates were collected from diverse habitats. The collected specimens of the order Odonata belonged to 5 families, three families of suborder Anisoptera namely Libellulidae, Gomphidae and Aeshnidae while two families of suborder Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae and Coenagrionidae). The specimens were categorized into 12 genera and 22 species. Libellulidae was the dominant family (n = 138) accounting for 69% of the odonate fauna. Orthetrum was the dominant genus (n = 73) of suborder Anisoptera accounting for 36.5% of the odonate fauna. The least dominant genera were Anax, Paragomphus and Rhyothemis (n = 5 each) accounting each for 2.5% of the odonate fauna. In Zygoptera, the dominant genus was Ceriagrion (12.5%) and the least dominant genus was Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) was the most abundant odonate species in the study area recorded from all surveyed habitats. Shannon Diversity Index (H) was 2.988 and Simpson Diversity Index (D) was 0.95 for the collected odonate fauna. The highest abundance of Odonata was recorded in August, September and May while no odonate species were recorded in January, February, November and December. Lotic water bodies were the most suitable habitats with abundant odonate fauna. Anax immaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) was the largest sized odonate species having a wingspan of 53.2±1.63 mm and body length of 56.3 ± 0.4 mm. The present study shows the status of odonate fauna of Swat, Pakistan in diverse habitats and seasonsonal variation throughout the year. Further work is recommended to bridge the gaps in the existing literature.


Resumo Odonatos são importantes agentes de controle biológico para o controle de insetos-praga e vetores de doenças de insetos de importância médica e veterinária. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a fauna de odonatos de Swat, Paquistão, de março a outubro de 2019. Um total de 200 espécimes de odonatos foi coletado em diversos habitats. Os espécimes coletados da ordem Odonata pertenciam a cinco famílias, três famílias da subordem Anisoptera, a saber, Libellulidae, Gomphidae e Aeshnidae, enquanto duas famílias eram da subordem Zygoptera (Chlorocyphidae e Coenagrionidae). Os espécimes foram classificados em 12 gêneros e 22 espécies. Libellulidae foi a família dominante (n = 138), respondendo por 69% da fauna de odonatos. Orthetrum foi o gênero dominante (n = 73) da subordem Anisoptera, responsável por 36,5% da fauna de odonatos. Os gêneros menos dominantes foram Anax, Paragomphus e Rhyothemis (n = 5 cada), representando cada um 2,5% da fauna de odonatos. Em Zygoptera, o gênero dominante foi Ceriagrion (12,5%), e o gênero menos dominante foi Ischnura (6%). Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) foi a espécie de odonato mais abundante na área de estudo, registrada em todos os habitats pesquisados. O Índice de Diversidade de Shannon (H) foi de 2,988, e o Índice de Diversidade de Simpson (D) foi de 0,95 para a fauna de odonatos coletados. A maior abundância de Odonata foi registrada em agosto, setembro e maio, enquanto nenhuma espécie de Odonata foi registrada em janeiro, fevereiro, novembro e dezembro. Corpos d'água lóticos foram os habitats mais adequados, com abundante fauna de odonatos. Anax imaculifrons (Rambur, 1842) foi a espécie de odonato de maior tamanho, com envergadura de 53,2 ± 1,63 mm e comprimento do corpo de 56,3 ± 0,4 mm. O presente estudo mostrou o status da fauna de odonatos de Swat, Paquistão, em diversos habitats e variação sazonal ao longo do ano. Recomenda-se trabalho adicional para preencher as lacunas na literatura existente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Odonata , Pakistan
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285623

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Culicidae , Pakistan , Seasons , Ecosystem , Ecology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247102, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278491

ABSTRACT

Abstract The current investigation was carried out to estimate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) against High fat Diet (HFD) induced liver damage in mice. The results of the in vitro study showed that AEC have higher antioxidant capacities in the DPPH and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays. Indeed, many phenolic compounds (gallic acid, quercetin, naringenin, apigenin, kaempferol and rutin) were identified in the AEC. In the animal studies, during 6 weeks, HFD promoted oxidative stress with a rise level of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCOs) levels and a significant decrease of the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Interestingly, the treatment with AEC (250 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced the effects of HFD disorders on some plasmatic liver biomarkers (AST, ALT and ALP) in addition to, plasmatic proteins inflammatory biomarkers (α2 and β1 decreases / β2 and γ globulins increases). It can be suggest that supplementation of MECG displays high potential to quench free radicals and attenuates high fat diet promoted liver oxidative stress and related disturbances.


Resumo A presente investigação foi realizada para estimar o efeito protetor do extrato aquoso de Cheatomorpha gracilis (AEC) contra o dano hepático induzido por dieta rica em gordura (HFD) em camundongos. Os resultados do estudo in vitro mostraram que os AEC têm maiores capacidades antioxidantes nos ensaios DPPH e de eliminação de radicais hidroxila. De fato, muitos compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, quercetina, naringenina, apigenina, kaempferol e rutina) foram identificados no AEC. Nos estudos em animais, durante 6 semanas, HFD promoveu estresse oxidativo com aumento do nível de malonaldeído (MDA), níveis de proteína carbonil (PCOs) e diminuição significativa das atividades de enzimas antioxidantes como superóxido dismutase, catalase e glutationa peroxidase. Curiosamente, o tratamento com AEC (250 mg / kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente os efeitos dos distúrbios de HFD em alguns biomarcadores hepáticos plasmáticos (AST, ALT e ALP), além de biomarcadores inflamatórios de proteínas plasmáticas (reduções α2 e β1 / β2 e γ aumenta as globulinas). Pode-se sugerir que a suplementação de MECG apresenta alto potencial para extinguir os radicais livres e atenua o estresse oxidativo do fígado promovido pela dieta rica em gordura e distúrbios relacionados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Oxidative Stress , Liver , Antioxidants/metabolism
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e257622, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364492

ABSTRACT

Abstract Green synthesis has been introduced as an alternative to chemical synthesis due to the serious consequences. Metal nanoparticles synthesized through green approach have different pharmaceutical, medical and agricultural applications. The present study followed a green and simple route for the preparation of potentially bioactive gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Au NPs were prepared via green synthesis approach using crude basic alkaloidal portion of the tuber of Delphinium chitralense. The green synthesized Au NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. Morphological analysis shows that Au NPs have cubic geometry with different sizes. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis confirmed the synthesis of Au NPs while XRD proved their pure crystalline phase. The Au NPs showed promising dose dependent inhibition of both AChE and BChE as compared to the crude as well as standard drug.


Resumo A síntese verde foi introduzida como uma alternativa à síntese química devido às graves consequências. As nanopartículas metálicas sintetizadas através da abordagem verde têm diferentes aplicações farmacêuticas, médicas e agrícolas. O presente estudo seguiu uma rota verde e simples para a preparação de nanopartículas de ouro potencialmente bioativas (Au NPs). As NPs de Au foram preparadas via abordagem de síntese verde usando a porção alcaloide básica bruta do tubérculo de Delphinium chitralense. As NPs de Au sintetizadas verdes foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (TEM), microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV), difração de raios X (DRX), infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR) e espectrofotômetro UV-Visível. A análise morfológica mostra que as NPs de Au possuem geometria cúbica com tamanhos diferentes. A análise espectroscópica UV-Vis confirmou a síntese de Au NPs enquanto a XRD provou sua fase cristalina pura. O Au NPs mostrou inibição dependente da dose promissora de AChE e BChE em comparação com a droga bruta e padrão.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247035, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249265

ABSTRACT

Abstract The cockle Cerastoderma edule was exposed to four concentrations (5, 10, 20 and 70 μg L-1) of carbamazepine (CBZ). This anticonvulsant was found to alter the mussel behavior of by reducing its clearance rate (CR). Analysis of CBZ accumulation in tissues of C. edule was carried out using HPLC-UV after 48 or 96 hours of exposure. In addition, an overproduction of H2O2 by the bivalves was detected following exposure to CBZ but nitrite levels remained unchanged. Moreover, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities showed a significant increase in relation to their contact with CBZ. The activity of the biotransformation enzyme gluthatione-S-transferase did not change during exposure. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels indicating cellular damage, increased when bivalves were exposed to 20 and 70 μg l-1 of carbamazepine for 96 h CBZ. The results also indicate that acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) was inhibited in all CBZ concentrations during the 48 h exposure period. However, during the 96 h exposure period, AChE was only inhibited at the highest concentration. Further studies are needed now for more exploration of the toxicity of CBZ since it could be bioaccumulable throughout the food web and may affect non-target organisms.


Resumo O berbigão Cerastoderma edule foi exposto a quatro concentrações (5, 10, 20 e 70 μg L-1) de carbamazepina (CBZ). Este anticonvulsivante alterou o comportamento do mexilhão, reduzindo sua taxa de depuração (CR). A análise do acúmulo de CBZ nos tecidos de C. edule foi realizada por HPLC-UV após 48 ou 96 horas de exposição. Além disso, uma superprodução de H2O2 pelos bivalves foi detectada após a exposição à CBZ, mas os níveis de nitrito permaneceram inalterados. Além disso, as atividades de superóxido dismutase e catalase apresentaram aumento significativo em relação ao contato com CBZ. A atividade da enzima de biotransformação glutationa-S-transferase não se alterou durante a exposição. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA), indicando dano celular, aumentaram quando os bivalves foram expostos a 20 e 70 μg l-1 de carbamazepina por 96 h CBZ. Os resultados também indicam que a atividade da acetilcolinesterase (AChE) foi inibida em todas as concentrações de CBZ durante o período de exposição de 48 horas. No entanto, durante o período de exposição de 96 horas, a AChE foi inibida apenas na concentração mais alta. Mais estudos são necessários agora para uma maior exploração da toxicidade da CBZ, uma vez que pode ser bioacumulável em toda a cadeia alimentar e pode afetar organismos não alvo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Bivalvia , Cardiidae , Carbamazepine/toxicity , Hydrogen Peroxide
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246316, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249248

ABSTRACT

Abstract Several endemic species of Blaps occur in Tunisia, and the species Blaps nefrauensis nefrauensis has been reported in Moulares (urban zone in west-central Tunisia), where it lives and reproduces in home gardens and old buildings. The aim of this work is to study the life cycle of the darkling beetle, considering both field and laboratory rearing conditions. As a result, the beetle species has different developmental stages (egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, and adult) that last about 15 months. Each year during the same period, adults emerge (early summer) and expire (late autumn), larvae hatch (late summer) and pupate (early summer). There is only one generation per year. Females began laying eggs in late July. The eggs were ovoid, white, and about 2.7 mm in length and 1.5 mm in width. Embryogenesis took an average of nine days. The first instar larvae were at initially only 4.5 mm long and ivory white in color. A brief description of the newly egg hatched larva was provided; thus, the nerve fibers innervating the apical setae in the antennae and ligula were detected. Further light microscopic examination of the embryo before hatching from the egg pointed out that the antennal sensilla are protected during the embryogenesis stage.


Resumo Várias espécies endêmicas de Blaps ocorrem na Tunísia, e a espécie Blaps nefrauensis nefrauensis foi relatada em Moulares (zona urbana no centro-oeste da Tunísia), onde vive e se reproduz em jardins domésticos e prédios antigos. O objetivo deste trabalho é estudar o ciclo de vida do besouro escuro, considerando as condições de criação em campo e em laboratório. Como resultado, a espécie de besouro tem diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento (ovo, larva, prepupa, pupa e adulto) que duram cerca de 15 meses. Todos os anos, durante o mesmo período, os adultos emergem (início do verão) e expiram (final do outono), as larvas eclodem (final do verão) e se tornam pupas (início do verão). Existe apenas uma geração por ano. As fêmeas começaram a botar ovos no final de julho. Os ovos eram ovóides, brancos, com cerca de 2,7 mm de comprimento e 1,5 mm de largura. A embriogênese demorou em média nove dias. As larvas de primeiro instar tinham inicialmente apenas 4,5 mm de comprimento e uma cor branca marfim. Foi fornecida uma breve descrição da larva recém-eclodida; assim, as fibras nervosas que inervam as cerdas apicais nas antenas e ligulas foram detectadas. Um exame microscópico de luz posterior do embrião antes da eclosão do ovo mostrou que as sensilas antenais são protegidas durante o estágio de embriogênese.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Coleoptera , Pupa , Seasons , Larva
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e247073, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249224

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Northern Tunisia, seasonal streams, called wadi, are characterized by extreme hydrological and thermal conditions. These freshwater systems have very particular features as a result of their strong irregularity of flow due to limited precipitation runoff regime, leading to strong seasonal hydrologic fluctuations. The current study focused on the spatio-temporal distribution of chironomids in 28 sampling sites spread across the Northern Tunisia. By emplying PERMANOVA, the results indicated a significant spatio-temporal variation along various environmental gradients. The main abiotic factors responsible for noted differences in the spatial distribution of chironomids in wadi were the conductivity and temperature, closely followed by altitude, pH, salinity, talweg slope and dissolved oxygen, identified as such by employing distance-based linear models' procedure. The Distance-based redundancy analysis ordination showed two main groups: the first clustered the Bizerte sites, which were characterized by high water conductivity, sodium concentration and salinity. The second main group comprised sites from the Tell zone and was characterized by low temperatures, neutral pH, low conductivity and nutrients content. The subfamily TANYPODIINAE (e.g., Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus (Meigen, 1804) and Macropelopia sp.) was the dominant group at Tell zone, whereas species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) and Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) were found only in Tell Wadis. In contrast, chironomid species such as Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804) were specific for Tell Mountain. Cap Bon wadis region was dominated by genus Cladotanytarsus sp. The results of this survey liked the taxonomic composition of chironomid assemblages to the variation of hydromorphological and physic-chemical gradients across the northern Tunisia wadis.


Resumo No norte da Tunísia, riachos sazonais chamados wadi são caracterizados por condições hidrológicas e térmicas extremas. Esses sistemas de água doce têm características muito particulares como resultado de sua forte irregularidade de fluxo devido ao regime de escoamento de precipitação limitado, levando a fortes flutuações hidrológicas sazonais. O estudo atual enfocou a distribuição espaço-temporal dos quironomídeos em 28 locais de amostragem espalhados pelo norte da Tunísia. Ao aplicar PERMANOVA, os resultados indicaram uma variação espaço-temporal significativa ao longo de vários gradientes ambientais. Os principais fatores abióticos responsáveis ​​pelas diferenças observadas na distribuição espacial dos quironomídeos no wadi foram a condutividade e a temperatura, seguidos de perto por altitude, pH, salinidade, declive do talvegue e oxigênio dissolvido, identificados como tais empregando o procedimento de modelos lineares baseados na distância. A ordenação da análise de redundância baseada em distância mostrou dois grupos principais: o primeiro agrupou os sítios Bizerte, que foram caracterizados por alta condutividade da água, concentração de sódio e salinidade. O segundo grupo principal compreendia locais da zona de Tell e era caracterizado por baixas temperaturas, pH neutro, baixa condutividade e conteúdo de nutrientes. A subfamília Tanypodiinae (por exemplo, Prochladius sp., Prochladius choerus [Meigen, 1804] e Macropelopia sp.) era o grupo dominante na zona de Tell, enquanto espécies como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970) e Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838) foram encontradas apenas em Tell Wadis. Em contraste, espécies de quironomídeos, como Diamesa starmachi (Kownacki et Kownacha, 1970), Potthastia gaedii (Meigen, 1838), Procladius choreus (Meigen, 1804), eram específicas para Tell Mountain. A região de Cap Bon wadis foi dominada pelo gênero Cladotanytarsus sp. Os resultados desta pesquisa gostaram da composição taxonômica das assembleias de quironomídeos com a variação dos gradientes hidromorfológicos e físico-químicos nos wadis do norte da Tunísia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chironomidae , Temperature , Tunisia , Rivers , Fresh Water
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246116, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249222

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main objective of the current study was to assess the impact of the water taken from the 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' on meiobenthic nematodes, before and after a series of treatments in decantation basins followed by its discharge in Bizerte bay, Tunisia. The comparison of environmental parameters of the two types of water was clearly indicative of an improvement in the quality of treated waters after a significant reduction in their loads in hydrocarbons. Overall, the water retained a good quality after being treated by 'Tunisian Refining Industries Company' before discharge in the sea. At the end of the experiment, differential responses were observed according to the richness of sediment in organic matter and hydrocarbons. Thus, it was apparent that the nematode assemblage exposed to the treated waters was closer to controls and associated to higher values of abundance, than that under untreated ones. It was also assumed that the species Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 and Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 are sensitive bioindicators of bad environmental statues and of hydrocarbon presence in the environment. On the other hand, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 would rather be classified as a positive bioindicative species of this type of pollutants.


Resumo O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o impacto da água retirada da "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" sobre os nematoides meiobentônicos, antes e depois de uma série de tratamentos em bacias de decantação seguidos de seu descarte na baía de Bizerte, Tunísia. A comparação dos parâmetros ambientais dos dois tipos de água foi claramente indicativa de uma melhoria na qualidade das águas tratadas após uma redução significativa das suas cargas em hidrocarbonetos. No geral, a água reteve uma boa qualidade após ser tratada pela "Tunisian Refining Industries Company" antes da descarga no mar. Ao final do experimento, foram observadas respostas diferenciais de acordo com a riqueza de sedimentos em matéria orgânica e hidrocarbonetos. Assim, ficou claro que a assembleia de nematoides exposta às águas tratadas estava mais próxima dos controles e associada a maiores valores de abundância do que nas não tratadas. Também foi assumido que as espécies Microlaimus honestus De Man, 1922, Paramonohystera proteus Wieser, 1956 e Cyartonema germanicum Juario, 1972 são bioindicadores sensíveis de más estátuas ambientais e da presença de hidrocarbonetos no meio ambiente. Por outro lado, Metoncholaimus pristiurus (Zur Strassen, 1894) Filipjev, 1918 preferiria ser classificado como uma espécie bioindicativa positiva deste tipo de poluentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Nematoda , Sewage , Tunisia , Environmental Monitoring , Geologic Sediments , Industry
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913947

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Vaccination is a cost-efficient intervention to slow the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aims to assess the population's willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine in Jordan and investigate potential determinants of their acceptance @*Materials and Methods@#This study used an online survey distributed in November 2020, before introducing the vaccine, with items investigating socio-demographic characteristics, seasonal flu vaccination history, COVID-19 vaccine acceptance once available, and factors affecting their decision-making. Also, “COVID-19 risk perception” and beliefs toward COVID-19 vaccine benefits and barriers were assessed. @*Results@#A total of 2,208 participants completed the survey with a participation rate of 13.1%. The mean±standard deviation age was 33.2±13.5, and 55.7% were females. Study participants were almost equally distributed between willingness, unwillingness, and indecision to take the COVID-19 vaccine (30.4%, 36.4%, and 31.5%, respectively). Younger adults, males, and those who were not married, do not have children, have a bachelor or higher education, employees or being students, healthcare workers, and those who reported receiving flu vaccine had higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance compared to their counterparts (p<0.001 for each category). COVID-19 risk perception, and perceived vaccine benefits, and barriers were significant predictors of intention. Among those undecided or unwilling to take the COVID-19 vaccine, its safety and side effects were the most common concerns. @*Conclusion@#The low rate of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance in a developing country is alarming, and a significant proportion are indecisive. Interventions to elevate vaccine acceptance by addressing its safety and efficacy and targeting vulnerable groups are recommended.

14.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 584-595, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913684

ABSTRACT

Methods@#We assessed 23 patients with a mean age of 57.3±15 years. According to the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scale; eight patients had grade 0, nine had grade I, and six had grade II. All patients underwent plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine. The foramen magnum was involved in 10 patients, C1–2 in seven, C2–3 in four, and C3–4 in two. All patients were operated via the far-lateral approach. @*Results@#Gross total resection was achieved in 21 patients. Sixteen lesions were psammomatous, five were fibroblastic, and two were meningothelial meningiomas. The mean operative duration was 135±40 minutes, while the mean operative blood loss was 450±210 mL, and the mean hospital stay was 4.3±2.2 days. At the final follow-up that was conducted at 27.6±21 months and as per the JOA score; 16 patients were classified into grade 0 and 7 into grade II. The condition of none of our patients deteriorated postoperatively. There was no significant correlation of the clinical outcome with tumor level, pathological subtype of the tumor, symptom duration, age, and sex. There was no significant correlation of tumor resection completeness with tumor level, tumor pathological subtype, or tumor topography (ventral or ventrolateral). @*Conclusions@#The far-lateral approach is a safe and effective access for ventral and ventrolateral cervical meningiomas. It allows direct access to tumor with no spinal cord or nerve roots traction, and thus may yield a fairly better outcome than the standard posterior approach.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-212411

ABSTRACT

Background: ACS represents a global epidemic. Arrhythmia in ACS is common. Careful investigation may lead to further improvement of prognosis. Retrospectively analyzed the year- round data of our center. Study was undertaken to analyze the incidence, frequency and type of arrhythmias in ACS. This is to aid timely intervention and to modify the outcome. Identification of the type of arrhythmia is of therapeutic and prognostic importance.Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Cardiology, Apollo Hospitals Dhaka, from January 2019 to January 2020 with ACS patients. Enrolled consecutively and data analyzed.Results: There were 500 patients enrolled considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Sample was subdivided into 3 groups on the type of ACS. Group-I with UA, Group-II with NSTE - ACS and Group-III with STE - ACS. Different types of arrhythmia noted. Types of arrhythmia were correlated with type of ACS. 500 patients included. Mean age 55.53±12.70, 71.6% male and 28.4% female. 60.4% hypertensive, 46.2% diabetic, 20.2% positive family history of CAD, 32.2% current smoker, 56.4% dyslipidaemic and 9.6% asthmatic. 31.2% UA, 39.2% NSTE-ACS and 29.6% STE-ACS. Type of arrhythmias noted. 22% sinus tachycardia, 20.2% sinus bradycardia, 9% atrial fibrillation, 5.2% ventricular ectopic, 4.8% supra ventricular ectopic, 2.8% bundle branch block, 2.2% atrio-ventricular block, 1% broad complex tachycardia, 0.4% narrow complex tachycardia, 0.2% sinus node dysfunction and 32.2% without any arrhythmia. Significant incidences of arrhythmia detected - respectively 29.8%, 39.2% and 31%, p<0.001.Conclusions: In conclusion, arrhythmias in ACS are common. More attention should be paid to improve their treatment and prognosis.

16.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-210717

ABSTRACT

Palms are considered as familiar strangers. Various studies reported that the genus Phoenix was mostly cultivated,traditionally used plants as medicine, and also as an ornamental plant. In this present study, preliminary phytochemicalanalysis, the study of microscopical structures and the chemical constituents of Phoenix pusilla root was evaluated.Transverse Section of P. pusilla root was studied by sectioning the two different thickness roots and also powdermicroscopy was carried out. Non-polar, volatile constituents of crude ethanolic extract of root were analyzed byGC–MS. Primary and secondary metabolites quantification revealed that the carbohydrate content and total phenolicsconcentration were higher than the other metabolites. The physicochemical analysis showed the moisture content was3.78 ± 0.54, the ash content value was 2.46 ± 0.95, and the crude fiber content was higher than protein, fat content.Microscopy study showed the presence of unique tracheids. Metabolite profiling revealed the presence of 96 differentconstituents and more than 10 found to have biological importance. Pharmacognostic study is an important step ofresearch which reveals about shelf-life of the drug, adulterations, etc.

17.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-214649

ABSTRACT

The superior surface of the body of the sphenoid is centrally occupied by sella turcica. The sella turcica has median depression called as hypophysial fossa; its anterior border is formed by tuburculum sella and posterior by dorsum sellae. It is surrounded by two anterior and posterior clinoid processes at its corners. Some parts of the sphenoid bone are connected by the ligaments that occasionally ossify.1 These ligaments have important relations with the surround vascular and neuronal structures. Hence such altered anatomy leads to difficulties or serious complications during surgical approach of this region in various conditions like aneurysm of internal carotid artery (ICA), caroticoclinoid fistula, pituitary adenoma and tuberculum sellae meningiomas etc.Knowledge of such variations would help radiologists and neurosurgeons in accurate diagnosis and treatment of the patients.Caroticoclinoid foramen (CCF) is an inconstant or abnormal anatomical feature formed due to ossification of a ligament between anterior and middle clinoid processes. It was first described by Henle (1855) as quoted by Mallik S and Sawant VG.2It was postulated that although ossification of the ligaments is normally age dependent physiological condition but CCF is an exception as its existence is seen even in the fetal and infant skull because of developmental anomaly.3The development of the sphenoid bone is complex has 18 or 19 ossification centers which may lead to early ossification of carotico-clinoid ligament.4CCF allows the passage of clinoid segment of the internal carotid artery.5 It may lead to compression, tightening or stretching and cause changes in the artery which reflects in compression of the cavernous sinus6. CCF may also cause endocrinal problems affecting hypothalamus or hypophysis cerebri and neurological problems by affecting oculomotor nerve, optic nerve or pituitary gland, which manifest in different ways as headache, behavioural changes, hormonal disturbances, visual problems, epileptic seizers, craniofacial disorders and tooth anomalies.7 Interclinoid osseous bar (ICB) results from ossification of the interclinoid ligament present between anterior and posterior clinoid processes.8 The osseous bridges represent a developmental anomaly of the embryonic chondrocranium.4 The ICB can be partial or complete; unilateral or bilateral.2 ICB may influence structures like trochlear nerve, oculomotor nerve, pituitary gland or remains as a normal variant. ICB is demonstrated radiologically in idiots, criminals, epileptics and cases of mental disorders.2,8Posterior clinoid foramen (PCF) is very rare and scarcely mentioned in the literature. Jolly Agarwal and Virendra Kumar recorded it in one specimen unilaterally (2.5%). PCF, when present exists on the sphenoid bone posterior to CCF. It is created between middle and posterior clinoid processes when the interclinoid bar is complete (i.e. between anterior and posterior clinoid processes).9

18.
Medical Technologies Journal ; 1(3): 126-135, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1266492

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious emerging public health issue and it has been identified as a major risk to human health in 2020. Egypt has more than 100 million population, of whom in poor economic conditions and with low education levels could be vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. Physicians are at the frontiers in battles against the emergence, spread, and control of COVID-19 pandemic. Research data are needed to develop evidence-based strategies to prepare health care systems to deal with the current epidemic. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes to COVID-19 pandemic among a group of Egyptian physicians. Methods: From March 15th to March 25th, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey using non-probability accessibility sampling technique. The structured questionnaire was distributed online through E-mails and social networks to identify the knowledge and attitude among a group of Egyptian physicians regarding COVID-19 pandemic. Result: The study included 256 physicians. Of the participants, 48% were males 49.6% were females. The mean of total score was (19.6±2.3) out of 23 gained mainly from the social media (50.7%). About 67% of the participants heard of Coronaviruses before this pandemic, 78.5% identified other Coronaviruses. All the participants correctly identified the incubation period and 81.6% correctly identified the typical clinical symptoms. Most of the participants (97.6%) could estimate the fatality of COVID-19. Approximately 95% of the respondents knew no vaccination and 88% correctly answered that no current specific treatment for COVID-19 available. Almost all 98% of the participants knew the recommended general infection control precautions. Most of the participants showed positive attitude, about (97%) agreed that health care workers must avail themselves of all information about the COVID-19. Conclusion: The finding of this survey indicating that, faced with the COVID-19 pandemic, this studied group of Egyptian physicians showed positive attitude and satisfactory knowledge about emerging COVID-19 infection. Recommendations: Although the Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH) has taken several major steps to prepare the health care system to be ready dealing with COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to develop educational programs to ensure continuous updated knowledge of the physicians


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Egypt , Pandemics , SARS Virus/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205313

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has been linked with Helicobacter Pylori infection. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of H pylori infection in adult ITP patients in a tertiary care center in South India. Methods: 50 adult patients with ITP in the Department Hematology, Madras Medical College were recruited for a cross -sectional study over a period of 6 months. Biopsy from the antrum was subjected to Rapid urease test to detect H. pylori. A total of 50 patients participated in the study. Result: The prevalence of H. pylori infection in ITP patients was 36%. The majority of patients were male (78%). Conclusion: The diagnosis of H. pylori in ITP patients may be considered in high prevalent areas.

20.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205062

ABSTRACT

Background: Post-tonsillectomy bleeding is a commonly encountered problem due to several risk factors. This study aimed to assess the burden of post-tonsillectomy bleeding and its possible hematological risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This is a retrospective study involved a series of 311 patients who attended with evidencebased indications of tonsillectomy and subsequently underwent surgical removal of the tonsils, with or without adenoidectomy (adeno/tonsillectomy). All of the patients underwent bipolar diathermy surgical techniques. Results: Out of the 311 patients, 67.5% underwent tonsillectomy and 32.5% underwent adenotonsillectomy. Post-tonsillectomy bleeding was experienced in 5.8% patients, 6.9% were males and 4% were females. The males’ risk (relative risk (RR)) of Post-tonsillectomy bleeding and the 95% confidence interval 95% CI): RR (95% CI)=1.7011 (0.6220 to 4.6521), p=0.3007. Conclusion: The prevalence of post-tonsillectomy bleeding is relatively higher in Saudi Arabia than the reported values in most studies. Factors such as post-operative infection, use of bipolar diathermy technique, and pain might be incriminated in the reported cases of postoperative bleeding in the current study.

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