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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 375-383, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977437

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-A is an immunoglobulin-like molecule that colocalizes with tight junctions (TJs) in the endothelium and epithelium. It is also found in blood leukocytes and platelets. The biological significance of JAM-A in asthma, as well as its clinical potential as a therapeutic target, are not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of JAM-A in a mouse model of asthma, and to determine blood levels of JAM-A in asthmatic patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) or saline were used to investigate the role of JAM-A in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. In addition, JAM-A levels were measured in the plasma of asthmatic patients and healthy controls. The relationships between JAM-A and clinical variables in patients with asthma were also examined. @*Results@#Plasma JAM-A levels were higher in asthma patients (n=19) than in healthy controls (n=12). In asthma patients, the JAM-A levels correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), and the blood lymphocyte proportion. JAM-A, phospho-JNK, and phospho-ERK protein expressions in lung tissue were significantly higher in OVA/OVA mice than in control mice. In human bronchial epithelial cells treated with house dust mite extracts for 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h, the JAMA, phospho-JNK, and phospho-ERK expressions were increased, as shown by Western blotting, while the transepithelial electrical resistance was reduced. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that JAM-A is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, and may be a marker for asthma.

2.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1229-1237, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831910

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#N-acetylcysteine (NAC) affects signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell growth and arrest, redox-regulated gene expression, and the inflammatory response. However, it is not known how the signal mechanism for tight junctional protein claudin (CLDN) 18 is regulated in asthma patients. @*Methods@#To investigate the effects of NAC on CLDN18 expression in a mouse model of asthma, and to assess plasma levels of CLDN18 in asthma patients. A murine model of asthma induced by ovalbumin (OVA) was established using wild-type BALB/c female mice, and the levels of CLDNs, phosphorylated-pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (p-PDK1), and protein kinase B (Akt) pathway proteins following NAC treatment were examined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. In addition, the plasma levels of CLDN18 were evaluated in asthmatic patients and control subjects. @*Results@#NAC diminished OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation.Levels of CLDN18 protein were higher in lung tissue from OVA mice than tissue from control mice, and were increased by treatment with NAC or dexamethasone. Treatment with NAC or dexamethasone decreased the OVA-induced increase in interleukin-1α protein levels. Although treatment with NAC increased OVA-induced p-PDK1 protein levels, it decreased phosphorylated Akt (pAkt)/Akt levels. Soluble CLDN18 levels were lower in patients with asthma than in controls and were correlated with the percentage of neutrophils, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity % (FVC%) and FEV1%. @*Conclusions@#CLDN18 plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma and NAC diminishes airway inflammation and responsiveness by modulating CLDN18 expression.

3.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e362-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831675

ABSTRACT

Background@#Calprotectin is the major cytosolic protein in neutrophil granulocytes.Although asthma is known to cause eosinophilic inflammation, some patients with asthma have non-eosinophilic inflammation, which is characterized by local neutrophilic inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess calprotectin expression levels in a mouse model of asthma, and to observe the relationship of serum calprotectin level and clinical variables in patients with asthma. @*Methods@#Mice were sensitized and challenged with 10 μg and 20 μg of Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively; mice treated with saline were used as a control. The levels of calprotectin were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analysis. The serum levels of calprotectin were also assessed in patients with asthma. The relationship between calprotectin and clinicopathological characteristics was determined. @*Results@#Calprotectin, S100A8, and S100A9 expression was elevated in the mouse lungs, Calprotectin levels were higher in the serum of patients with asthma (n = 33) compared with those of healthy individuals (n = 28). Calprotectin levels correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity (r = −0.215, P = 0.043), smoke amount (r = 0.413, P = 0.017), body mass index (r = −0.445,P= 0.000), and blood neutrophil percentage (r = 0.300, P = 0.004) in patients with asthma. @*Conclusion@#Our data suggest that calprotectin could potentially be used as a biomarker for asthma.

4.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 701-711, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896606

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recent clinical trials have successfully used oral immunotherapy (OIT) to treat food allergies. Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects by balancing Th1/Th2 immunity and enhancing regulatory T-cell activity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of OIT, probiotics alone, and probiotics administered simultaneously with OIT in a mouse model of egg allergy. @*Methods@#C3H/HeJ mice were sensitized by intragastric administration of ovomucoid (OM) with cholera toxin. For the OIT regime, increasing doses of OM were administered orally to sensitized mice. Lactobacillus casei variety ramnosus (Lcr35) was also administered. The mice were divided into 4 groups: control (no OIT), OIT, Lcr35, and OIT plus Lcr35 (OIT + Lcr35). The effects of OIT and Lcr35 treatment were estimated based on the symptom score, rectal temperature, serum levels of OM-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgA, IgG1, and IgG2a immediately after and 2 weeks after ceasing treatment and histological staining of the small intestine. @*Results@#The severity of anaphylaxis decreased in all treatment groups. Simultaneous administration of Lcr35 and OIT decreased the severity of anaphylaxis compared to controls and the OIT group. The protective effects were sustained 2 weeks after ceasing treatment in all treatment groups. A significant decrease in OM-specific IgA, IgG1, and IgG2a levels was observed in both the OIT and OIT plus Lcr35 groups. However, a significant decrease in the OM-specific IgE level was observed only in OIT plus Lcr35 treated mice and was sustained 2 weeks after ceasing treatment. Mucin amounts in the small intestine decreased after OIT, OIT plus Lcr35, and Lcr35 treatment with the lowest in the OIT plus Lcr35 group. @*Conclusions@#Lcr35 treatment during OIT had some synergic effect for protection against anaphylaxis in a mice model of egg allergy. These findings should be confirmed in future animal studies including more detailed immunological profiles and human studies.

5.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 701-711, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888902

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Recent clinical trials have successfully used oral immunotherapy (OIT) to treat food allergies. Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects by balancing Th1/Th2 immunity and enhancing regulatory T-cell activity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of OIT, probiotics alone, and probiotics administered simultaneously with OIT in a mouse model of egg allergy. @*Methods@#C3H/HeJ mice were sensitized by intragastric administration of ovomucoid (OM) with cholera toxin. For the OIT regime, increasing doses of OM were administered orally to sensitized mice. Lactobacillus casei variety ramnosus (Lcr35) was also administered. The mice were divided into 4 groups: control (no OIT), OIT, Lcr35, and OIT plus Lcr35 (OIT + Lcr35). The effects of OIT and Lcr35 treatment were estimated based on the symptom score, rectal temperature, serum levels of OM-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgA, IgG1, and IgG2a immediately after and 2 weeks after ceasing treatment and histological staining of the small intestine. @*Results@#The severity of anaphylaxis decreased in all treatment groups. Simultaneous administration of Lcr35 and OIT decreased the severity of anaphylaxis compared to controls and the OIT group. The protective effects were sustained 2 weeks after ceasing treatment in all treatment groups. A significant decrease in OM-specific IgA, IgG1, and IgG2a levels was observed in both the OIT and OIT plus Lcr35 groups. However, a significant decrease in the OM-specific IgE level was observed only in OIT plus Lcr35 treated mice and was sustained 2 weeks after ceasing treatment. Mucin amounts in the small intestine decreased after OIT, OIT plus Lcr35, and Lcr35 treatment with the lowest in the OIT plus Lcr35 group. @*Conclusions@#Lcr35 treatment during OIT had some synergic effect for protection against anaphylaxis in a mice model of egg allergy. These findings should be confirmed in future animal studies including more detailed immunological profiles and human studies.

6.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 43-54, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although mild to moderate asthma is much more common, the morbidity and mortality of severe asthma are much higher. This study was performed to identify and analyze the clinical characteristics of severe asthma in Korea. METHODS: We registered patients with severe refractory asthma into the Severe Asthma Registry supported by the Severe Asthma Work Group of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Patients were enrolled since 2010 from the 15 university hospitals nationwide in Korea. Severe asthma was defined according to modified European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society criteria. Information on demographics, medical history, pulmonary function tests and skin prick tests was collected; the clinical characteristics of severe asthmatics were analyzed from the collected data. RESULTS: A total of 489 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 62.3; 45% are male. Sixty percent of patients received Global Initiative for Asthma step 4 treatment, and 30% received step 5 treatment. The most common comorbidities were allergic rhinitis (58.7%). Aspirin hypersensitivity was observed in 14.0%. Approximately half (53.9%) are non-smokers. Atopy was proven in 38.5% of the patients. Regarding asthma medications, inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonist combination inhalers were most commonly prescribed (96.5%), followed by leukotriene antagonists (71.0%). A recombinant anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) has been used in 1.8% of the patients. The mean forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC were 78.7%, 67.5% and 67.9% of predicted values, respectively. The mean Asthma Control Test and quality of life questionnaire scores were 16.5 out of 25 and 59.5 out of 85, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The baseline characteristics of severe asthma patients in the Korea Severe Asthma Registry were analyzed and reported for the first time. With this cohort, further prospective studies should be performed to search for ways to improve management of severe refractory asthma.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Allergy and Immunology , Aspirin , Asthma , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Demography , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hospitals, University , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Leukotriene Antagonists , Mortality , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Rhinitis, Allergic , Skin , Vital Capacity
7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 960-968, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762036

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many studies have reported that pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) can cause anaphylaxis. No comprehensive investigations into anaphylaxis in PFAS have been conducted, however. In this study, we investigated the clinical manifestations and risk factors for anaphylaxis in PFAS in Korean patients with pollinosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a nationwide cross-sectional study that previously reported on PFAS in Korean patients with pollinosis. Data from 273 patients with PFAS were collected, including demographics, list of culprit fruits and vegetables, and clinical manifestations of food allergy. We analyzed 27 anaphylaxis patients and compared them with patients with PFAS with oropharyngeal symptoms only (n=130). RESULTS: The most common cause of anaphylaxis in PFAS was peanut (33.3%), apple (22.2%), walnut (22.2%), pine nut (18.5%), peach (14.8%), and ginseng (14.8%). Anaphylaxis was significantly associated with the strength of sensitization to alder, hazel, willow, poplar, timothy, and ragweed (p<0.05, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that the presence of atopic dermatitis [odds ratio (OR), 3.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–10.23; p=0.017]; sensitization to hazel (OR, 5.27; 95% CI, 1.79–15.53; p=0.003), timothy (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 2.70–51.64; p=0.001), or ragweed (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.03–9.87; p=0.045); and the number of culprit foods (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15–1.37; p<0.001) were related to the development of anaphylaxis in PFAS. CONCLUSION: The most common culprit foods causing anaphylaxis in PFAS were peanut and apple. The presence of atopic dermatitis; sensitization to hazel, timothy, or ragweed; and a greater number of culprit foods were risk factors for anaphylaxis in PFAS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alnus , Ambrosia , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Dermatitis, Atopic , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Hypersensitivity , Juglans , Nuts , Panax , Pollen , Prunus persica , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Risk Factors , Salix , Vegetables
8.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 441-442, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739403

ABSTRACT

This erratum is being published to correct the error on page 650 of the article. The number of participating research institution should be corrected.

9.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 648-661, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718132

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy in pollinosis patients caused by raw fruits and vegetables and is the most common food allergy in adults. However, there has been no nationwide study on PFAS in Korea. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and clinical characteristics of PFAS in Korea. METHODS: Twenty-two investigators participated in this study, in which patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and/or bronchial asthma with pollen allergy were enrolled. The questionnaires included demographic characteristics, a list of fruits and vegetables, and clinical manifestations of food allergy. Pollen allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and/or measurement of the serum level of specific IgE. RESULTS: A total of 648 pollinosis patients were enrolled. The prevalence of PFAS was 41.7% (n = 270). PFAS patients exhibited cutaneous (43.0%), respiratory (20.0%), cardiovascular (3.7%) or neurologic symptoms (4.8%) in addition to oropharyngeal symptoms. Anaphylaxis was noted in 8.9% of the PFAS patients. Seventy types of foods were linked to PFAS; e.g., peach (48.5%), apple (46.7%), kiwi (30.4%), peanut (17.4%), plum (16.3%), chestnut (14.8%), pineapple (13.7%), walnut (14.1%), Korean melon (12.6%), tomato (11.9%), melon (11.5%) and apricot (10.7%). Korean foods such as taro/taro stem (8.9%), ginseong (8.2%), perilla leaf (4.4%), bellflower root (4.4%), crown daisy (3.0%), deodeok (3.3%), kudzu root (3.0%) and lotus root (2.6%) were also linked to PFAS. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first nationwide study of PFAS in Korea. The prevalence of PFAS was 41.7%, and 8.9% of the PFAS patients had anaphylaxis. These results will provide clinically useful information to physicians.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Ananas , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Asthma , Codonopsis , Crowns , Cucurbitaceae , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Juglans , Korea , Lotus , Solanum lycopersicum , Neurologic Manifestations , Perilla , Pollen , Prevalence , Prunus armeniaca , Prunus domestica , Prunus persica , Pueraria , Research Personnel , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Skin , Vegetables
10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 807-814, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT) is used to detect and quantify airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Since improvements in the severity of asthma are associated with improvements in AHR, clinical studies of asthma therapies routinely use the change of airway responsiveness as an objective outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serial MBPT and clinical profiles in patients with asthma. METHODS: A total of 323 asthma patients were included in this study. The MBPT was performed on all patients beginning at their initial diagnosis until asthma was considered controlled based on the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines. A responder was defined by a decrease in AHR while all other patients were considered non-responders. RESULTS: A total of 213 patients (66%) were responders, while 110 patients (34%) were non-responders. The responder group had a lower initial PC20 (provocative concentration of methacholine required to decrease the forced expiratory volume in 1 second by 20%) and longer duration compared to the non-responder group. Members of the responder group also had superior qualities of life, compared to members of the non-responder group. Whole blood cell counts were not related to differences in PC20; however, eosinophil concentration was. No differences in sex, age, body mass index, smoking history, serum immunoglobulin E, or frequency of acute exacerbation were observed between responders and non-responders. CONCLUSIONS: The initial PC20, the duration of asthma, eosinophil concentrations, and quality-of-life may be useful variables to identify improvements in AHR in asthma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asthma , Blood Cell Count , Body Mass Index , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Diagnosis , Eosinophils , Forced Expiratory Volume , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Methacholine Chloride , Respiratory Hypersensitivity , Smoke , Smoking
11.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 533-542, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716678

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The tight junction protein claudin-5 (CLDN5) is critical to the control of endothelial cellular polarity and pericellular permeability. The role of CLDN5 in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CLDN5 levels and clinical variables in patients with COPD. METHODS: In total, 30 patients with COPD and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The plasma CLDN5 level was checked in patients with stable or exacerbated COPD and in healthy controls. RESULTS: The mean plasma CLDN5 level of patients with COPD was 0.63 ± 0.05 ng/mL and that of healthy controls was 6.9 ± 0.78 ng/mL (P = 0.001). The mean plasma CLDN5 level was 0.71 ± 0.05 ng/mL in exacerbated COPD patients and 0.63 ± 0.04 ng/mL in patients with stable COPD (P < 0.05). The plasma CLDN5 level among COPD subjects was correlated with the smoking amount (r = −0.530, P = 0.001). The plasma CLDN5 level in stable COPD patients was correlated with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, %pred.) (r = −0.481, P = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: The plasma CLDN5 level was not correlated with age. CLDN5 may be involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. Further studies having a larger sample size will be needed to clarify CLDN5 in COPD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Claudin-5 , Forced Expiratory Volume , Permeability , Plasma , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Sample Size , Smoke , Smoking , Tight Junctions
12.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 225-235, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714724

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Severe asthma and asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) are difficult to control and are often associated with poor clinical outcomes. However, much is not understood regarding the diagnosis and treatment of severe asthma and ACOS. To evaluate the current perceptions of severe asthma and COPD among asthma and COPD specialists, we designed an e-mail and internet-based questionnaire survey. METHODS: Subjects were selected based on clinical specialty from among the members of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. Of 432 subjects who received an e-mail invitation to the survey, 95 subjects, including 58 allergists and 37 pulmonologists, responded and submitted their answers online. RESULTS: The specialists estimated that the percentage of severe cases among total asthma patients in their practice was 13.9%±11.0%. Asthma aggravation by stepping down treatment was the most common subtype, followed by frequent exacerbation, uncontrolled asthma despite higher treatment steps, and serious exacerbation. ACOS was estimated to account for 20.7% of asthma, 38.0% of severe asthma, and 30.1% of COPD cases. A history of smoking, persistently low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and low FEV1 variation were most frequently classified as the major criteria for the diagnosis of ACOS among asthma patients. Among COPD patients, the highly selected major criteria for ACOS were high FEV1 variation, positive bronchodilator response, a personal history of allergies and positive airway hyperresponsiveness. Allergists and pulmonologists showed different assessments and opinions on asthma phenotyping, percentage, and diagnostic criteria for ACOS. CONCLUSIONS: Specialists had diverse perceptions and clinical practices regarding severe asthma and ACOS patients. This heterogeneity must be considered in future studies and strategy development for severe asthma and ACOS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Allergy and Immunology , Asthma , Diagnosis , Electronic Mail , Forced Expiratory Volume , Hypersensitivity , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Population Characteristics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Smoke , Smoking , Specialization , Tuberculosis
13.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 25-33, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739390

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Claudin-4 has been reported to function as a paracellular sodium barrier and is one of the 3 major claudins expressed in lung alveolar epithelial cells. However, the possible role of claudin-4 in bronchial asthma has not yet been fully studied. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the role of claudin-4 in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. METHODS: We determined claudin-4 levels in blood from asthmatic patients. Moreover, using mice sensitized and challenged with OVA, as well as sensitized and challenged with saline, we investigated whether claudin-4 is involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Der p1 induced the inflammatory cytokines in NHBE cells. RESULTS: We found that claudin-4 in blood from asthmatic patients was increased compared with that from healthy control subjects. Plasma claudin-4 levels were significantly higher in exacerbated patients than in control patients with bronchial asthma. The plasma claudin-4 level was correlated with eosinophils, total IgE, FEV1% pred, and FEV1/FVC. Moreover, lung tissues from the OVA-OVA mice showed significant increases in transcripts and proteins of claudin-4 as well as in TJ breaks and the densities of claudin-4 staining. When claudin-4 was knocked down by transfecting its siRNA, inflammatory cytokine expressions, which were induced by Der p1 treatment, were significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: These findings thus raise the possibility that regulation of lung epithelial barrier proteins may constitute a therapeutic approach for asthma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Asthma , Claudin-4 , Claudins , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Epithelial Cells , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Lung , Ovum , Plasma , RNA, Small Interfering , Sodium
14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 865-874, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to elevation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3)-inf lammasome. In this study, we elucidated whether NLRP3 -inf lammasome is activated by DEPs and whether antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) could inhibit such activation. METHODS: RAW 264.7 cells and ex vivo lung tissues explants obtained from elastase-induced emphysema animal models were stimulated with cigarette smoking extract (CSE), DEPs, and lipopolysaccharide, and levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), caspase-1 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family members containing the pyrin domain (NLRP3)-inflammasome were assessed by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: NAC and caspase-1 inhibitor suppressed CSE- and DEP-induced secretion of IL-1β in RAW 264.7 cells. The expression levels of the NLRP3-inflammasome and caspase-1 were upregulated in RAW 264.7 cells by stimulation with CSE and DEPs and were inhibited by NAC. CSE and DEPs increased the secretion of IL-1β in lung tissues from both the normal and elastase-induced emphysema groups. The secretion of IL-1β by CSE and DEPs was increased in the elastin-induced emphysema group more than that in the normal group (CSE: 309 ± 19 pg/mL vs. 151 ± 13 pg/mL, respectively, p < 0.05; DEP: 350 ± 24 pg/mL vs. 281 ± 15 pg/mL, respectively, p < 0.05). NAC inhibited CSE- and DEP-induced IL-1β secretion in both the normal and elastase-induced emphysema groups. NLRP3-inflammasome expression as determined by immunohistochemistry was increased by CSE and DEPs in both the normal and elastin-induced emphysema groups, and was suppressed by NAC. CONCLUSIONS: The NLRP3-inf lammasome is activated by DEPs in ex vivo tissue explants from elastase-induced emphysema animal model, and this activation is inhibited by NAC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants , Blotting, Western , Emphysema , Immunohistochemistry , Lung , Models, Animal , Pancreatic Elastase , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Reactive Oxygen Species , Smoking , Vehicle Emissions
15.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 257-264, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179283

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nanoparticles (NPs) may cause cell and tissue damage, leading to local and systemic inflammatory responses and adverse effects on health due to the inhalation of particulate matter. The inflammasome is a major regulator of inflammation through its activation of pro-caspase-1, which cleaves pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) into its mature form and may induce acute and chronic immune responses to NPs. However, little is known about the response of the inflammasome to NP exposure via the airways in asthma. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs on inflammasome in a mouse model of allergic asthma. METHODS: Mice were treated with ovalbumin (OVA) or TiO₂ NPs. IL-1β, IL-18, NAIP, CIITA, HET-E, TP-2 (NACHT), leucine-rich repeat (LRR), pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), and caspase-1 were assessed by Western blotting. Caspase-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)—as markers of oxidative damage—and the mediators 8-isoprostane and carbonyl were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation were increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice, and these responses were exacerbated by exposure to TiO₂ NPs. NP treatment increased IL-1β and IL-18 expression in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. NPs augmented the expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1, leading to production of active caspase-1 in the lung. Caspase-1 expression was increased and exacerbated by TiO₂ NP exposure in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. ROS levels tended to be increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged and OVA-sensitized/challenged-plus-TiO₂ NP-exposed mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrated that inflammasome activation occured in asthmatic lungs following NP exposure, suggesting that targeting the inflammasome may assist in controling NP-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Asthma , Blotting, Western , Caspase 1 , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Inhalation , Interleukin-18 , Lung , Nanoparticles , Ovalbumin , Particulate Matter , Reactive Oxygen Species , Titanium
16.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 143-152, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal lung disease characterized by the accumulation of excessive fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in the extracellular matrix. The transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to be a possible source of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts in IPF lungs. We have previously reported that apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) has anti-fibrotic activity in experimental lung fibrosis. In this study, we determine whether ApoA1 modulates TGF-β1-induced EMT in experimental lung fibrosis and clarify its mechanism of action. METHODS: The A549 alveolar epithelial cell line was treated with TGF-β1 with or without ApoA1. Morphological changes and expression of EMT-related markers, including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin were evaluated. Expressions of Smad and non-Smad mediators and TGF-β1 receptor type 1 (TβRI) and type 2 (TβRII) were measured. The silica-induced lung fibrosis model was established using ApoA1 overexpressing transgenic mice. RESULTS: TGF-β1-treated A549 cells were changed to the mesenchymal morphology with less E-cadherin and more N-cadherin expression. The addition of ApoA1 inhibited the TGF-β1-induced change of the EMT phenotype. ApoA1 inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increase in the phosphorylation of Smad2 and 3 as well as that of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase mediators. In addition, ApoA1 reduced the TGF-β1-induced increase in TβRI and TβRII expression. In a mouse model of silica-induced lung fibrosis, ApoA1 overexpression reduced the silica-mediated effects, which were increased N-cadherin and decreased E-cadherin expression in the alveolar epithelium. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that ApoA1 inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in experimental lung fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Actins , Apolipoprotein A-I , Apolipoproteins , Cadherins , Epithelial Cells , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Epithelium , Extracellular Matrix , Fibroblasts , Fibrosis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung , Lung Diseases , Mice, Transgenic , Myofibroblasts , Phenotype , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinases , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Transforming Growth Factors
17.
Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research ; : 246-256, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83198

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) can induce and trigger airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term DEP exposure on AHR, inflammation, lung fibrosis, and goblet cell hyperplasia in a mouse model. METHODS: BALB/c mice were exposed to DEPs 1 hour a day for 5 days a week for 3 months in a closed-system chamber attached to a ultrasonic nebulizer (low dose: 100 microg/m3 DEPs, high dose: 3 mg/m3 DEPs). The control group was exposed to saline. Enhanced pause was measured as an indicator of AHR. Animals were subjected to whole-body plethysmography and then sacrificed to determine the performance of bronchoalveolar lavage and histology. RESULTS: AHR was higher in the DEP group than in the control group, and higher in the high-dose DEP than in the low-dose DEP groups at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes were higher in the high-dose DEP group than in the low-dose DEP group and control group at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, and interferon-gamma were higher in the low-dose DEP group than in the control group at 12 weeks. The level of IL-10 was higher in the high-dose DEP group than in the control group at 12 weeks. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor was higher in the low-dose and high-dose DEP groups than in the control group at 12 weeks. The level of IL-6 was higher in the low-dose DEP group than in the control group at 12 weeks. The level of transforming growth factor-beta was higher in the high-dose DEP group than in the control group at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The collagen content and lung fibrosis in lung tissue was higher in the high-dose DEP group at 8 and 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that long-term DEP exposure may increase AHR, inflammation, lung fibrosis, and goblet cell hyperplasia in a mouse model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Airway Remodeling , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Collagen , Fibrosis , Goblet Cells , Hyperplasia , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Lung , Lymphocytes , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Neutrophils , Plethysmography , Pneumonia , Ultrasonics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Vehicle Emissions
18.
Allergy, Asthma & Respiratory Disease ; : 305-307, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-49802

ABSTRACT

Reactions to Hymenoptera stings are classified into local reactions, large local reactions, systemic anaphylactic reactions, systemic toxic reactions, and unusual reactions. They are also classified into immediate and delayed reactions. The most frequent clinical patterns are large local and systemic anaphylactic reactions. The skin, and the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems can be involved. A variety of unusual or unexpected reactions, such as acute encephalopathy, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, rhabdomyolysis, and cataracts, occur in a temporal relationship to insect stings. Here, we report a 31-year-old woman with delayed generalized edema, weight gain, and unusual reactions 24 hours after bee sting.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Acute Kidney Injury , Anaphylaxis , Bees , Bites and Stings , Brain Diseases , Cardiovascular System , Cataract , Edema , Hemorrhage , Hymenoptera , Insect Bites and Stings , Myocardial Infarction , Nephrotic Syndrome , Rhabdomyolysis , Skin , Weight Gain
19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 62-72, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-106133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be related to air pollution, of which ozone is an important constituent. In this study, we investigated the protein profiles associated with ozone-induced exacerbations in a smoking-induced emphysema model. METHODS: Mice were divided into the following groups: group I, no smoking and no ozone (NS + NO); group II, no smoking and ozone (NS + O); group III, smoking and no ozone (S + NO); and group IV, smoking and ozone (S + O). Bronchoalveolar lavage, the mean linear intercept (MLI) on hematoxylin and eosin staining, nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and Western blotting analyses were performed. RESULTS: The MLIs of groups III (S + NO) and IV (S + O) (45 +/- 2 and 44 +/- 3 microm, respectively) were significantly higher than those of groups I (NS + NO) and II (NS + O) (26 +/- 2 and 23 +/- 2 microm, respectively; p < 0.05). Fourteen spots that showed significantly different intensities on image analyses of two-dimensional (2D) protein electrophoresis in group I (NS + NO) were identified by LC-MS/MS. The levels of six proteins were higher in group IV (S + O). The levels of vimentin, lactate dehydrogenase A, and triose phosphate isomerase were decreased by both smoking and ozone treatment in Western blotting and proteomic analyses. In contrast, TBC1 domain family 5 (TBC1D5) and lamin A were increased by both smoking and ozone treatment. CONCLUSIONS: TBC1D5 could be a biomarker of ozone-induced lung injury in emphysema.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blotting, Western , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Chromatography, Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Lung/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Ozone , Proteins/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/etiology , Pulmonary Emphysema/etiology , Smoking/adverse effects , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
20.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 258-261, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114240

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic lung diseases are heterogeneous disorders characterized by varying degrees of pulmonary parenchyma or blood eosinophilia. Causes of eosinophilic lung diseases range from drug ingestion to parasitic or fungal infection as well as idiopathic. The exact pathogenesis of eosinophilic lung disease remains unknown. Urushiol chicken can frequently cause allergic reactions. Contact dermatitis (both local and systemic) represents the most-common side effect of urushiol chicken ingestion. However, there has been no previous report of lung involvement following urushiol chicken ingestion until now. A 66-year-old male was admitted to our hospital with exertional dyspnea. Serial chest X-ray revealed multiple migrating infiltrations in both lung fields, with eosinophilic infiltration revealed by lung biopsy. The patient had ingested urushiol chicken on two occasions within the 2 weeks immediately prior to disease onset. His symptoms and migrating lung lesions were resolved following administration of oral corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Male , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Allergens , Biopsy , Chickens , Dermatitis, Contact , Dyspnea , Eating , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Hypersensitivity , Lung , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Eosinophilia , Thorax
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