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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927991

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of astragaloside Ⅳ in mice with ulcerative colitis(UC) and its effect on the percentage of peripheral blood T helper(Th17) cells. Following the establishment of UC mouse model with 2% sodium dextran sulfate(DSS), mice in the positive control group and low-and high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ groups were treated with corresponding drugs by gavage. Disease activity index(DAI) was calculated, and serum interleukin-17(IL-17), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) levels were assayed by ELISA. The pathological changes in colon tissue were observed by HE staining, and Th17/regulatory T cells(Treg) ratio in the peripheral blood was determined by flow cytometry. Western blot was conducted for detecting the relative protein expression levels of forkhead box protein P3(Foxp3) and retinoic acid-related orphan nuclear receptor γT(ROR-γt). The findings demonstrated that in normal mice, the colonic structure was intact. The goblet cells were not reduced and the glands were neatly arranged, with no mucosal erosion, bleeding, or positive cell infiltration. In the model group, the colonic mucosal structure was seriously damaged, manifested as disordered arrangement or missing of glands, vascular dilatation, congestion, and massive inflammatory cell infiltration. The pathological injury of colon tissue was alleviated to varying degrees in drug treatment groups. Compared with the normal group, the model group exhibited elevated percentage of Th17 cells, increased IL-17 and TNF-α content, up-regulated relative ROR-γt protein expression, lowered TGF-β, reduced percentage of Treg cells, and down-regulated relative Foxp3 protein expression. The comparison with the model group showed that DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, and relative ROR-γt protein expression in the positive control group, low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group, and high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group were decreased, while TGF-β content, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression were increased. The DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, and relative ROR-γt protein expression in the low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group were higher than those in the positive control group, whereas the content of TGF-β, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression were lower. DAI score, pathological score, percentage of Th17 cells, IL-17 and TNF-α content, relative ROR-γt protein expression in the high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group declined in contrast to those in the low-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group, while the TGF-β content, percentage of Treg cells, and relative Foxp3 protein expression rose. There was no significant difference between the positive control group and the high-dose astragaloside Ⅳ group. Astragaloside Ⅳ is able to inhibit inflammatory response and diminish the percentage of Th17 cells in mice with UC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Mice , Saponins/pharmacology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Th17 Cells , Triterpenes/pharmacology
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906281

ABSTRACT

Objective:To establish the grade evaluation standard of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces combining traditional character evaluation and modern intrinsic quality analysis. Method:The appearance character parameters (thickness and weight) and contents of internal index components (tanshinones and salvianolic acid B) of 18 batches of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces were determined, and the relative quality constant was calculated. The maximum value of the percentage quality constants of the tested samples was assumed to be 100%, the value ≥80% was classified as the first-class, ≥50% and <80% as the second-class, <50% as the third-class. Result:The relative quality constants of 18 batches of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces ranged from 349 to 884. According to the percentage quality constant, 18 batches of samples were successfully divided into three grades. The relative quality constant of the first-class product was ≥707, including samples ds5, ds8 and ds14, accounting for about 17% of the total number of samples. The relative quality constant of the second-class product was ≥442 and <707, accounting for about 61% of the total number of samples. the other samples were of the third-class, and their relative quality constants were all <442. Conclusion:The method of relative quality constant overcomes the one-sidedness of the single method in the grade evaluation of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma decoction pieces, and the evaluation results can objectively, reasonably and scientifically classify the grade of the decoction pieces, which can provide reference for the establishment of the grade standard of other decoction pieces.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905910

ABSTRACT

Objective:Aiming at the residue of Shaoyao Gancaotang, the extraction, qualitative and quantitative study of the small molecule resource components were carried out to clarify the residual small molecule chemical components in the residue and explore the ways of its resource utilization. Method:The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) was used to qualitatively identify the residual small molecule substances in the dregs of Shaoyao Gancaotang. Agilent C<sub>18</sub> reversed-phase chromatographic column (3.0 mm×100 mm, 2.7 µm) was used at the flow rate of 0.4 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, the injection volume was 5 µL, and the mobile phase was gradient eluted with 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) (0-1 min, 14%-17.5%B; 1-3 min, 17.5%-19%B; 3-4 min, 19%-20%B; 4-5 min, 20%B; 5-6 min, 20%-21%B; 6-9 min, 21%B; 9-22 min, 21%-36%B; 22-23 min, 36%B; 23-32 min, 36%-43%B), electrospray ionization (ESI) was employed with negative ion mode scanning and scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 200. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established for the quantitative analysis of its main components with Agilent C<sub>18</sub> reversed-phase chromatographic column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 µm), the detection wavelength was set at 235 nm, the flow rate was 0.8 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, and the injection volume was 5 µL. Mobile phase was 0.05% phosphoric acid (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-1 min, 14%-19%B; 1-4 min, 19%B; 4-18 min, 19%-50%B). The content changes of main components in the residue of Shaoyao Gancaotang were compared before and after two different techniques of organic solvent extraction and enzymatic extraction. Result:A total of 16 chemical components in the residue of Shaoyao Gancaotang were qualitatively analyzed, and quantitative analysis found that there were many chemical components in the residue, among which the residues of 6 index components such as paeoniflorin and liquiritin reached more than 70% in the original decoction piece. After enzymolysis by cellulase, liquiritin in the residue could be converted into liquiritigenin. The content of crude polysaccharide in enzymatic extract of the residue was 6 times higher than that in the blank group, and the content was up to 12%. Conclusion:There are still many small molecule resource components in the residue of Shaoyao Gancaotang, which has great development potential. Organic solvents can be used to re-extract the target components in the residue, and liquiritin can be converted into liquiritigenin by biological fermentation technology, and the crude polysaccharide from the residue can be extracted by enzymatic method to develop animal feed. This study can provide reference basis and approach for reusing the residues of Shaoyao Gancaotang preparations and dispensing granules, so as to realize the high-value utilization of Shaoyao Gancaotang.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905058

ABSTRACT

Based on the ancient Chinese medical literature and modern clinical application literature, Mahuangtang was systematically analyzed, including its origin, composition, processing requirements and others, in order to provide support for the development of this famous classical formula. It was found that there were some doubts about Mahuangtang, such as the original variety, the processing of decoction pieces, and the dose conversion ratio. On the basis of fully considering the actual needs of the development of famous classical formula preparations and the usage habits of modern clinical practice, the development suggestions of the author were as follows:Ephedrae Herba should be selected Ephedra sinica without removing knots, Cinnamomi Ramulus should be selected from Cinnamomum cassia, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma should select Glycyrrhiza uralensis and be roasted with honey, and Armeniacae Semen Amarum should be selected as Dan-processed products. The total dose of Mahuangtang was 24 g after conversion according to 1 Liang equal to 3 g as following the transition phenomenon and law. The preparation and usage method was as follows:took 1.8 L of water, first added Ephedrae Herba in water for decocting, evaporated 400 mL of water, removed the upper foam, then added the other three drugs, cooked over gentle heat to 500 mL, filtered the residue, took three times a day, about 160 mL warm decoction once. The major function recorded of Mahuangtang in ancient books was exterior sthenia syndrome of exogenous wind cold, it often used in the clinical treatment of cold, acute bronchitis, bronchial asthma and other diseases through the flexible application of the later doctors.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885834

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the awareness of diabetic retinopathy (DR) prevention and treatment knowledge of diabetic patients in the community of Shenzhen, and analyze its influencing factors.Methods:A cluster random sampling method was used to select 904 patients with diabetes diagnosed in 6 community health service centers in 2 administrative districts of Shenzhen and included in this study. Questionnaire survey of patients were performed to understand their knowledge of DR prevention and treatment. The multi-factor logistic regression analysis method was used to analyze the related influencing factors of DR prevention knowledge awareness.Results:Among 904 patients, 144 patients (15.93%, 144/904) knew about DR prevention and treatment knowledge. The highest awareness rate were about "Diabetes can affect vision and even cause blindness" (88.60%, 801/904). The lowest awareness rate (6.20%, 56/904) were about "DR treatment methods". About "diabetes requires regular fundus examinations" and "diabetics", the awareness rate of fundus examination interval were less than 50.00%. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that gender [odds ratio ( OR)=1.595], education level ( OR=2.963, 3.937), monthly income level ( OR=3.871, 4.675), diabetes course ≥15 years ( OR=1.829), treatment measures ( OR=3.318, 4.512). Whether people had DR ( OR=1.605) were important factors that affected the awareness of DR prevention and treatment knowledge ( P<0.05). Conclusions:The overall awareness of DR prevention and treatment knowledge among diabetic patients in the community of Shenzhen is relatively low. Males, low education and income levels are the main influencing factors.

6.
Chinese Journal of Microsurgery ; (6): 146-151, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885771

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summarize the oblique branches found in the transfer of anterolateral thigh flap (ALTF) and to handle the issues of oblique branch.Methods:Thirty patients who require surgery of ALTF transfer from May, 2017 to October, 2019 were enrolled. CTA examination was perfected prior surgery and the origin of ALTF vessels was preliminarily determined. During the surgery, Three-longitudinal-and-five-transverse methods were used to locate and design the flap. The ALTF was taken according to the flap design. Attention should be paid to the location of the oblique branch and the separation of the vessels of oblique branch to avoid a damage as much as possible. The vessels of oblique branch should be completely explored and separated. One or 2 vascular pedicles were cut according to whether the oblique branch vessels and the descending branch vessels were joined together during surgery. Clamping tests were carried out on the 2 vascular pedicles to determine an arterial blood supply. Super drainage of vascular pedicle veins according to the situation of blood circulation. After the surgery, routine treatment was carried out. Blood supply, skin temperature, swelling degree, exudation and survival of the flap were closely observed and regular follow-up was carried out.Results:Among the 30 ALTF examined by CTA, 13 patients were identified with oblique branch vessels before operation. During operation, 11 oblique branch vessels (The occurrencce rate was 36.6%)were found to enter the flap, and were completely preserved. Of the 11 identified oblique branch vessels, 8 had 2 vascular pedicles taken and the vascular pedicles were treated by venous super drainage technique. The postoperative blood supply of the flap was good; The skin temperature was closed to surrounding normal skin; Swelling of flap was minor and there was little seepage. The flaps all survived after surgery with stage one healing. Followed-up time was 3-32 (average 16.1) months. The recipient site healing was good, and the function and appearance were satisfactory. The joint movement at the donor site was normal, and there was no obvious loss of local sensation.Conclusion:More than one third of the oblique branches appear in this group. The oblique branch vessels should be preserved as much as possible to avoid issues in relation to the oblique branch. Reasonable handling of oblique branch is the key to the success of the surgery.

7.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 483-486, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883911

ABSTRACT

Objective:To recognize the characteristics of necrotizing fasciitis patients complicated with sepsis and summarize the experience the treatment.Methods:A retrospective study was conducted. The clinical data of 57 patients with necrotizing fasciitis complicated with sepsis admitted to Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital from July 2009 to December 2019 was analyzed by collecting such factors as gender, age, complications, infection sites, pathogens, surgery information, treatment options and outcome. The patients were divided into debridement group ( n = 14) and control group ( n = 43) according to whether the debridement was completed within 48 hours of admission, and the mortality during hospitalization between the two groups was compared. A telephone follow-up had been done to record the long-term outcome of these patients. Results:Among 57 patients with necrotizing fasciitis complicated with sepsis, there were 43 males and 14 females with the average age of (57.9±12.1) years old. Most of the underlying diseases were diabetes mellitus (70.17%), other diseases included hypertension (8.77%), tumor chemotherapy (7.02%), liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis, 7.02%), coronary artery heart disease (3.51%), systemic lupus erythematosus (3.51%), etc. Most of the infection site was lower limbs (71.93%). There were 78 pathogens cultured in 57 patients, in which 52 were non-drug resistant bacteria (66.67%), and 26 were drug resistant bacteria (33.33%). There were 40 Gram positive (G +) bacteria (51.28%), 29 Gram negative (G -) bacteria (37.18%), 8 fungi (10.26%) and 1 mixed bacteria (1.28%). Finally, of 57 patients, 46 patients were cured, and 11 patients died with hospital mortality of 19.30%. Among 57 patients, the hospital mortality in the debridement group was significantly lower than that in the control group [0% (0/14) vs. 25.58% (11/43), P < 0.05]. Among the 46 cured patients, 11 had accepted amputations, accounting for 23.91%. In December 2020, 43 patients who were cured (3 patients were lost to follow-up) were followed up by telephone. Twenty-three patients were completely self-care, 9 patients were partly self-care, 8 patients were completely unable to take care of themselves, and 3 patients died. Conclusions:Necrotizing fasciitis with sepsis mostly occurs in people with weakened immunity, and has a high mortality and disability rate. Early identification and active surgical debridement may be the key to improve the treatment effect.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882521

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the inhibitory effect and mechanism of photocarcinorin (PSD-007) photodynamic therapy (PDT) on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma transplanted tumors in nude mice.Methods:A total of 50 transplanted tumor nude mice models of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma were established and randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (group A), simple PSD-007 group (group B), simple light group (group C), local injection of PSD-007 + light group (group D), intraperitoneal injection of PSD-007 + light group (group E) using the method of random number table, 10 mice in each group. After 7 days of treatment, the tumor mass and tumor volume of nude mice in each group were measured and the tumor inhibition rate was calculated. HE staining was used to detect the histopathological changes of tumors in nude mice. Western blotting was used to detect the expressions of autophagy-related gene Beclin 1, microtubules associated protein 1 light chain 3-β (LC3) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) signaling pathway related proteins. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to detect LC3, Beclin 1 mRNA expressions in tumor tissues.Results:After treatment, the tumor mass of nude mice bearing human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in group A, B, C, D and E were (2.05±0.18) g, (2.02±0.20) g, (2.04±0.15) g, (0.43±0.11) g and (0.94±0.12) g, and the tumor volumes were (1.11±0.13) cm 3, (1.18±0.16) cm 3, (1.13±0.14) cm 3, (0.51±0.07) cm 3and (0.65±0.10) cm 3, and there were statistically significant differences among the 5 groups ( F=236.749, P<0.001; F=62.418, P<0.001). Compared with group A, B and C, the tumor mass and tumor volumes of nude mice in group D and E were significantly reduced, and there were statistically significant differences (all P<0.001); compared with group E, the tumor mass and tumor volume of nude mice in group D were significantly reduced ( P<0.001; P=0.023). The tumor inhibition rates of group B, C, D and E were (1.07±0.11)%, (0.55±0.06)%, (79.11±0.06)% and (54.05±0.08)%, with a statistically significant difference ( F=235.987, P<0.001), compared with group B, C and E, group D had the most obvious tumor suppressing effect (all P<0.05). HE staining results showed that compared with group A, B and C, group D and E had larger tumor necrosis areas, more inflammatory cell infiltration, more vacuolar degeneration, and obvious nuclear shrinkage. The tumor necrosis degree in group D was higher than that in group E. The relative expressions of PI3K protein of group A, B, C, D and E were 1.01±0.06, 1.00±0.05, 1.01±0.05, 0.23±0.02, 0.48±0.04, p-Akt/Akt protein relative expressions were 0.66±0.06, 0.65±0.05, 0.64±0.05, 0.06±0.02, 0.17±0.02, p-mTOR/mTOR protein relative expressions were 1.06±0.06, 1.01±0.06, 1.01±0.06, 0.30±0.02, 0.45±0.04. The protein relative expression ratios of LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ were 0.85±0.05, 0.83±0.05, 0.83±0.06, 0.22±0.02, 0.41±0.04, and Beclin 1 protein relative expressions were 0.66±0.06, 0.64±0.05, 0.64±0.06, 1.67±0.07, 1.02±0.05, LC3 mRNA relative expressions were 0.98±0.29, 0.92±0.25, 1.02±0.26, 3.76±0.28, 2.38±0.28, and Beclin 1 mRNA relative expressions of were 1.11±0.40, 1.19±0.29, 1.16±0.24, 6.84±0.54, 2.94±0.48. There were statistically significant differences ( F=190.160, P<0.001; F=160.014, P<0.001; F=160.183, P<0.001; F=119.964, P<0.001; F=186.257, P<0.001; F=211.089, P<0.001; F=374.835, P<0.001). Compared with group A, B and C, PI3K, p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR protein relative expression levels and protein relative expression ratios of LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ in nude mice tumors of group D and E were significantly reduced, and LC3 mRNA, Beclin 1 protein and mRNA relative expression levels were significantly increased, with statistically significant differences (all P<0.001); PI3K, p-Akt/Akt and p-mTOR/mTOR protein relative expression levels and protein relative expression ratio of LC3 Ⅱ/LC3 Ⅰ in nude mice tumors of group E were significantly higher than those of group D, while Beclin 1 protein relative expression levels, LC3 and Beclin 1 mRNA relative expression levels were reduced (all P<0.05). Conclusion:PSD-007 PDT has an inhibitory effect on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma transplanted tumors in nude mice, which may be related to the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activation and the promotion of autophagy. Compared with intraperitoneal injection, local injection of PSD-007 PDT is more effective.

9.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 237-240, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of new occupational pneumoconiosis(hereinafter referred to as pneumoconiosis) in Jiangxi Province from 2010 to 2019. METHODS: The data of new pneumoconiosis cases in Jiangxi Province from 2010 to 2019 were collected through the Occupational Disease and Occupational Disease Health Information Monitoring Subsystem in the China Disease Prevention and Control Information System, and a retrospective analysis was conducted. RESULTS: From 2010 to 2019, there were 4 450 new cases of pneumoconiosis in Jiangxi Province. Among these cases, the main disease types were coal workers′ pneumoconiosis and silicosis, accounting for 98.5%. The number of new cases of pneumoconiosis showed a decreasing trend with the increase of years for the last ten years(P<0.05). The median age and the 0 th-100 th percentile [M(P_0-P_(100))] of new-onset pneumoconiosis diagnosis was 56.6(34.0-97.0) years old. The service length M(P_0-P_(100)) with dust-exposure was 12.0(1.0-48.0) years. The main industry of the new pneumoconiosis cases was concentrated in the coal mining and washing industry(63.4%). The distribution of economic types of enterprises with new pneumoconiosis cases was mainly state-owned enterprises(70.0%). The enterprise scale was medium-sized and small enterprises(65.9% in total). The types of work were mainly coal blenders, rock drillers, and coal miners, accounting for 56.5%. CONCLUSION: The incidence of occupational pneumoconiosis in Jiangxi Province is not optimistic. It is necessary to strengthen the prevention and control of occupational diseases on workers exposed to dust in key industries, enterprises and types of work.

10.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1236-1240, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866997

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of elderly patients with acute pulmonary embolism (APE), in order to strengthen the awareness of diagnosis of APE and reduce missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis.Methods:A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 40 elderly patients (age ≥ 60 years old) diagnosed with APE admitted to TEDA International Cardiovascular Hospital from January 2008 to December 2018, including risk factors, clinical features, symptoms and signs, laboratory tests, risk of pulmonary embolism (Wells score), simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI), radiological tests, treatment, and outcome, etc. were conducted. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to analyze the diagnostic value of Wells score and spiral CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in APE.Results:A total of 40 elderly patients with APE were enrolled, male was 52.5%, and the age was (69.6±8.2) years old. The most common risk factor was deep vein thrombosis (DVT, 52.5%), followed by hypertension (37.5%) and heart failure (35.0%). The main clinical symptoms were exertional dyspnea (87.5%) and chest tightness (80.0%). Only 10.0% of patients had the triad of dyspnea, chest pain and hemoptysis at the same time. In addition, palpitation (65.0%) and lower limb swelling and pain (42.5%) were also common symptoms. The main clinical signs were shortness of breath (respiratory rate > 25 bpm, 80.0%), lung moist rales (52.5%), and tachycardia (heart rate > 100 bpm, 50.0%). The Wells score showed that 95% of the patients Wells ≥ 2, including moderate (Wells 2-6, 62.5%) and severe (Wells ≥ 7, 32.5%). Laboratory examination showed that 80.0% of patients had D-dimer > 0.5 mg/L, 72.5% had arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2) < 60 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), and 75.0% had arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2) < 35 mmHg, 67.5% had brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) > 500 ng/L or N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) > 300 ng/L, and 47.5% had cardiac troponin I (cTnI) > 0.3 μg/L. The confirmed diagnosis rate of CTPA in APE was 88.6% (31/35); 5 cases were diagnosed by pulmonary ventilation/perfusion imaging in 6 cases; 4 cases were diagnosed by magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography (MRPA). The sPESI score showed that 36 patients were moderate-risk patients [26 patients with sPESI ≥ 1, and 10 patients with sPESI 0 but right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) and/or elevated cardiac biomarkers]. Thrombolytic therapy and anticoagulant therapy were performed on 17 of them: 8 were cured, 8 were improved, and 1 died; anticoagulant therapy was performed on 18 moderate-risk patients: 9 were cured, 7 were improved, 1 left the hospital without cure, and 1 died; the other 1 moderate-risk patient with PE caused by right atrial myxoma was treated by operation and ultimately died. Four low-risk patients were treated by anticoagulant therapy: 2 were cured and 2 improved. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of Wells score combined with CTPA was 0.82 (95% confidence interval was 0.73-0.98, P < 0.01), the sensitivity was 74.2%, and the specificity was 90.0%. Conclusions:DVT and chronic diseases are the most common risk factors for APE in the elderly patients, often accompanied by dyspnea, chest tightness, and lower limb swelling and pain. Early anticoagulation therapy in elderly APE can make a good prognosis. Wells score has an important predictive value for the diagnosis of APE, while blood D-dimer is an important exclusion parameter. CTPA test is the main diagnostic method for APE. The sPESI score can suggest risk stratification and prognosis, and further guided treatment.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-862685

ABSTRACT

With continuous introduction of relevant national policies on famous classical formulas, the research of famous classical formulas is popular all over the country. Different from other new drugs, in the research and development process of famous classical formulas, substance benchmark is earlier than the product, suggesting that the research and development of substance benchmark is of great significance. Based on previous work of the authors, content of substance benchmark of famous classical formulas was analyzed, which was included in the document <italic>The Management Regulation of Simplified Registration and Approval over Chinese Herbal Medicine Compound Preparations of Ancient Famous Classical Formulas</italic> released by the National Medical Products Administration in May 2018. In this paper, the significance of substance benchmark development was described, a five-stage of research strategy was proposed, covering the prescription textual research and historical evolution, the collection and quality evaluation of medicinal materials, the processing method and quality evaluation of decoction pieces, the preparation and quality research of substance benchmark, the drafting and formulating of quality standard over substance benchmark. At the same time, some suggestions were put forward to the feasibility of compound preparations development over famous classical formulas, the implementation difficulty of resource evaluation over Chinese medicinal materials, and the irrationality on the quality correlation of Chinese medicinal materials. All of these are expected to provide reference and enlightenment for the development and policy officially landed over ancient famous classical formulas.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828390

ABSTRACT

The consistency of quality on Chinese patent drugs is a hotspot and difficulty in the control of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, and has become one of the bottlenecks restricting its internationalization. Based on the analysis of current studies on quality and problems of Chinese patent drugs, this paper explored relevant methods of quality evaluation on Chinese patent drugs and possible factors affecting the consistency of quality in the pharmaceutical cycle by consulting relevant literatures about quality evaluation methods and consistency control techniques of large-scale Chinese patent drugs. And it put forward the evaluation system on high-quality Chinese patent drugs with "consistency" as the core, so as to promote the overall improvement of the quality of Chinese patent drugs, guide the rational price of Chinese patent drugs of the same species, and provide a new reference model for the quality evaluation of Chinese patent drug.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Nonprescription Drugs
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878818

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to establish the HPLC characteristic chromatogram and content determination method for index components with the primary standard substances of the classical prescription Mahuang Decoction, and to provide data basis for the establishment of its quality standard and the development and utilization of compound preparations. First, HPLC was used to establish the material reference chromatograms of Mahuang Decoction, and 15 batches of standard samples of Mahuang Decoction were determined. Their similarity was calculated by the median method. Secondly, the content of the standard substances was determined and a simplecontent determination method was established by HPLC. Relevant methodology was investigated, and the extraction ratio, index component transfer rate and moisture content of 15 batches of primary standard samples were calculated. The results showed that the two sets of HPLC methods had their own characteristics. The six chromatographic peaks identified from the 10 common peaks in the former characteristic chromatogram covered all the herbal medicines in the standard substances, which can better indicate the quality characteristics of the standard substances of Mahuang Decoction. The latter method(content determination method) was simple and practical, so it was suitable for establishing the quality standard of its compound preparation. Two sets of methods were jointly used to evaluate the quality of 15 batches of Mahuang Decoction. The results were as follows: the similarity of 15 batches of samples was greater than 0.90; the average extraction ratio was 18.1%; the average moisture content was 9.7%; the average content and transfer rate of the standard ingredients ephedrine hydrochloride and total pseudoephedrine hydrochloride were 2.3% and 26.7% respectively, and the average content and transfer rate of amygdalin were 2.2% and 48.3% respectively. None of the data showed dispersion(beyond 70%-130% of the mean value), which met the application data requirements for the substance standards of ancient classical Chinese herbal compound preparations(draft for comments). Based on the above research, the primary substance quality standard of Mahuang Decoction was established in order to provide reference for the development and research of the compound preparation of Mahuang Decoction.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ephedra sinica , Prescriptions , Quality Control , Reference Standards
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873127

ABSTRACT

Objective::To investigate excretion of GK-A, a antitussive compound separated from Ginkgo Semen, in the urine and bile of rats. Method::UPLC-MS/MS was used to determine the concentration of GK-A in rat urine and bile samples. The separation was performed on a C18 column, the mobile phase consisted of 0.1%formic acid aqueous solution (A) and acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-1 min, 95%A; 1-3 min, 95%-85%A; 3-7.5 min, 85%-40%A; 7.5-8 min, 40%A). The detection was carried out by a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in the positive ion mode with an electrospray ionization (ESI). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was employed. After intragastric administration of GK-A, the urine and bile samples were collected at different time points, and the contents of GK-A in the samples were determined, and the cumulative excretion and cumulative excretion rate were calculated. Result::After 72 h of administration, the cumulative excretion of GK-A in urine was (12.35±2.69) μg, and the cumulative excretion rate was (0.58±0.13)%. Meanwhile, after 24 h of administration, the cumulative excretion of GK-A in bile was (55.16±29.22) μg, and the cumulative excretion rate was (1.57±0.83)%. Only a small amount of GK-A was excreted from urine and bile of rats with a slow speed. Conclusion::After intragastric administration, the excretion of GK-A in rat urine and bile is not the main elimination pathway.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873098

ABSTRACT

Objective::To establish a scientific and reasonable grade evaluation standard for Polygoni Multiflori Caulis. Method::The quality constant method was used to conduct a grade evaluation study on Polygoni Multiflori Caulis. A total of 16 batches of samples were collected from Chinese herbal slices enterprises and medicinal materials markets. By measuring its appearance traits (average quality and average thickness of the decoction pieces) and the intrinsic quality indicators (content of 2, 3, 5, 4′-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside), then its quality constant and percentage quality constant were calculated comprehensively, finally, the grades of Polygoni Multiflori Caulis were classified by quality constant method. Result::The quality constant of 16 batches of the decoction pieces was 0.054-0.417, and the percentage quality constant was 12.98-100.00.If these samples were divided into three grades, the quality constant shall be ≥0.334 for the first-grade decoction pieces, the quality constant shall be <0.334 and ≥0.209 for the second-grade decoction pieces, while for the third-grade decoction pieces, the quality constant shall be <0.209. Conclusion::The grade evaluation method based on quality constant can overcome the shortcomings of traditional evaluation method for decoction pieces, and can realize scientific, objective and simple classification of Polygoni Multiflori Caulis. This study enriches the research data of modern grade evaluation of Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, and provides reference for grade evaluation and market circulation of other decoction pieces.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873038

ABSTRACT

The famous classical formulas (FCF), which occupy the most important position in the prescription theory, had been brought out following the progress of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its formation and exploitation, essentially the ingredient constitution and preparation technology, is an objective trend of TCM. The development of related product under the guidance of relevant national policies has its historical inevitability, as the development of formula granules in recent decades had laid a solid foundation for it. The key to exploit these FCF is to refine and standardize the clinical applications through the ages with the guidance of TCM theory, for the process design of massive industrial production. As a result of the analysis of its definition and connotation, it is clear that the core connotation of FCF is the medicinal substances with fixed formula compatibility and stable preparation process. Furthermore, the screening strategy, the exploitation value, and the applicability between ancient prescriptions and nowadays diseases, had also been discussed based on the current policy situation and research status.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872876

ABSTRACT

Objective:Metabolomics was used to analyze the brain tissue samples of model mice with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) depression, in order to find out the differential metabolites related to depression and to explore the possible antidepressant mechanism of iridoid part of Valerianae Jatamansi Rhizoma et Radix (IEFV). Method:Forty-two Kunming mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, including the normal group, the model group, the fluoxetine group (2.5 mg·kg-1) and the IEFV low, medium, and high dose groups (doses were 5.73, 11.47, 22.94 mg·kg-1, respectively). The behavioral and biochemical indicators of CUMS model mice were used for pharmacodynamic evaluation with IEFV and a positive drug (fluoxetine) as the intervention drugs. Then, the effect of IEFV on endogenous substances of the brain tissue in CUMS model mice were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance hydrogen spectrum (1H-NMR) metabolomics, and multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify the differential metabolites and to enrich the metabolic pathways involved in the differential metabolites. Result:After modeling, the immobility time of the model mice increased significantly, their sucrose preference rate and the excitatory neurotransmitters [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE)] decreased significantly, indicating the success of modeling. The depression was relieved after IEFV administration, mainly manifested by the recovery of the immobility time, sucrose preference rate and the excitatory neurotransmitters (5-HT and NE). Principal component analysis (PCA) of endogenous metabolites in brain tissue showed that the model group could be significantly separated from the normal group, while the IEFV groups and fluoxetine group all showed a trend of deviating from the model group to the normal group, which was consistent with the behavioral results. The results of orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were 16 different metabolites between the model group and the normal group, including 12 water-soluble metabolites and 4 liposoluble metabolites. Seven potential metabolism pathways were obtained through MetPA analysis, including metabolism of phenylalanine, metabolism of phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan, metabolism of taurine and hypotaurine acid, metabolism of alanine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, biosynthesis of valine, leucine and isoleucine, metabolism of D-glutamine and D-glutamate and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). IEFV-high dose group could significantly recall 11 differential metabolites. Conclusion:IEFV may play an antidepressant role mainly by affecting energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism and neurotransmitter levels, which provides a reference for further study on the antidepressant mechanism of IEFV.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872815

ABSTRACT

Psychiatric diseases represented by depression have gradually become one of the major health problems of people in the fast-paced, high-pressure society. Severe cases can cause suicides, huge harm or disaster to families and the society. Although modern medicine has made great progress in the field of anti-depressant drug therapy, depression still cannot be cured. At the same time, traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) with a definite curative effect, few adverse reactions, and mild efficacy have received increasing attention. TCM valerianae Jatanmansi Rhizoma et Radix has been widely used to alleviate sleep disorder, and its root extract is popularly known as valerian and used as a mild sedative for a long time in European. Tagara takes Valerianae Jatamansi Rhizoma et Radix as the key ingredient for treatment of depression-type insomnia, and is available abroad. It is reported that iridoid, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids or extract from Valerianae Jatamansi Rhizoma et Radix has a superior anti-depression activity in both animal and clinical trials, and the mechanism is mainly related to the regulation of neurotransmitters in the brain, the improvement of the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the resistance of free radicals and inflammation, and the neuroprotective effect. However, there is still lack of report on the anti-depression system and in-depth research of Valerianae Jatamansi Rhizoma et Radix. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to systematically collect and summarize the anti-depressant activity and explain the relevant mechanisms, so as to provide reference for the further development of Valerianae Jatamansi Rhizoma et Radix medicinal resources.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872807

ABSTRACT

The inheritance of traditional clinical value of famous classical formulae is an important direction for the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry.Compared with the previous research and development of new drugs, the management requirement of " material reference" was introduced into the famous classical formulae research, which is used as the reference of process optimization and quality control.The characteristics of compound preparation of famous classical formulae are also reflected in the core concept of " quality inheritance of classics" in the road of industrial development.How to implement the above requirements and concepts into product development and industrial production? There are many specific common problems to be solved in practical research.How to effectively establish the " material reference" of famous classical formulae of different dosage forms? How to use " material reference" to guide the process optimization of compound preparation of famous classical formulae? How to determine the daily dose of famous classical formulae? How to take effective measures in the selection of raw material to reduce quality fluctuation range? This paper discusses the key issues such as production process and quality evaluation from the following aspects.Firstly, the management regulations and research and development guidelines are analyzed, and the specific implementation methods are given.Then, the possible problems in the Requirements for Declaration Documents (Draft for Opinions) are pointed out, and relevant suggestions are given.Finally, based on the research experience of standard decoction and famous classical formulae in the laboratory, an example is given to provide reference for the development of compound preparation of famous classical formulae.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872738

ABSTRACT

Objective:To elucidate the key medicinal substances that cause the difference of efficacy between lotus leaf and lotus plumule, and to analyze their material basis of "homologous and different effect". Method:UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS technique was used to identify the main alkaloids in lotus leaf, lotus latex (juice in lotus petiole) and lotus plumule, chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters XBridge C18 column (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm), and gradient elution was performed with 0.1% ammonia aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) as mobile phase (0-13 min, 35%-60%B; 13-20 min, 60%-80%B; 20-20.1 min, 80%-95%B; 20.1-25 min, 95%B; 25-25.1min, 95%-35%B; 25.1-40 min, 35%B). Data acquisition was carried out in electrospray ionization (ESI) under the positive ion mode, the scanning range was m/z 100-1 000. Besides, the metabolic network of the main alkaloids was constructed. Result:A total of 5 alkaloids (N-nornuciferine, O-nornuciferine, anonaine, nuciferine and roemerine) were identified from lotus leaf, 6 alkaloids (nuciferine, norisoliensinine, 6-hydroxynorisoliensinine, liensinine, isoliensinine and neferine) in lotus latex, and 8 alkaloids (lotusine, norcoclaurine, N-methylcoclaurine, pronuciferine, armepavine, liensinine, isoliensinine and neferine) in lotus plumule. Also, the biosynthetic pathways of the terminal alkaloids of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids (liensinine, isoliensinine and neferine) and aporphine alkaloids (N-nornuciferine, O-nornuciferine, anonaine, nuciferine and roemerine) was conducted. Conclusion:Five aporphine alkaloids in lotus leaf and three bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in lotus plumule are the material basis for "homologous and different effect" of lotus leaf and lotus plumule. The metabolism of alkaloids in lotus leaf and lotus plumule is derived from the same compound of (S)-N-methylcoclaurine, and two types of alkaloids are synthesized through the action of two different enzymes. The synthetic alkaloids have different structures, resulting in different chemical composition between different tissues, thus producing different efficacy between lotus leaf and lotus plumule.

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