Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 44
Filter
1.
Rev. patol. trop ; 49(1): 45-54, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100266

ABSTRACT

The control of Aedes aegypti has been considered one of the most important public health challenges worldwide. Chemical compounds have long been used for this purpose, but resistance to these molecules has also increased. Therefore, over the last few years several studies have focused on the development of alternative tools, particularly those based on plant metabolites. The purpose of this study was to assess the larvicidal activity of Caesalpinia ferrea and Lippia origanoides against Ae. aegypti. Larvae (L3) of Ae. aegypti Liverpool and Rockefeller strains, as well as of the Recife population were exposed to different concentrations of C. ferrea (ranging from 13.1 to 105 mg/mL) and L. origanoides (ranging from 16.3 to 130 mg/mL), and the mortality rate was evaluated up to 48 hours after the beginning of the experiment. All tested groups and ontrol group were quadruplicated. For C. ferrea, mortality ranged from 42.5% to 100% for Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain, from 67% to 100% for Ae. aegypti Rockfeller strain, and 57% to 100% for Ae. aegypti Recife population after 48 hours of larval exposure. For L. origanoides, the larvicidal activity ranged from 75% to 100% for Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain, from 61.5% to 100% for Ae. aegypti Rockfeller strain, and from 60.5% to 100% for Ae. aegypti Recife population. The hydro ethanol extract of C. ferrea and L. origanoides presented larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Lippia , Insecticides , Culicidae
2.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(4): 569-573, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058005

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phlebotomines of the genus Lutzomyia are important vector for species of Leishmania, the etiological agent of leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of sandflies in an endemic area for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Sampling was performed in four localities on the coast of the municipality of Goiana, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Specimens were collected monthly on three consecutive nights, from November 2017 to October 2018. CDC light traps were installed at a height of 1.5 m above the ground, in two ecotypes (i.e. tree and animal facility), both in peridomestic areas. A total of 5,205 sandflies were collected, among which the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (99.85%; 5,197/5,205) was the most common, followed by Lutzomyia evandroi (0.13%; 07/5,205) and Lutzomyia whitmani (0.02%; 01/5,205). Specimens of L. longipalpis were collected throughout the study period and most of them were found near to the animal facilities. The findings from this research indicate that vectors for Leishmania infantum are present in the study area throughout the year, along with occurrences of vectors relating to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). Preventive vector control measures need to be implemented in Goiana to reduce the risk of infection for the human and animal populations.


Resumo Flebotomíneos do gênero Lutzomyia são importantes vetores de espécies de Leishmania, agente etiológico das leishmanioses. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a diversidade de flebotomíneos em área endêmica para Leishmaniose Visceral (LV). As coletas foram realizadas em quatro localidades do litoral do município de Goiana, Pernambuco, Nordeste do Brasil. Os espécimes foram coletados mensalmente em três noites consecutivas de novembro de 2017 a outubro de 2018. Foram instaladas armadilhas luminosas modelo CDC a uma altura de 1,5 m acima do solo em dois ecótopos (ex. árvore e instalações de animais), ambos em áreas peridomiciliares. Um total de 5.205 flebotomíneos foi coletado, sendo Lutzomyia longipalpis (99,85%; 5.197/5.205) a mais comum, seguida por Lutzomyia evandroi (0,13%; 07/5.205) e Lutzomyia whitmani (0,02%; 01/5.205). L. longipalpis foi coletada durante todo o período do estudo. A maioria dos espécimes foi detectada perto das instalações dos animais. Os achados deste estudo indicam a presença de vetores de Leishmania infantum na área avaliada ao longo do ano, bem como a ocorrência de vetores relacionados à Leishmaniose Cutânea (LC). Medidas preventivas de controle vetorial devem ser implementadas em Goiana para reduzir o risco de infecção à população humana e animal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Seasons , Brazil , Population Density , Endemic Diseases , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 28(1): 168-171, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042496

ABSTRACT

Abstract Animals reared in restricted environments are highly susceptible to gastrointestinal infection by helminths and protozoa and therefore zoos are characterized as being parasite-rich environments. Successful implementation of control programs of these parasites in zoo environment depends upon precise and rapid diagnosing of gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of the Mini-FLOTAC technique in combination with Fill-FLOTAC for rapidly diagnosing parasitic infections in zoo mammals. Fecal samples were collected from 70 animals in four different zoos located in central and southern Italy. All the samples were analyzed using Mini-FLOTAC in combination with Fill-FLOTAC. Out of the 70 pooled samples examined, 80% (24/30) were positive for at least one parasite. Among the gastrointestinal nematodes, Strongyles were the most frequent (40%), followed by Trichuris spp. (23.3%), Parascaris spp. (13.3%) and Capillaria spp. (3.3%). Among the protozoa, Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp. and Eimeria spp. were detected in 6.6%, 3.3% and 3.3%, respectively. These results show that Mini-FLOTAC in combination with Fill-FLOTAC can be used, not only for rapidly diagnosing parasitic infections in zoo mammals, but also for monitoring control programs in which large numbers of fecal samples need to be examined rapidly and reliably.


Resumo Animais criados em ambiente restritos são altamente suscetíveis a infecção gastrointestinal por helmintos e protozoários, constituindo os zoológicos em ambientes com alta contaminação por parasitos. O sucesso da implementação de programas de controle contra estes parasitos em zoológicos depende do rápido diagnóstico das infecções por parasitas gastrointestinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar o papel da técnica do Mini-FLOTAC em combinação com o Fill-FLOTAC no diagnóstico rápido das infecções parasitárias em mamíferos em zoológicos. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 70 animais de quatro diferentes zoológicos no centro e sudoeste da Itália. Todas as amostras foram analisadas pela técnica do Mini-FLOTAC em combinação com o Fill-FLOTAC. Do total de 70 pools de fezes examinadas, 80% (24/30) foram positivas para pelo menos um parasito. Entre os nematoides gastrointestinais a maior frequência foi observada para estrongilídeos (40%), seguida por Trichuris spp. (23,3%), Parascaris spp. (13,3%) e Capillaria spp. (3,3%). Entre os protozoários Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp. e Eimeria spp. foram detectados em 6,6%, 3,3% e 3,3%, respectivamente. Estes resultados demonstram que a técnica do Mini-FLOTAC em combinação com o Fill-FLOTAC pode ser utilizada não somente para o diagnóstico rápido das infecções parasitárias em mamíferos em zoológicos, mas também no monitoramento de programas de controle onde grande número de amostras fecais devem ser examinadas de forma rápida e confiável.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/diagnosis , Protozoan Infections/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/veterinary , Helminthiasis, Animal/diagnosis , Animals, Zoo/parasitology , Mammals/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Protozoan Infections/parasitology , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Feces/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180341, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041576

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Areas at risk of transmission of arboviruses have been monitored using ovitraps. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti in vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses and assess the influence of climatic conditions on the infestation of these culicids. METHODS: Ovitraps were installed in Agrestina, Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. RESULTS: Overall, 44,936 eggs were collected, and the indexes of infestation varied. Relative humidity was significantly associated with the infestations. CONCLUSIONS: Using ovitraps, entomologic indexes and analysis of climatic factors might be good strategies for monitoring vulnerable areas for the transmission of arboviruses.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Oviposition , Mosquito Control/methods , Dengue/prevention & control , Flavivirus , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Rain , Seasons , Temperature , Brazil , Residence Characteristics , Aedes/physiology , Dengue/transmission , Spatial Analysis , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Humidity
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180440, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041558

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in dogs. METHODS: Blood samples (n = 241) were collected and analyzed for the presence of anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii antibodies. The spatial distribution was evaluated using kernel density estimation (KDE). RESULTS Anti-N. caninum and anti-T. gondii antibodies were detected in 24.06% (58/241) and 9.54% (23/241) of samples, respectively. A heterogeneous spatial distribution of positive dogs was observed across the city. CONCLUSIONS These data are pivotal for better understanding the dynamics of infection caused by these protozoa in the canine population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Dogs , Toxoplasma/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/epidemiology , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Neospora/immunology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis, Animal/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Coccidiosis/diagnosis , Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spatial Analysis
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(1): 219-228, ene. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-974804

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este artigo objetivou analisar a evolução do conhecimento sobre Toxocara sp. em seu aspecto zoonótico por meio de dados científicos entre os anos de 1996 a 2015 utilizando a epistemologia como ferramenta. A análise epistemológica da evolução do conhecimento sobre o aspecto zoonótico de Toxocara sp. no Brasil demonstrou que, de uma maneira geral, foram agregadas poucas novas informações as quais tiveram, ao longo do período estudado, absorção lenta, descontínua, e não foram inseridas na realidade social do ponto de vista de Saúde Pública.


Abstract The scope of this article was to analyze the evolution of knowledge about Toxocara sp. from a zoonotic point of view by means of scientific data published between the years 1996 and 2015 using epistemology as a tool. The epistemological analysis of the evolution of knowledge on the zoonotic aspect of Toxocara sp. in Brazil revealed that, in general, little new information was added which had, over the period studied, slow and discontinuous absorption, and was not incorporated in the social reality from the standpoint of public health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Toxocara/isolation & purification , Toxocariasis/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Toxocariasis/parasitology , Toxocariasis/transmission , Zoonoses/parasitology , Zoonoses/transmission , Public Health
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 680-682, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041489

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Herein, we assessed the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Leishmania infantum in dogs in Garanhuns, Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Sera samples (n = 242) were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The spatial distribution of dogs seropositive for anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies was evaluated using kernel density estimation. RESULTS: A total of 2.4% (6/242) of the animals were seropositive for anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies. The kernel map showed their distribution to be heterogeneous over the city, with a hotspot in the northeastern region. CONCLUSIONS: The reported data illustrate the circulation of parasites of the genus Leishmania in a canine population.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Dogs , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Endemic Diseases/veterinary , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Spatial Analysis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
8.
Rev. patol. trop ; 46(4): 331-338, dez. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-913750

ABSTRACT

Parasitism by intestinal nematodes may cause serious injuries to equines affecting their performance, given that the parasites compete for food and cause irritation, internal bleeding and anaemia. The diagnostic methods currently available are not efficient in detecting all the species of parasites simultaneously, hampering reliable diagnosis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate four diagnostic methods for detecting equine intestinal parasites in the southern hinterland of Pernambuco, Brazil. Fecal samples (n = 87) were collected and examined through flotation based methods (Willis-Mollay, modified centrifugal flotation and EPG/OPG) and sedimentation (Hoffman). Of the total number of samples examined, 77.0% (67/87) were positive by modified centrifugal flotation; 44.8% (39/87) were positive by the Willis-Mollay method; 34.5% (30/87) by the Hoffman method and 28.7% (25/87) by the EPG/ OPG method. The Kappa index indicated moderate concordance between the Willis-Mollay and modified centrifugal flotation techniques (K= 0.477); Willis-Mollay and EPG/OPG (K= 0.466); EPG/OPG and Hoffman (K= 0.425). In conclusion, modified centrifugal flotation presented high sensitivity for detection of parasites of the Strongylida order and Parascaris spp. It may, therefore, be used in association with the Willis-Mollay technique as a safe and accurate method of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Strongylida , Cestoda , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
9.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 516-520, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042455

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax is an important cause of economic losses among feedlot cattle. These losses are related to the morbidity, mortality, reproductive issues and decreased production. It is known that the clinical signs observed in infections by this protozoon are similar to other hemoparasitosis, which difficult the diagnosis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect and molecularly characterize an outbreak of trypanosomiasis caused by T. (D.) vivax in dairy cattle in the municipality of São Miguel Aleixo, state of Sergipe, Brazil. Blood samples from cattle (n = 15) presenting clinical signs compatible with trypanosomiasis were collected and parasitological and molecular evaluated. Among the samples analyzed, 34% (5/15) were positive from blood smears, 60% (9/15) from the buffy coat method and 80% (12/15) from the molecular method. The DNA sequence obtained (659 bp) showed 99% similarity to T. (D.) vivax sequences that are available in the GenBank database. The presence of this protozoon in cattle herds is a problem for producers. Diagnosing trypanosomiasis is problematic because its evolution is similar to that of other parasitic blood diseases. In addition, this is the first report of infection by T. (D.) vivax in cattle in the state of Sergipe, northeastern Brazil.


Resumo Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax é responsável por consideráveis perdas econômicas na bovinocultura. Estas perdas estão relacionados à morbidade, mortalidade, problemas reprodutivos e declínio na produção. Sabe-se que os sinais clínicos apresentados em infecções por este protozoário se assemelha a outras hemoparasitoses, dificultando muitas vezes o diagnóstico. Portanto, objetivou-se com este estudo detectar a ocorrência de T. (D.) vivax em bovinos leiteiros no município de São Miguel Aleixo, Estado de Sergipe, Brasil. Para tanto, amostras de sangue (n = 15) foram coletadas e avaliadas através de métodos parasitológicos e moleculares. Do total das amostras analisadas, 34% (5/15) foram positivas no esfregaço sanguíneo, 60% (9/15) pelo método do Buffy Coat, enquanto na biologia molecular 80% (12/15) amplificaram um fragmento de DNA (659 pb) compatível com T. (D.) vivax (GenBank). Em conclusão a presença de T. (D.) vivax nos rebanhos bovinos caracteriza-se como um problema para os pecuaristas, como também para o diagnóstico, uma vez que essa tripanossomíase apresenta evolução semelhante a outras hemoparasitoses. Ademais, este é o primeiro relato de infecção por T. (D.) vivax em bovinos do estado de Sergipe, nordeste do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/epidemiology , Cattle/parasitology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Trypanosoma vivax/isolation & purification , Trypanosomiasis, Bovine/diagnosis , Brazil/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Trypanosoma vivax/genetics , Dairying
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(4): 521-524, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042451

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal parasites are important pathogens affecting animals, some of them are of medical and veterinary concern. Although the dynamic of parasitic infections is a complex phenomenon that has been studied under experimental conditions, it shows several gaps in knowledge, especially in insular regions where a confined population of animals and parasites co-exists. In this study was assessed the parasitism by endoparasite gastrointestinal in feral cats (n = 37) and rodents (n = 30) from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago; in addition, the risk of human infection and ecological implications of these findings were discussed. Out of all samples analysed, 100% scored positive for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites in both feral cats and rodents. A total 17 genera and/or species of endoparasite gastrointestinal were identified, Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichuris campanula and Toxocara cati were the parasites more frequently in feral cats. In rodents Eimeria sp., Strongyloides sp. and Trichuris muris were parasites more frequently herein detected. Human population living in this area are at risk of parasite infections due to the population of rodents and feral cats in the archipelago.


Resumo Parasitas gastrointestinais são importantes agentes patogênicos que afetam os animais, sendo alguns destes de interesse médico e veterinário. Embora a dinâmica das infecções parasitárias seja um fenômeno complexo que tem sido estudado sob condições experimentais, existem várias lacunas no conhecimento, especificamente em regiões insulares onde existem populações confinadas de animais e parasitas. Neste estudo foi avaliado o parasitismo por endoparasitas gastrointestinais em gatos ferais (n = 37) e roedores (n = 30) do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha. Além disso, discutiu-se o risco de infecção humana e implicações ecológicas desses achados. De todas as amostras analisadas, 100% obtiveram resultados positivos para a presença de parasitos gastrointestinais tanto em gatos ferais quanto em roedores. Um total de 17 gêneros e/ou espécies de endoparasitos gastrointestinais foram identificados, Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichuris campanula e Toxocara cati foram os parasitos mais frequentes em gatos ferais. Em roedores Eimeria sp., Strongyloides sp. e Trichuris muris foram os mais detectados. A população humana que vive nesta área corre o risco de infecções parasitárias, devido à população de roedores e gatos ferais no arquipélago.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Rodentia/parasitology , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cats/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Brazil , Animals, Wild
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 280-284, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899286

ABSTRACT

Abstract Phlebotomines have worldwide distribution with many species present in Brazil, including the northeastern region, where the fauna is very diverse. The aim of this study was to identify the sandfly fauna in an area endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the state of Pernambuco. Sandflies were caught on three consecutive nights every month from October 2015 to September 2016, from 5 pm to 5 am, using seven light traps of Centers for Disease Control (CDC) type. Females were identified and used for molecular Leishmania detection. A total of 2,174 specimens belonging to ten species were collected: Lutzomyia choti (88.2%; 1,917/2,174) was the most abundant species, followed by Lutzomyia whitmani (8.1%; 176/2,174) and Lutzomyia sordellii (1.5%; 33/2,174). The majority of the specimens were collected in peridomestic areas (64.1%; 1,394/2,174) and during the rainy period. All the samples examined were negative for Leishmania spp. The presence of Lutzomyia whitmani indoors and in peridomestic areas indicates that the inhabitants of this area are exposed to the risk of infection by the parasites responsible for ACL.


Resumo Os flebotomíneos apresentam uma ampla distribuição mundial com muitas espécies presentes no Brasil, inclusive na região Nordeste, onde a fauna é bastante rica. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar a fauna de flebotomíneos em uma área endêmica para Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA), no estado de Pernambuco. As capturas foram realizadas mensalmente, durante três noites consecutivas das 17h às 5h, utilizando sete armadilhas luminosas tipo CDC, no período de outubro de 2015 a setembro de 2016. As fêmeas identificadas foram utilizadas para análise molecular para detecção de Leishmania. Um total de 2.174 espécimes pertencentes a dez espécies foram coletadas: Lutzomyia choti (88,2%; 1.917/2.174) a espécie mais abundante, seguida por Lutzomyia whitmani (8,1%; 176/2.174) e Lutzomyia sordellii (1,5%; 33/2.174). A maioria dos espécimes foi coletada no peridomicílio (64,1%; 1.394/2.174) e no período chuvoso. Todas as amostras avaliadas foram negativas para Leishmania spp. A presença de Lutzomyia whitmani no intradomicílio e peridomicílio indica que a população residente nesta área está exposta ao risco de infecção por parasitos causadores de LTA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Phlebotomus/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Population Density
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(1): 96-99, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-844140

ABSTRACT

Abstract Brazil has a wide diversity of exotic birds that were brought to this country during the European colonization. These animals are kept in captivity and, in some cases, in inadequate facilities, which may facilitate the introduction of pathogens, including gastrointestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to identify the main gastrointestinal parasites that affect exotic birds living in captivity in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil. Fecal samples (n = 362) from exotic birds were analyzed by direct examination and by the Willis-Mollay technique. Eggs of Amidostomum sp., Ascaridia sp., Capillarinae, Heterakis sp., Trichostrongylidae, and oocysts of coccidians were identified in nine different bird species. This is the first report in Brazil of infection by Ascaridia sp. and Heterakis sp. in Nymphicus hollandicus; by Trichostrongylidae in Serinus canaria and Streptopelia risoria.


Resumo O Brasil possui uma grande diversidade de aves exóticas que foram trazidas para o país durante a colonização europeia. Estes animais são mantidos em cativeiros, os quais muitas vezes são inadequados, proporcionando o surgimento de doenças provocadas por parasitas gastrointestinais. Objetivou-se neste estudo, realizar avaliação coproparasitológica de fezes de aves ornamentais mantidas em cativeiros no estado de Sergipe, região Nordeste do Brasil. Amostras fecais (n= 362) de aves exóticas foram analisadas através do exame direto a fresco e técnica de Willis-Mollay. Ovos de Amidostomum sp., Ascaridia sp., Capillarinae, Heterakis sp., Trichostrongylidae, e oocistos de coccídeos foram encontrados em nove diferentes espécies de aves. Aqui, destacamos, os primeiros registros no Brasil de Ascaridia sp. e Heterakis sp., parasitando Nymphicus hollandicus; Trichostrongilidae em Serinus canaria e Streptopelia risoria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Birds/parasitology , Gastrointestinal Tract/parasitology , Animals, Exotic , Brazil
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 698-702, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829670

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The sandfly fauna is well studied globally. In Brazil, sandfly fauna is very diverse in the Northeast region, especially in states such as Maranhão, Ceará, and Bahia. However, in the State of Pernambuco, the distribution of these insects is still not well known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the different species that constitute the sandfly fauna in an urban area in the Northeast region of Brazil, where an outbreak of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was recently reported. METHODS: The sandflies were collected from an urban area endemic for VL, at five collection points. The collection of samples was carried out from November 2014 to December 2015, using CDC light traps installed in intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary fashion. RESULTS: The collected sandflies (n = 297) belonged to eight species: Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia walkeri, Lutzomyia capixaba, Lutzomyia carmelinoi, and Lutzomyia whitmani. Most of the specimens collected were peridomiciliary (247/297, 83%). L. lenti (154/297, 52%) was the most frequently sampled species, followed by L. longipalpis (88/297, 29.6%), and L. sallesi (42/297, 14.1%), which together accounted for over 90% of the collected sandfly specimens. CONCLUSIONS: The continued presence of L. longipalpis in urban areas, including that in intradomiciliary areas, with a predominance of females, is crucial because of the high possibility of them causing VL outbreaks, since this species is the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Psychodidae/classification , Insect Vectors/classification , Psychodidae/virology , Seasons , Urban Population , Brazil , Population Density , Insect Vectors/virology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/transmission
14.
Ciênc. rural ; 46(11): 2029-2035, Nov. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-796072

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlations among chronic inflammatory reaction, immunostaining and parasite load in the genital system of female dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum . Animals (n = 10) used in this study were from the Department of Vector Control and Animal Surveillance of the municipality of Caruaru, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Fragments of the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterine body, uterine horns and ovaries were submitted to histopathological analysis, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and DNA detection of amastigotes by qPCR. Correlations were found between the IHC findings and chronic inflammatory infiltrate related to L. Infantum only in the vulva and vagina; whereas, the same inflammatory reactions without immunostaining were observed in all organs, except the ovaries. L. Infantum DNA was detected in all organs of genital system, with no difference in parasite load observed among the different organs. No correlation was reported between parasite load and inflammatory lesions in the organs evaluated, except for the uterine body, in which an inverse correlation was detected. In conclusion, the vulva and vagina were the major sites of lesions and immunostaining for L. Infantum amastigotes in the genital system of female dogs. Moreover, parasite load exerted no influence on the intensity of the lesions in the organs evaluated.


RESUMO: Considerando a falta de estudos sobre lesões nos órgãos genitais de cadelas naturalmente infectadas por Leishmania infantum , o objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a correlação entre reação inflamatória crônica, imunomarcação e carga parasitária, no sistema genital. Dez animais foram fornecidos pelo Departamento de Controle de Vetores e Vigilância Animal do município de Caruaru, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Fragmentos de vulva, vagina, cérvix, corpo do útero, corno do útero e ovários foram avaliados por descrição histopatológica, imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) e detecção de DNA de formas amastigotas por qPCR. A relação entre IHQ e infiltrado inflamatório crônico relacionado com L. infantum foi observada apenas na vulva e vagina, enquanto as mesmas reações sem imunomarcação foram observadas em todos os órgãos, exceto nos ovários. DNA de L. infantum foi detectado em todos os órgãos do sistema genital, porém, sem diferença de carga parasitária entre eles. Não houve correlação entre a carga parasitária e lesões inflamatórias nos órgãos avaliados, com exceção do corpo do útero, em que foi encontrada uma correlação inversa. Em conclusão, a vulva e a vagina foram os principais locais de lesões e imunomarcação para formas amastigotas L. infantum no sistema genital de cadelas. A carga parasitária não influenciou a intensidade das lesões nos órgãos avaliados.

15.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(2): 254-257, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785163

ABSTRACT

Abstract Gastrointestinal helminths are considered to be the most common parasites affecting cats worldwide. Correct diagnosis of these parasites in animals living in urban areas is pivotal, especially considering the zoonotic potential of some species (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.). In this study, a copromicroscopic survey was conducted using fecal samples (n = 173) from domestic cats living in the northeastern region of Brazil. Samples were examined through the FLOTAC technique and the overall results showed positivity of 65.31% (113/173) among the samples analyzed. Coinfections were observed in 46.01% (52/113) of the positive samples. The most common parasites detected were Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris sp., Dipylidium caninum and Cystoisospora sp. From an epidemiological point of view, these findings are important, especially considering that zoonotic parasites (e.g. Ancylostoma sp. and Toxocara sp.) were the nematodes most frequently diagnosed in this study. Therefore, the human population living in close contact with cats is at risk of infection caused by the zoonotic helminths of these animals. In addition, for the first time the FLOTAC has been used to diagnosing gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Brazil.


Resumo Helmintos gastrointestinais são considerados os mais frequentes parasitos que afetam gatos em todo o mundo. O correto diagnóstico desses parasitos, em animais que vivem em áreas urbanas, é crucial, especialmente quando considerado o potencial zoonótico de algumas espécies (ex. Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.). Neste estudo, uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada, utilizando-se amostras de fezes (n = 173) de gatos domésticos da região Nordeste do Brasil. As amostras foram examinadas através da técnica FLOTAC, e os resultados gerais mostraram uma positividade de 65,31% (113/173). Co-infecções foram observadas em 46,01% (52/113) das amostras positivas. Os parasitas mais comuns aqui detectados foram Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara cati, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris sp., Dipylidium caninum e Cystoisospora sp. De um ponto de vista epidemiológico, esses resultados são importantes, especialmente considerando que os parasitos zoonóticos (ex. Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.) foram os mais frequentes nematódeos diagnosticados neste estudo. Portanto, a população humana, em estreito convívio com esses animais, apresenta risco de infecção por helmintos de caráter zoonótico. Além disso, pela primeira vez, a técnica de FLOTAC tem sido utilizada no diagnóstico de parasitos gastrointestinais em gatos no Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Toxocariasis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Toxocara , Brazil , Helminths , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology
16.
Ciênc. rural ; 46(4): 641-647, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-775156

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Canine visceral leishmaniasisis an important disease caused by the protozoon Leishmania infantum which affects several organs and systems, including the genital tract. The L. infantum tropism to the male genital system and correlation among parasite load, immunohistochemistry detection and structural changes in these organs is controversy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate this correlation in the genital organs of the male dogs naturally infected with L. infantum. Samples from testicles, epididymis, prostate, glans penis, prepuce and scrotum were collected from 19 positive adult dogs. Structural changes were observed in the testicles (5.2%), epididymis (2.6%), prepuce (5.2%) and scrotum (5.2%) of the samples positive at immunohistochemistry examination. Conversely, similar structural changes were observed in all tissues negative at immunohistochemistry analysis. Moreover, L. infantum DNA was detected in all organs with the highest parasite load found in testicles, epididymis, and prostate gland. , Testicles had the highest parasite load but the lowest number of inflammatory lesions. These inflammatory lesions were observed in all organs of reproductive system of dogs; however, no correlation was observed between the parasite load and inflammatory lesions of dogs naturally infected with L. infantum.


RESUMO: A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina é uma importante enfermidade causada pelo protozoário Leishmania infantum que afeta diversos órgãos e sistemas, incluindo o trato genital. No entanto, o tropismo da L. infantum pelo sistema genital masculino e a correlação entre carga parasitária, detecção imunohistoquímica e alterações estruturais nesses órgãos ainda é uma questão controversa. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar essa correlação em órgãos genitais de cães naturalmente infectados por L. infantum. Para tal, amostras de testículos, epidídimos, próstata, glande, prepúcio e escroto foram coletadas de 19 cães adultos positivos. Lesões microscópicas associadas com imunomarcação de formas amastigotas do parasito foram observadas nos testículos (5,2%), epidídimos (2,6%), prepúcio (5,2%) e escroto (5,2%). Por outro lado, alterações estruturais sem imunomarcação foram observadas em todos os órgãos. Além disso, o DNA de L. infantum foi encontrado em todos os órgãos com maior carga parasitária nos testículos, epidídimos e próstata. Curiosamente, os testículos apresentaram a maior carga parasitária, porém apresentaram o menor grau de lesões inflamatórias. Essas lesões inflamatórias foram observadas em todos os órgãos do sistema reprodutor de cães com L. infantum. Entretanto, não houve correlação entre carga parasitária e lesões inflamatórias nestes órgãos.

17.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(1): 127-130, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777540

ABSTRACT

Abstract The skin is the site of inoculation of Leishmania spp. in susceptible hosts, and consequently dermatopathies, especially ulcerative dermatitis, are the main clinical signs observed. The aim of this study was to assess parasitism of the skin (intact and ulcerated) among dogs that were naturally infected by Leishmania spp., through immunohistochemical analysis. Skin fragments (intact and ulcerated) were collected from 13 dogs with positive parasitological (bone marrow aspiration and exfoliative skin) and serological examinations (ELISA S7® Biogene) forLeishmania spp. These samples were processed using the immunohistochemical technique, involving the streptavidin-peroxidase complex. Ulcerative lesions were mainly observed on the elbows (53.84%; 7/13), nostrils (15.38%; 2/13), ears (23.07%; 3/13) and wings of the ilium (7.69%; 1/13). A severe parasite load was detected in 46.15% and 76.92% of the intact and ulcerated skin samples tested, respectively. The parasite load on ulcerated skin was statistically higher than on intact skin (p = 0.0221). These results indicate that the intact and ulcerated skin may host a high parasite load of amastigote forms of Leishmania spp., which can favor the transmission of the parasite.


Resumo A pele é o local de inoculação da Leishmania spp. nos hospedeiros susceptíveis e dessa forma, as dermatopatias, principalmente as dermatites ulcerativas são os principais sinais clínicos observados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o parasitismo na pele (íntegra e ulcerada) em cães naturalmente infectados por Leishmania spp. através da técnica de imunohistoquímica. Fragmentos de pele (íntegra e ulcerada) foram coletados de 13 cães com diagnóstico parasitológico (aspirado de medula óssea e esfoliação cutânea) e sorológico positivos (ELISA S7® Biogene) paraLeishmania spp. Amostras foram processadas por imunohistoquímica pelo complexo estreptoavidina-peroxidase. As lesões ulcerativas foram observadas principalmente nas regiões do cotovelo 53,84% (7/13), narina 15,38% (2/13), orelha 23,07% (3/13) e sobre a asa do ílio 7,69% (1/13). Uma intensa carga parasitária foi detectada 46,15% e 76,92% das amostras de pele íntegra e ulcerada, respectivamente. A carga parasitária na pele ulcerada foi estatisticamente superior à pele íntegra (p = 0,0221). Esses resultados indicam que a pele intacta e ulcerada pode albergar uma intensa carga parasitária de formas amastigotas de Leishmania spp., o que pode favorecer a transmissão do parasita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Skin/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/veterinary , Parasite Load/veterinary , Dog Diseases/parasitology
18.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875222

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify the species of fleas and ticks of Cerdocyon thous from the state of Pernambuco. Animals (n = 20) were examined, with 30% (6/20) ectoparasitized. Fleas (n = 16) and ticks (n = 17) parasitizing free-living crab-eating fox and captive in state of Pernambuco were collected. The fleas were identified as: Pulex irritans and Ctenocephalides felis; and the ticks were: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma ovale. The presence of ectoparasites of domestic animals parasitizing C. thous, suggests a close contact of this species to the peridomicile. Furthermore, this is the first report of the occurrence of A. ovale in C. thous in northeastern Brazil.(AU)


Objetivou-se identificar as espécies de pulgas e carrapatos de Cerdocyon thous provenientes do estado Pernambuco. Foram examinados 20 animais, estando 30% (6/20) ectoparasitados. Foram coletadas 16 pulgas e 17 carrapatos em cachorros-do-mato de vida livre e de cativeiro no estado de Pernambuco. As pulgas foram identificadas como: Pulex irritans e Ctenocephalides felis; e os carrapatos foram: Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato e Amblyomma ovale. A presença de ectoparasitos de animais domésticos parasitando C. thous, sugere a aproximação de indivíduos desta espécie ao peridomicílio. Além disso, este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de A. ovale em C. thous no nordeste brasileiro.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ctenocephalides/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/parasitology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Siphonaptera/parasitology , Ticks/parasitology
19.
Ciênc. rural ; 45(9): 1622-1628, set. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-756433

ABSTRACT

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. The major sites of parasite localization in infected animals are the secondary lymphoid organs, bone marrow and cutaneous tissue. However, reports exist on the detection of the parasite in the organs of the male and female genital system. The main route of transmission is related to the hematophagous sandfly vectors of the genus Lutzomyia(New World) and Phlebotomus(Old World). However, other routes of transmission may be mentioned, such as sexual, vertical, hematogenic without vector and others involved in VL epidemiology. Thus, the current article reviews the main forms of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in mammals

.

A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença crônica causada pelo protozoárioLeishmania infantum.Os principais sítios de localização do parasito nos animais acometidos pela LV foram órgãos linfoides primários, secundários e tegumento. Contudo, existem relatos da detecção do parasito em órgãos do sistema genital masculino e feminino. A principal via de transmissão decorre da ação hematófaga de vetores flebotomíneos pertencentes aos gêneros Lutzomyia(Novo Mundo) e Phlebotomus(Velho Mundo). Todavia, outras formas de transmissão podem ser relacionadas, como as vias sexual, vertical, hematógena não vetorial e ainda existe a possibilidade de outros vetores estarem envolvidos na epidemiologia da doença. Dessa forma, a proposta deste artigo foi revisar as principais formas de transmissão da leishmaniose visceral em mamíferos

.

20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(4): 491-493, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755978

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION:

The northeast region of Brazil is endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection in dogs in Petrolina.

METHODS:

Blood samples were collected from dogs (n = 600), and bone-marrow biopsy was performed in animals with positive serological test results that presented clinical signs of ZVL. The serological analyses were performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (S7(r)Biogene).

RESULTS:

Of the 600 dogs tested, 19% (115/600) presented anti-L. infantum chagasi antibodies.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data are important because canine infection is an important risk factor for the human disease.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/veterinary , Brazil/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Endemic Diseases , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rural Population , Urban Population
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL