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1.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007328

ABSTRACT

Propolis is a substance manufactured by Apis mellifera and has been widely used in folk medicine due to its high concentration of bioactive compounds. The purpose of the following study was to characterize and evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial properties of propolis on clinical samples and ATCC strains. The chemical characterization of propolis presents a concentration of total polyphenols of 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 MS, flavones and flavonols 75± 4 mg EQ g-1 MS, flavanonones and flavanonols 118 ± 11 EP g-1 MS. HPLC-DAD identified apigenin, galangin, phenethyl ester of caffeic acid and pinocembrin, in addition to 16 compounds by HPLC MS/MS. Chilean propolis is a natural antimicrobial, showing effectiveness in strains ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and clinical samples of Staphylococcus aureus unlike Escherichia coli. These results demonstrate the antimicrobial effectiveness of the synergy of compounds present in propolis against different human pathogens.


El propóleos es una substancia fabricada por Apis mellifera y ha sido utilizado ampliamente en la medicina popular debido a su alta concentración de compuestos bioactivos. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue caracterizar y evaluar in vitro las propiedades antimicrobianas del propóleos sobre muestras clínicas y cepas ATCC. La caracterización química de propóleos presenta una concentración de polifenoles totales de 247 ± 9 mg EAG g-1 de MS, flavonas y flavonoles 75 ± 4 mg EQ g-1 de MS, flavanononas y flavanonoles 118 ± 11 EP g-1 de MS. Mediante HPLC-DAD se identificó apigenina, galangina, fenetil éster del ácido cafeico y pinocembrina, además de 16 compuestos mediante HPLC MS/MS. El propóleos chileno es un antimicrobiano natural, observándose efectividad en cepas ATCC Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum y muestras clínicas de Staphylococcus aureus a diferencia de Escherichia coli. Estos resultados demuestran la efectividad antimicrobiana de la sinergia de compuestos presentes en el propóleos ante diferentes patógenos humanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Propolis/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pharynx/microbiology , Propolis/chemistry , Trichophyton/drug effects , Flavonoids/analysis , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Apis mellifica , Chile , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Mouth/microbiology
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(3): 259-269, mayo 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-915349

ABSTRACT

Berberis darwinii Hook es una especie que habita el sur de Chile y la Patagonia. Siendo utilizada por la etnia mapuche para el tratamiento de procesos inflamatorios, estados febriles, y dolor estomacal. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue evaluar in vitro las propiedades del extracto de alcaloides de raíz de B. darwinii sobre respuestas celulares en monocitos desde sangre periférica de rata. Los resultados de la cuantificación del extracto muestran una concentración de alcaloides totales de 1,67 mg/g y la caracterización por HPLC- MS determinó la presencia de berberina y palmatina. In vitro se observó que los extractos disminuyeron la capacidad de adhesión y la actividad fagocítica de los monocitos e inhibieron la translocación del factor nuclear NF-κB asociado a la modulación de la inflamación, pero no así la producción de anión superóxido. Estos resultados indicarían que los alcaloides totales de B. darwinii inhiben algunos mecanismos específicos de defensa celular.


Berberis darwinii Hook is a species that inhabits southern Chile and Patagonia. This is being used by the Mapuche ethnic group for the treatment of inflammatory processes, febrile states, and stomach pain. The purpose of the following study was to evaluate in vitro the properties of an alkaloid extract of B. darwinii root on cellular responses in monocytes from the rat peripheral blood. The results of the quantification of the extract showed a total alkaloid concentration of 1.67 mg/g and the characterization by HPLC-MS determined the presence of berberine and palmatine. In vitro, it was observed that the extracts decreased the adhesion capacity and phagocytic activity of the monocytes and inhibited the translocation of the nuclear factor NF-κB associated with the modulation of inflammation, but not the production of superoxide anion. These results indicate that the total alkaloids of B. darwinii inhibit some specific mechanisms of cellular defense.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Berberis/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Monocytes/drug effects , Cell Adhesion/drug effects , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , NF-kappa B/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Alkaloids/analysis
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 14(5): 423-441, Sept. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907503

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common chronic disease whose prevalence is currently increasing worldwide. Nowadays, the main antidiabetic agent used is metformin. However, between 10 and 30 percent of patients undergoing metformin therapy have nonspecific gastric alterations as an undesired secondary effect. Therefore, the search for new therapeutic alternatives is especially useful, where plant- derived products emerge as an excellent phytochemical resource. The objective of this review is to present and discuss the state of the art of current research conducted on the Berberis gender with hypoglycemic activity, which is normally used in alternative medicine therapy for the treatment of T2DM, and its possible mechanisms of action described in literature.


La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) es una enfermedad crónica común, cuya prevalencia está actualmente aumentando en todo el mundo. Al presente, el principal fármaco antidiabético utilizado es la metformina. Sin embargo, entre un 10 y 30 por ciento de los pacientes tratados presentan como efecto no deseado de alteraciones gástricas inespecíficas. Por lo tanto, la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas terapéuticas es de gran utilidad, en donde los productos derivados de plantas emergen como un excelente recurso fitoquímico. El objetivo de esta revisión es presentar y discutir sobre el estado del arte de investigaciones realizadas en las especies del género Berberis con actividad hipoglicemiante, las cuales son normalmente utilizadas en medicina alternativa como terapia para el tratamiento de DM, y sus posibles mecanismos de acción descritos en la literatura.


Subject(s)
Berberis/chemistry , /drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Complementary Therapies
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 577-585, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688591

ABSTRACT

Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anticancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 µgmL-1). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Pollen/cytology , Propolis/chemistry , Propolis/pharmacology , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Streptococcus sobrinus/drug effects , Chile , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Colorimetry , Mass Spectrometry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Propolis/genetics
5.
Int. j. morphol ; 29(3): 799-805, Sept. 2011. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-608660

ABSTRACT

El propóleos se ha utilizado en medicina desde épocas antiguas, una de sus indicaciones en medicina oral y odontológica es como material de recubrimiento directo. Así, el objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar la neoformación odontoblástica en piezas dentarias de canes en recubrimientos directos. Se realizaron perforaciones en un total de 12 piezas dentarias, la mitad de las cuales fueron recubiertas con propóleos y la otra mitad con hidróxido de calcio. En todos los casos se obturaron las piezas dentarias con cemento de vidrio-ionómero. Al cabo de dos semanas, se realizaron las extracciones de las piezas dentarias, fijándolas en formalina tamponada; se efectuaron cortes histológicos de las piezas, los cuales se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina, con el fin de poder realizar la cuantificación de los núcleos odontoblásticos presentes tanto en las zonas alejadas de la perforación, como en las zonas cercanas a las lesiones. Se observó una similar actividad odontoblástica en las zonas cercanas a las lesiones al utilizar cualquiera de los dos materiales (p=0,9325), diferenciándose solamente en la disposición de las células neoformadas, que en el caso de utilizar propóleos fueron en empalizada, semejante a las zonas sanas, en cambio, al utilizar hidróxido de calcio no se observó dicho ordenamiento.


Since ancient times, propolis has been used in medicine, while in oral medicine and dentistry it has been indicated as a direct capping material.The aim of this study was to quantify the odontoblast activity in drilling holes on dog's teeth (canine and incisor) during direct capping.Perforations were carried out in a total sample of 12 dental pieces. In half of the sample teeth were capped with propolis, and in the other half with calcium hydroxide. In all cases teeth were obturated with glass ionomer cement. Extraction of the teeth was realized after two weeks, and teeth were fixed in buffered formalin. Histological cuts of the pieces were made and stained with hematoxylin-eosin in order to carry out quantification of nuclei presence in healthy areas (away from the perforation, as well as in areas adjacent to injuries. Results showed similar odontoblast activity while using either of the materials, (p=0.9325), only differing in the arrangement of newly formed cells which in the cases where propolis was used, were palisading, similar to healthy areas. On the other hand, the same order was not observed when calcium hydroxide was used.


Subject(s)
Dogs , Calcium Hydroxide/administration & dosage , Calcium Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Odontoblasts , Odontoblasts/ultrastructure , Dogs/anatomy & histology , Dogs/growth & development , Propolis/administration & dosage , Propolis/therapeutic use , Dental Pulp Capping/veterinary
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 28(1): 75-84, Mar. 2010. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-579284

ABSTRACT

El hígado graso no alcohólico (HGNA), comprende un amplio espectro de lesiones, que van desde esteatosis hepática, hasta cirrosis y carcinoma hepatocelular, siendo sus principales factores de riesgo los desordenes asociados a síndrome metabólico (SM). El propóleos, sustancias resinosa elaborada por Apis mellifera para la protección de la colmena, ha demostrado un efecto hepatoprotector, así el objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de un propóleos chileno sobre el desarrollo de esteatosis hepática no alcohólica en ratones C57BL/6J sometidos a una dieta aterogénica tipo Paigen. Veintiocho ratones (C57BL/6J), divididos en: 1, dieta balanceada (CH); 2, dieta hipercolesterolémica (HC); 3, dieta HC + 10 mg/kg/día de propóleos (BP); 4, dieta HC + 40 mg/kg/día de propóleos (AP). Después de 16 semanas, se determinó la concentración de glucosa, colesterol total, triglicéridos y los niveles de alanina aminotransferasa (ALAT). El tejido hepático fue fijado en una solución de formalina tamponada al 10 por ciento para, posteriormente, ser incluido en paraplast y teñido con Hematoxilina-Eosina y fragmanetos congelados a -30C fijados en formalina teñidos con tinción Oil red O. No existieron diferencias en la concentración de glucosa ni triglicéridos, a diferencia del colesterol total, entre el grupo alimentado con dieta balanceada (CH) y los alimentados con la dieta aterogénica D12336 (HC, BP y AP). De la misma forma se observó que existen diferencias en los niveles de actividad de ALAT entre los grupos estudiados, destacando su reducción en los grupos suplementados con propóleos (BP y AP). De forma concordante, la histoarquitectura del grupo HC, mostró esteatosis simple y focos de infiltrado leucocitario en el lobulillo hepático, observándose una disminución gradual de las alteraciones en los grupos de BP y AP. En conclusión, el propóleos chileno estudiado disminuye la esteatosis hepática inducida por la dieta aterogénica tipo Paigen en ratones C57BL/6J, sin embargo, los mecanismos implicados en esta actividad hepatoprotectora tienen que ser identificados.


Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of injuries ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Its main risk factors are disorders associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). Propolis, a resinous substance produced by Apis mellifera to protect is hive, has demonstrated a hepatoprotective effect. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chilean propolis on development of nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6J mice exposed to Paigen atherogenic diet. Twenty eight mice C57BL/6J were divided four groups: 1, balanced diet (CH); 2, hypercholesterolemic diet (HD); 3, HD diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg/day of propolis (LP); 4, HD diet supplemented with 40 mg/kg/day of propolis (HP). After 16 weeks of treatment was determined glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. The liver tissue was fixed in 10 percent buffered formalin solution, embedded in paraplast and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. No differences was detected in glucose and triglycerides concentrations, contrasting with total cholesterol levels between group fed with a balanced diet (CH) and feed with atherogenic diet D12336 (HD, LP and HP). In the same way, it was noted differences in ALT activity between groups, standing out the reduction in propolis supplemented groups (LP and HP). Likewise the histoarchitecture of HD group, showed simple steatosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and inflammatory foci in hepatic lobule. This characteristics show a gradual decrease in LP and HP groups. In conclusion, the Chilean propolis analyzed decreases hepatic steatosis induced by atherogenic diet in C57BL/6J mice. However, the involved mechanisms in this hepatoprotective activity must be identified.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Diet, Atherogenic , Fatty Liver/drug therapy , Propolis/pharmacology , Protective Agents/chemistry , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Fatty Liver/chemically induced , Liver , Propolis/chemistry , Propolis/therapeutic use
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