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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888686

ABSTRACT

This study focused, for the first time, on the effect of ultrasonic features on the extraction efficiency of secondary metabolites in mustard seed cake (MSC). The nematostatic potential of sonicated seed cake was examined against the second-stage juveniles (J2s) of root-knot nematode,

2.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2018; 34 (3): 633-637
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-198384

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the role of icaAD and agr genes in biofilm formation and evaluate the consistency of two phenotypic methods for biofilm measurement


Methods: A total of 81 clinical S. aureus strains were included and analyzed for biofilm formation by two methods. The microtitration plate method was optimized using computational fluid dynamics and compared with the Congo red assay. The genes for icaAD and agr were detected using PCR


Results: Of 81 isolates, biofilm production was detected in 43% isolates using Congo red method while microtiter plate assay showed biofilm production in 92% isolates. Both methods showed correlation in 30% isolates. PCR detection showed icaAD gene in 42 [52%] isolates. Out of 81 S. aureus isolates 65 strains [80%] contained agr while 16 [20%] strains were non-typeable


Conclusions: In conclusion, biofilm production was observed for both agr positive and agr negative isolates. Furthermore, the presence of icaAD genes was not associated with all biofilm producing strains as some strains negative for icaAD genes displayed biofilm production

3.
PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2018; 68 (3): 531-534
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-198851

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the prevalence of various ear, nose and throat diseases in Shangla valley. Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out in shangla. Duration of study was 3 months, from Jun 2014 to Aug 2014


Material and Methods: All the patients of any age group and both genders who reported with any ENT disorder and emergency were included in this study. Frequency and percentage of various ENT diseases among patients and emergency procedures performed were found


Results: A total of 2725 patients were included. The most common ENT disorder encountered was rhinosinusitis which was seen in 14.2% cases, followed by ear wax [impacted cerumen] in 13.4% and pharyngitis in 12.5% cases. Allergic rhinitis was seen in 10.4% cases, epistaxis in 7.4% and chronic suppurative otitis media in 6.4% cases. Among the emergency ENT procedures performed, anterior nasal packing was the commonest [done in 55 cases] followed by stitching of lacerations and foreign body removal from ear and nose


Conclusion: Ear, nose and throat diseases are very common in Shangla and their spectrum range from rhinosinusitis, impacted cerumen [ear wax] and pharyngitis to less common but potentially dangerous conditions like foreign body impaction in ear and nose

4.
PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2018; 68 (2): 241-244
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-198890

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the results of antral washout with and without metronidazole irrigation of maxillary sinus in patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: This Quasi experimental study was carried out in Combined Military Hospital Khuzdar and Combined Military Hospital Attock, from Mar 2013 to Apr 2015


Patient and Method: One hundred patients who were between 20-50 years of age were included in this study. Half of them received antral irrigation of metronidazole in addition to postoperative oral antibiotics were compared with the other half who received just oral antibiotics after antral washout procedure. Clinical success was compared in both groups in terms of patients becoming asymptomatic


Results: Clinical success in both groups at the end of the study was 94% and 80% of patients with antral irrigation of metronidazole and without it respectively showing that metronidazole irrigation is superior method


Conclusion: Antral irrigation with metronidazole after antral washout procedure in patient with chronic maxillary sinusitis is very effective in early recovery from the disease

5.
Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2015; 22 (1): 54-63
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-162458

ABSTRACT

Pakistan is eighth among countries with high burden of tuberculosis [TB]. In Pakistan free-of-charge TB diagnosis and treatment services are available. The objective of qualitative exploratory study was to understand how TB patients and their families cope with the lost earnings and increased expenditures [other than diagnosis and treatment cost] related with disease and its treatment. The research methods included literature review, focus group discussion using vignettes and in-depth interviews with TB patients. The study was done in the rural areas of Lahore District with the support of district and local health facility staff. The study revealed that, Results like in many other developing countries, TB patients rely mainly on financial and physical support of family members and friends. Conclusion The study also highlighted the need for developing institutional mechanisms to help patients cope with economic consequences of tuberculosis

6.
Isra Medical Journal. 2012; 4 (4): 205-208
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-194448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to analyze the in vitro activity of vancomycin and kanamycin combination against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli


STUDY DESIGN: It was an experimental study


PLACE AND DURATION: The study was conducted in the month of February, 2007 at the University of East London


METHODS: Checkerboard synergy tests were performed in broth microdilution trays


RESULTS: FIC [Fractional Inhibitory Concentration] of 0.625 was calculated for the two drugs against E. coli that showed additive effect making this combination not effective against this organism. FIC of 0.182 was observed when the same combination of drugs was tested against Staph. Aureus


CONCLUSION: Vancomycin and Kanamycin have synergistic effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

7.
Tanaffos. 2012; 11 (3): 15-22
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-152062

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis [TB] is a major cause of mortality affecting millions of people in third world countries. In DOTS monitoring of patients is facility based and treatment supporter-based; by these two ways patients' compliance to treatment is monitored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of treatment supporters and their impact on patients' treatment outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional survey in the routine TB control program operational context. All sputum smear positive TB patients that were diagnosed and registered by the public sector in the urban and rural diagnostic centers in 2008 with available outcomes were included in the study. Data of 451 patients were collected during August-October 2010 from 15 health facilities. The majority of patients [89.6%] were provided with treatment supporters. Of 404 [89.6%] cases with treatment supporters, in 203 [50.2%] the supporters were lady health workers, in 46 [11.4%] were community health workers and health facility workers, and in 155 [38.4%] were family members and community volunteers. A total of 384 [85.1%] were categorized as "treatment success", 31 [6.9%], as "transferred out", 17 [3.8%], as "expired", 16 [3.5%] as "defaulted" and three [0.7%] as "treatment failure". The treatment success rates in patients supervised by Lady health workers, community health workers and health facility workers, and family members and community volunteers were 93.1%, 89.1% and 73.5%, respectively. We found a significantly higher treatment success rate [93.1%] in patients supervised by lady health workers compared to others. The overall treatment success rate was 85.1%

8.
Isra Medical Journal. 2011; 3 (2): 60-64
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-195313

ABSTRACT

Objective: to find out if the bacteria present in human oral cavity have the ability to produce azoreductase enzyme and to identify the types of bacteria from the human oral flora that can decolourise the azo dye amaranth


Design: experimental study


Materials and methods: human oral microbial flora were screened for their abilities to reduce azo compound by growing them on brain heart infusion agar plates containing 100 µµMolar of the azo dye amaranth. Bacteria that reduced amaranth were detected by the appearance of clear zones around the colonies. Bacteria were identified using standard microbiological techniques. Organisms belonging to Micrococcaceae family were further identified by API Staph kit from BioMérieux SA


Results: there was more decolourisation of the amaranth dye in the plates that were incubated anaerobically as compared to plates grown in aerobic conditions. Azoreduction of the amaranth dye proceeded at a slower rate when performed under aerobic condition as compared to when performed under anaerobic environment. Bacteria having azoreductase activity were identified as Neisseria flavescens, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus hominis and Staphylococcus lentis


Conclusion: this study suggests that azo dyes present in food and drink can be reduced by some common oral microflora and the environment in the oral cavity is also favourable for the reduction of these compounds

9.
Pakistan Oral and Dental Journal. 2010; 30 (1): 133-137
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-98537

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of ectopic canines in patients' reporting to the 28 Military Dental Centre Lahore Cantt, seeking orthodontic treatment during the last twelve months. A total of 173 patients were evaluated. Out of which 41[24%] patients [11 were males and 30 were females] with an approximate male to female ratio of 1:3. Most frequent location was labial, 38 out of 41[93%]


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cuspid/abnormalities , Orthodontics
10.
JAMC-Journal of Ayub Medical College-Abbotabad-Pakistan. 2009; 21 (4): 28-30
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-104370

ABSTRACT

Gonorrhoea is a purulent inflammation of mucus membrane of the genital tract and is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease [STD] caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoae. Both men and women can be infected through a variety of sexual contact behaviours including vaginal, anal or oral intercourses. This comparative study was carried out in New Gulail Polyclinic Jeddah, KSA from Jan 2003 to March 2004 to find the clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and spectinomycin, the three commonly used drugs, in the treatment of gonorrhoea. A total number of 300 patients suffering from gonorrhoea were included in this study. They were randomly divided into 3 groups of 100 patients each. Group-A patients were given Tablet Ciprofloxacin 500 mg, Group-B patients Injection Ceftriaxone 500 mg, and Group-C patients were put on Injection Spectinomycin 2 gm, all in stat dosage. On the 5th day following the treatment, all patients were re-examined and their clinical and laboratory findings were recorded and analysed. On the 5th day following treatment the Group-A [n=100] showed 9 [9%] partial response and 11 [11%] cases showed no response to Ciprofloxacin. In the Group-B [n=100], 4 [4%] patients showed partial response and 6 [6%] patients showed no response to Ceftriaxone. In Group-C, out of 100 patients, 4 [4%] cases reported with partial response and 2 [2%] patients showed no response to Spectinomycin. The efficacy of these anti-microbial agents was the same in both the genders. Anti-microbial susceptibility of N. gonorrhoeae to various antibiotics is gradually decreasing. In order to ensure full cure, all gonorrhoea patients should be followed-up after a single dosage of any antibiotic. Further research should continue for newer, effective, and preferably oral medication for the treatment of gonorrhoea

11.
JPDA-Journal of the Pakistan Dental Association. 2008; 17 (4): 179-181
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-88478

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of deep bite among orthodontic patients who presented at the Department of Orthodontics, AFID, Rawalpindi during a time period of 7 years. The orthodontic treatment records of 1856 patients were evaluated for the presence of anterior deep bite. Patient's study casts and pre-treatment photographs were used for this propose. All the patients included in the study were in the permanent dentition stage. Three hundred sixty eight patients out of 1856 had anterior deep bite with an incisor overlap of more that 3 mm. Of these, 368 patients 238 were females and 130 were males. The patients were divided into two groups. Grade 1 deep bite, having an incisor overlap of more than 3 mm without palatal irritation and Grade 2 deep bite, having an overlap of more than 3 mm with trauma to the palatal mucosa. The occurrence of deep bite among these patients was 19.8% out of which 64.6% were females and 35.4% were males


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Malocclusion , Orthodontics, Corrective , Open Bite , Sex Distribution
12.
Pakistan Oral and Dental Journal. 2008; 28 (1): 71-74
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-89613

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to calculate the frequency of an anterior open bite in a set of population comprising of military as well as civilian patients reporting to orthodontic department of Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry [AFID], Rawalpindi, from all over the country. Out of a total sample of 1856 patients reporting to AFID from 2001 through 2008, 1800 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Dental records including photographs and casts were assessed for the presence of anterior open bite. The frequency of open bite from the total sample and its percentage with respect to gender and age was calculated. The frequency of open bite was found to be 4%. The mean age of patients was 21.6 years. Females were twice as frequently affected as males. Simple anterior open bite was more prevalent. It is self evident that this is one of the most difficult malocclusions to manage and maintain in orthodontics. Its treatment should be primarily etiology oriented and preferably customized so as to prevent the chances of relapse


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Malocclusion , Orthodontics
13.
JMS-Journal of Medical Sciences. 1995; 5 (3): 16-19
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-37560
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