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Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139920


Background: The regular ingestion of fluoride lowers the prevalence of dental caries. The total daily intake of fluoride for optimal dental health should be 0.05-0.07 mg fluoride/kg body weight and to avoid the risk of dental fluorosis, the daily intake should not exceed a daily level of 0.10 mg fluoride/kg body weight. The main source of fluoride is from drinking water and other beverages. As in other countries, consumption of bottled water, juices and carbonated beverages has increased in our country. Objective: To analyze the fluoride content in bottled water, juices and carbonated soft drinks that were commonly available in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: Three samples of 10 commercially available brands of bottled drinking water, 12 fruit juices and 12 carbonated soft drinks were purchased. Bottled water and carbonated soft drinks were stored at a cold place until fluoride analysis was performed and a clear juice was prepared using different fruits without the addition of water. Then, the fluoride analysis was performed. Results: The mean and standard deviation of fluoride content of bottled water, fruit juices and carbonated soft drinks were measured, which were found to be 0.20 mg (±0.19) F/L, 0.29 mg (±0.06) F/L and 0.22 mg (±0.05) F/L, respectively. Conclusion: In viewing the results of the present study, it can be concluded that regulation of the optimal range of fluoride in bottled drinking water, carbonated soft drinks and fruit juices should be drawn for the Indian scenario.

Ananas , Beverages/analysis , Carbonated Beverages/analysis , Carica , Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Citrullus , Citrus aurantiifolia , Citrus sinensis , Fluorides/analysis , Fragaria , Fruit , Humans , India , Ion-Selective Electrodes , Malus , Mangifera , Mineral Waters/analysis , Musa , Lythraceae , Vitis
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2000 Jan; 38(1): 18-25
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62594


Polypeptides of goat sperm surface before and after capacitation were examined by radiolabelling and immunologically using polyclonal antisera. Radioiodination revealed five protein bands having mol wt of 14.8, 72.4, 81, 100 and 128 kDa in uncapacitated ejaculated spermatozoa and only three bands of 23.4, 27 and 72.4 KDa in capacitated spermatozoa. The protein band with mol wt 72.4 kDa was only feebly iodinated in uncapacitated sperm surface but in capacitated spermatozoa it was heavily labelled. Western blot analysis of detergent-extracted proteins using gamma-globulin fraction of antisera raised against purified goat sperm plasma membrane revealed six antigens (17.8, 29.1, 33.4, 45.6, 85.1, 123.2 kDa) in uncapacitated spermatozoa, four (26, 32.1, 40.1, 45.6 kDa) in capacitated spermatozoa and only one (45.6 kDa) in acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. High mol wt proteins were more numerous on the surface of uncapacitated spermatozoa while the capacitated spermatozoa had relatively low mol wt proteins. An apparent effect of capacitation is the metabolism and reorganisation of proteins on goat sperm surface. Polypeptides on capacitated sperm surface revealed through radiolabelling and polyclonal antisera may have a likely receptor(s) role in the recognition and binding to homologous zona pellucida during fertilization.

Acrosome Reaction/physiology , Animals , Blotting, Western , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Female , Goats/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Membrane Proteins/isolation & purification , Molecular Weight , Sperm Capacitation/physiology , Sperm-Ovum Interactions , Spermatozoa/chemistry , Zona Pellucida/metabolism
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1991 Feb; 29(2): 105-10
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-63317


Goat oocytes were isolated from 3-5 mm diam. follicles. The oocytes with compact cumulus mass were matured and fertilized in vitro. Three different media, viz. modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate, Dulbecco's and Ham's F-12 with three different additives (bovine serum albumin, BSA; follicle stimulating hormone, FSH and fetal calf serum, FCS) were tested. The three basal media gave almost similar results with Ham's F-12 being slightly better. Addition of BSA (10 mg/ml) increased the rates of maturation and penetration. FSH + BSA (2.5 micrograms/ml + 10 mg/ml) further enhanced the rates while FCS (10%) proved to be even more effective. In modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate and Dulbecco media with additives FCS + BSA, around 60% oocytes matured to metaphase II of which 53% were penetrated by capacitated goat spermatozoa while in F-12 medium 70% reached metaphase II and 63% were penetrated. Ham's F-12 medium with additives FCS + BSA was slightly better for maturation and penetration of goat oocytes in comparison to two other media tested.

Animals , Fertilization in Vitro , Goats , Oocytes/growth & development
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1989 Nov; 27(11): 921-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59788


Goat epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing pyruvate and lactate as energy source. A 3 hr incubation for epididymal and 4 hr for ejaculated spermatozoa was required for the capacitation and acrosome reaction to take place. Calcium is an essential requirement which was needed for motility maintenance/activation and for the initiation of acrosome reaction. A 2-fold increase in cAMP content was measured over 3 hr period of incubation of goat epididymal spermatozoa which was not seen when calcium ions were either omitted or chelated with EGTA. There is thus a definite involvement of Ca2+ ions and cAMP in capacitation and acrosome reaction of goat spermatozoa.

Acrosome/physiology , Animals , Calcium/pharmacology , Cyclic AMP/analysis , Goats/physiology , Male , Sperm Capacitation , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/metabolism