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Braz. j. infect. dis ; 24(1): 51-57, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089332


ABSTRACT Introduction: Vaccines are well-established public health interventions with major impacton the prevalence of infectious diseases, but outbreaks are occurring frequently due to pri-mary and secondary failures, despite high coverage. Surveillance of efficacy and duration ofinduced immunity is a difficult task as it requires invasive blood sampling in children andteenagers. Saliva can be an acceptable alternative source of IgG to assess vaccine efficacyand toxoplasmosis incidence. We investigated IgG response for measles, mumps, rubella,and T. gondii in saliva samples of vaccinated young people. Methods: Saliva was collected from 249 public schools students from São Paulo, Brazil, aged7 to 13 years old, during an interactive exhibition on hygiene. We used S. aureus proteinA solid phase capture assay for IgG reactive to biotinylated purified proteins. Paired salivaand serum (47) were tested from young adults with serum evidence of T. gondii infectionand from negative children less than 12 month old for standardization. Reproducibility wasgreater than 98% and sensitivity and specificity of the saliva assays were greater than 95%,as well as the concordance of paired saliva and serum samples. Results: Saliva from high school students showed a prevalence of 8.5% (95% CI: 5.0-11.9%)for anti T. gondii IgG; 96.8% (94.6-99%) of anti-measles IgG; 59.1% (53-65%) of anti-rubella IgG,and 57.5% (51.3-63.6%) of anti-mumps IgG. Discussion: The prevalence of antibodies against mumps and rubella after 6-8 years of vaccination was lower than against measles among students. The findings of this study demonstrate the feasibility of saliva sampling for follow-up of vaccine immune status in teenagers. This useful approach allows for IgG detection for vaccine control or epidemio- logical studies.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Saliva/immunology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Reference Values , Rubella/immunology , Rubella/prevention & control , Brazil , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/prevention & control , ROC Curve , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Measles/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Mumps/immunology , Mumps/prevention & control
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 78: 1-6, dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1179207


Toxoplasmose é uma zoonose parasitária com ampla distribuição mundial provocada pelo Toxoplasma gondii, considerado um dos protozoários mais bem sucedidos do planeta, pois infecta cerca de um terço da população mundial. Dentre as formas de transmissão, o consumo de carne mal cozida, contendo cistos, tem sido considerado um fator de risco para aquisição desta zoonose. Uma abordagem alternativa para o controle da toxoplasmose pela ingestão de carne bovina seria a sorologia dos bovinos, já que animais soropositivos albergam cistos teciduais. Contudo, a obtenção de soro para esta avaliação, nem sempre é factível, dada a dificuldade de coleta de sangue durante a linha de abate e sua ausência em cortes comerciais. O exsudato cárneo é uma alternativa para detecção de anticorpos anti - T. gondii em cortes comerciais de carne, que foi a proposta deste estudo para avaliar o desempenho dos testes de Hemaglutinação Indireta (HI) e Aglutinação Modificada (MAT) quando comparados ao ELISA usando exsudato cárneo. Este estudo mostrou que a acurácia dos testes de aglutinação não foi viável devido aos baixos índices de sensibilidade e especificidade quando comparados ao ELISA. Estes dados demonstram a importância da escolha de testes eficientes como ELISA para aplicação no controle da qualidade e inocuidade de cortes comerciais de carne bovina. (AU)

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis with a wide worldwide distribution caused by Toxoplasmagondii, which is considered one of the most successful protozoa on the planet, since it can infect a third of the world population. Among the forms of transmission, consumption of undercooked meat has been considered as a risk factor for the acquisition of this zoonosis. An alternative approach to toxoplasmosis control by beef ingestion could be the serological diagnosis in cattle, since seropositives animals harbor tissue cysts. However, the use of serum for this evaluation is not always feasible due to the difficulty of blood collection during slaughter and its absence in commercial beef cuts. Meat exudate is an alternative for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies in commercial beef cuts, which was the propose of this study to evaluate the performance of Indirect Hemagglutination (HI) and Agglutination Modified (MAT) tests compared to ELISA using meat exudates. This study showed that the agglutination tests accuracy was not viable due to low sensitivity and specificity indexes when compared to ELISA. These data demonstrate the importance of choosing accurate tests such as ELISA for application in quality control and safety of commercial beef cuts. (AU)

Agglutination Tests , Toxoplasmosis , Agglutination , Exudates and Transudates , Red Meat , Food Supply , Hemagglutination
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e144618, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-990126


Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania spp. Pentavalent antimonial agents have been used as an effective therapy, despite their side effects and resistant cases. Their pharmacokinetics remain largely unexplored. This study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetic profile of meglumine antimoniate in a murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis using a radiotracer approach. Methods: Meglumine antimoniate was neutron-irradiated inside a nuclear reactor and was administered once intraperitoneally to uninfected and L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. Different organs and tissues were collected and the total antimony was measured. Results: Higher antimony levels were found in infected than uninfected footpad (0.29% IA vs. 0.14% IA, p = 0.0057) and maintained the concentration. The animals accumulated and retained antimony in the liver, which cleared slowly. The kidney and intestinal uptake data support the hypothesis that antimony has two elimination pathways, first through renal excretion, followed by biliary excretion. Both processes demonstrated a biphasic elimination profile classified as fast and slow. In the blood, antimony followed a biexponential open model. Infected mice showed a lower maximum concentration (6.2% IA/mL vs. 11.8% IA/mL, p = 0.0001), a 2.5-fold smaller area under the curve, a 2.7-fold reduction in the mean residence time, and a 2.5-fold higher clearance rate when compared to the uninfected mice. Conclusions: neutron-irradiated meglumine antimoniate concentrates in infected footpad, while the infection affects antimony pharmacokinetics.(AU)

Animals , Mice , Pharmacokinetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Meglumine Antimoniate , Infections , Leishmania , Antimony , Neutrons
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 665-669, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041484


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Serological cross-reactivity between leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, especially at low titers, leads to difficulties of the seroepidemiological interpretation. METHODS: We have studied the ability of urea as a chaotrope to select high-avidity antibodies in IgG ELISA, thus reducing low-avidity IgG cross-reactivity in serologically positive samples in both assays. RESULTS: Using 0.5M urea for diluting the sample efficiently defined leishmaniasis or double infections in high-avidity IgG ELISA and eliminated false-positive results. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a chaotropic diluting agent is useful for improving the specificity of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis immunoassays.

Humans , Urea/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Leishmaniasis/immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Urea/chemistry , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Biomarkers/chemistry , Leishmaniasis/complications , Leishmaniasis/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Chagas Disease/complications , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 348-353, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888059


Abstract Background: Vimentin is a main structural protein of the cell, a component of intermediate cell filaments and immersed in cytoplasm. Vimentin is mimicked by some bacterial proteins and anti-vimentin antibodies occur in autoimmune cardiac disease, as rheumatic fever. In this work we studied vimentin distribution on LLC-MK2 cells infected with T. cruzi and anti-vimentin antibodies in sera from several clinical pictures of Chagas' disease or American Trypanosomiasis, in order to elucidate any vimentin involvement in the humoral response of this pathology. Objective: We standardized an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFI) to determine sub cellular expression in either parasites and host cells, and ELISA to evaluate anti-vimentin antibodies in sera fron chagasic patients. Methods: We analyzed the distribution of vimentin in culture cells using indirect fluorescent assays, using as external controls anti-T. cruzi sera, derived from chronic infected patients for identification of the parasites in the same model. After infection and growth of T.cruzi amastigotes, those cells express larger amounts of vimentin, with heavy staining of cytoplasm outside the parasitophorous vacuole and some particle shadowing patterns, suggesting that vimentin are associated with cell cytoplasm. Anti-vimentin antibodies were present in most American trypanosomiasis samples, but notably, they are much more present in acute (76, 9%) or clinical defined syndromes, especially cardiac disease (87, 9%). Paradoxically, they were relatively infrequent in asymptomatic (25%) infected patients, which had a clearly positive serological reaction to parasite antigens, but had low frequency of anti-vimentin antibodies, similar to controls (2,5%). Conclusion: Our current data revealed that anti-vimentin antibodies induced during T. cruzi infection could be a marker of active disease in the host and its levels could also justify drug therapy in American Trypanosomiasis chronic infection, as a large group of asymptomatic patients would be submitted to treatment with frequent adverse reactions of the available drugs. Anti-vimentin antibodies could be a marker of cardiac muscle cell damage, appearing in American Trypanosomiasis patients during active muscle cell damage.

Resumo Fundamento: A Vimentina é uma proteína estrutural importante da célula, um componente dos filamentos celulares intermediários e imersa no citoplasma. Algumas proteínas bacterianas imitam a Vimentina e anticorpos anti-vimentina ocorrem em doenças cardíacas auto-imunes, como a febre reumática. Neste trabalho, estudamos a distribuição de vimentina em células LLC-MK2 infectadas com T. Cruzi e anticorpos anti-vimentina em soros de várias imagens clínicas da doença de Chagas ou tripanossomíases americanas, a fim de elucidar qualquer implicação da vimentina na resposta humoral desta patologia. Objetivo: padronizamos um teste de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) para determinar a expressão subcelular em parasitas e células hospedeiras, e ELISA para testar anticorpos anti-vimentina em soros de pacientes chagásicos. Métodos: analisamos a distribuição de vimentina em células de cultura usando ensaios fluorescentes indiretos, utilizando como controles externos soros anti-T. Cruzi, derivados de pacientes com infecção crônica para a identificação de parasitas no mesmo modelo. Após a infecção e o crescimento de amastigotas de T. Cruzi, essas células expressam grandes quantidades de vimentina, com forte coloração do citoplasma fora da vacuola parasitófora e alguns padrões de sombreamento das partículas, sugerindo que a vimentina está associada ao citoplasma da célula. Os anticorpos anti-vimentina estavam presentes na maioria das amostras americanas de tripanossomíases, mas estão notavelmente mais presentes em síndromes agudas ou clinicamente definidas (76,9%), especialmente em doenças cardíacas (87,9%). Paradoxalmente, eram relativamente infrequentes em pacientes infectados assintomáticos (25%), que apresentavam uma reação sorológica claramente positiva aos antígenos parasitas, mas apresentavam baixa frequência de anticorpos anti-vimentina, semelhante aos controles (2,5%). Conclusão: Nossos dados atuais revelaram que os anticorpos anti-vimentina induzidos durante a infecção por T. Cruzi poderiam ser um marcador de doença ativa no hospedeiro e seus níveis também poderiam justificar o tratamento farmacológico em infecção crônica com tripanossomíase americana, uma vez que um grande grupo de pacientes assintomáticos seria submetido a tratamento com reações adversas frequentes aos medicamentos disponíveis. Os anticorpos anti-vimentina poderiam ser um marcador de danos nas células do músculo cardíaco, que aparece em pacientes com tripanossomíase americana durante o dano das células musculares ativas.

Humans , Animals , Trypanosoma cruzi/immunology , Vimentin/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Chagas Disease/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan/immunology , Reference Values , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Antibodies, Protozoan/analysis , Cells, Cultured , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Macaca mulatta , Antigens, Protozoan/analysis
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842783


ABSTRACT Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic condition that is frequent in patients living in tropical areas exposed to leishmaniasis. RA therapy involves immunosuppressant drugs such as methotrexate (MTX), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and prednisone. We report an unusual presentation of cutaneous (CL) or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) in RA patients from an endemic area of leishmaniasis. A 51-year-old woman noted a cutaneous ulcer on her left ankle during MTX and prednisone RA therapy. Initially diagnosed as a venous stasis ulcer, the aspirate of the injury revealed the presence of Leishmania DNA. A 73-year-old woman presenting non-ulcerated, infiltrated and painful erythematous nodules inside her nostrils while receiving MTX, anti-TNF mAb, and prednisone for RA, had also the aspirate of injuries showing the presence of Leishmania DNA. Both patients healed after the therapy with liposomal amphotericin. The RA therapy has changed to low-dose prednisone, without further reactivation episodes. Both cases suggest that CL or ML can reactivate after administration of an immunosuppressant for RA treatment. Therefore, immunosuppressive treatments for RA should be carefully prescribed in patients from endemic areas or with a history of CL and ML.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/etiology , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , DNA, Protozoan/analysis , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/immunology , Leishmania/genetics , Recurrence
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(2): 196-203, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782098


Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania that resides mainly in mononuclear phagocytic system tissues. Pentavalent antimonials are the main treatment option, although these drugs have toxic side effects and high resistance rates. A potentially alternative and more effective therapeutic strategy is to use liposomes as carriers of the antileishmanial agents. The aims of this study were to develop antimonial drugs entrapped into phosphatidylserine liposomes and to analyze their biological and physicochemical characteristics. METHODS: Liposomes containing meglumine antimoniate (MA) or pentavalent antimony salt (Sb) were obtained through filter extrusion (FEL) and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Promastigotes of Leishmania infantum were incubated with the drugs and the viability was determined with a tetrazolium dye (MTT assay). The effects of these drugs against intracellular amastigotes were also evaluated by optical microscopy, and mammalian cytotoxicity was determined by an MTT assay. RESULTS: Liposomes had an average diameter of 162nm. MA-FEL showed inhibitory activity against intracellular L. infantum amastigotes, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.9μg/mL, whereas that of MA was 60μg/mL. Sb-FEL showed an IC50 value of 0.2μg/mL, whereas that of free Sb was 9μg/mL. MA-FEL and Sb-FEL had strong in vitro activity that was 63-fold and 39-fold more effective than their respective free drugs. MA-FEL tested at a ten-times higher concentration than Sb-FEL did not show cytotoxicity to mammalian cells, resulting in a higher selectivity index. CONCLUSIONS: Antimonial drug-containing liposomes are more effective against Leishmania-infected macrophages than the non-liposomal drugs.

Animals , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacology , Phosphatidylserines/pharmacology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/parasitology , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Antimony Sodium Gluconate/pharmacology , Meglumine/pharmacology , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacology , Organometallic Compounds/chemistry , Phosphatidylserines/chemistry , Cricetinae , Antimony Sodium Gluconate/chemistry , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Meglumine Antimoniate , Liposomes , Meglumine/chemistry , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Antiprotozoal Agents/chemistry
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 74(4): 310-319, out.-dez.2015. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: lil-797165


O diagnóstico da infecção pelo T. gondii é usualmente feito pelas técnicas sorológicas, mas a amostra (soro ou plasma) pode ser restrita em determinados grupos protegidos, em que a coleta de sangue é considerada agressiva e invasiva. Os anticorpos são encontrados em outros materiais biológicos, de coleta não invasiva, como a saliva. Os métodos de detecção de anticorpos no mercado estão padronizados para utilizar amostras de soro, e há metodologias alternativas de maior sensibilidade utilizando-se saliva, mas estas requerem equipamentos de difícil uso no campo. Dot-ELISA tem alta sensibilidade e leitura visual sem equipamentos, que facilita a execução de ensaio em campo utilizando-se técnica de triagem rápida e eficiente. Neste contexto, foi padronizado o dot-ELISA de alta sensibilidade para detecção de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em saliva e soro, utilizando-se amostras de 20 voluntários adultos. A sensibilidade e a especificidade do dot-ELISA padronizado foram semelhantes em soro e saliva, com exata distinção de amostras positivas e negativas, mesmo na ocorrência de baixas concentrações de anticorpos como na saliva. A saliva mostra ser material biológico adequado para detecção de anticorpos anti-T. gondii em estudos epidemiológicos da toxoplasmose em crianças ou outros grupos protegidos, em que a coleta de sangue é restrita...

Humans , Antibodies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G , Saliva , Toxoplasma
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 21: 1-7, 31/03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741603


Background: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, which affects warm-blooded animals including humans. Its prevalence rates usually vary in different regions of the planet. Methods: In this study, an analysis of the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among Brazilian students was proposed by means of IgG specific antibodies detection. The presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondiiantibodies by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was also evaluated in order to compare it with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to assess the use of 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride chromogens. Results: The IFAT method showed a seroprevalence of 22.3%. These results were similar to those obtained by ELISA (24.1%). The seroprevalence was directly estimated from the IgG avidity, which showed that in a sample of 112 students, three of them had acute infection, an incidence of 1.6% in the studied population. Conclusion: In this study, the use of different chromogenic substrates in immunoenzymatic ELISA assays did not display different sensitivity in the detection of T. gondii-reagent serum. The extrapolation of results to this population must be carefully considered, since the investigation was conducted on a reduced sample. However, it allows us to emphasize the importance of careful and well prepared studies to identify risk factors for toxoplasmosis, to adopt preventive measures and to offer guidance to at-risk populations about the disease.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(3): 397-400, May-Jun/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-716410


This report describes the case of a patient with acute Chagas disease in Tocantins, Brazil, who was unaware of her pregnancy during benznidazole treatment. She presented with impaired cardiac function during the acute phase (pericarditis and incomplete right bundle-branch block) that resolved favorably after benznidazole therapy. Serological results also became negative, as determined by hemagglutination assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and immunofluorescence assays. The child was born without sequelae and showed no evidence of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection at birth or 24 days later.

Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Nitroimidazoles/therapeutic use , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/drug therapy , Trypanocidal Agents/therapeutic use , Acute Disease , Chagas Disease/congenital
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(5): 623-630, ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680768


Pentavalent antimonials such as meglumine antimoniate (MA) are the primary treatments for leishmaniasis, a complex disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania . Despite over 70 years of clinical use, their mechanisms of action, toxicity and pharmacokinetics have not been fully elucidated. Radiotracer studies performed on animals have the potential to play a major role in pharmaceutical development. The aims of this study were to prepare an antimony radiotracer by neutron irradiation of MA and to determine the biodistribution of MA in healthy and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum chagasi-infected mice. MA (Glucantime(r)) was neutron irradiated inside the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor, producing two radioisotopes, 122Sb and 124Sb, with high radionuclidic purity and good specific activity. This irradiated compound presented anti-leishmanial activity similar to that of non-irradiated MA in both in vitro and in vivo evaluations. In the biodistribution studies, healthy mice showed higher uptake of antimony in the liver than infected mice and elimination occurred primarily through biliary excretion, with a small proportion of the drug excreted by the kidneys. The serum kinetic curve was bi-exponential, with two compartments: the central compartment and another compartment associated with drug excretion. Radiotracers, which can be easily produced by neutron irradiation, were demonstrated to be an interesting tool for answering several questions regarding antimonial pharmacokinetics and chemotherapy.

Animals , Cricetinae , Female , Antiprotozoal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniasis , Meglumine/pharmacokinetics , Organometallic Compounds/pharmacokinetics , Antimony , Antiprotozoal Agents/radiation effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Meglumine/radiation effects , Organometallic Compounds/radiation effects , Radioisotopes , Radiopharmaceuticals , Time Factors , Tissue Distribution
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 55(1): 55-59, Jan.-Feb. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-661103


Health safety during trips is based on previous counseling, vaccination and prevention of infections, previous diseases or specific problems related to the destination. Our aim was to assess two aspects, incidence of health problems related to travel and the traveler's awareness of health safety. To this end we phone-interviewed faculty members of a large public University, randomly selected from humanities, engineering and health schools. Out of 520 attempts, we were able to contact 67 (12.9%) and 46 (68.6%) agreed to participate in the study. There was a large male proportion (37/44, 84.1%), mature adults mostly in their forties and fifties (32/44, 72.7%), all of them with higher education, as you would expect of faculty members. Most described themselves as being sedentary or as taking occasional exercise, with only 15.9% (7/44) taking regular exercise. Preexisting diseases were reported by 15 travelers. Most trips lasted usually one week or less. Duration of the travel was related to the destination, with (12h) or longer trips being taken by 68.2% (30/44) of travelers, and the others taking shorter (3h) domestic trips. Most travelling was made by air (41/44) and only 31.8% (14/44) of the trips were motivated by leisure. Field research trips were not reported. Specific health counseling previous to travel was reported only by two (4.5%). Twenty seven of them (61.4%) reported updated immunization, but 11/30 reported unchecked immunizations. 30% (9/30) reported travel without any health insurance coverage. As a whole group, 6 (13.6%) travelers reported at least one health problem attributed to the trip. All of them were males travelling abroad. Five presented respiratory infections, such as influenza and common cold, one neurological, one orthopedic, one social and one hypertension. There were no gender differences regarding age groups, destination, type of transport, previous health counseling, leisure travel motivation or pre-existing diseases. Interestingly, the two cases of previous health counseling were made by domestic travelers. Our data clearly shows that despite a significant number of travel related health problems, these highly educated faculty members, had a low awareness of those risks, and a significant number of travels are made without prior counseling or health insurance. A counseling program conducted by a tourism and health professional must be implemented for faculty members in order to increase the awareness of travel related health problems.

A segurança sanitária em viagens é baseada no aconselhamento, vacinação e orientação do viajante para a prevenção de doenças em viagens, genéricas ou específicas de seu destino. Visando avaliar a preocupação, providências preventivas e problemas relativos à saúde e à prevenção de doenças, entrevistamos professores universitários de uma grande universidade pública, distribuídos aleatoriamente entre as áreas de Exatas, Humanidades e da Saúde, selecionados por interesse e por relato de problemas de saúde em viagens no ano antecedente à pesquisa. Após amostragem e sorteio, foram tentadas 520 entrevistas por telefone, sendo encontrados 67 (12,9%) docentes e 46 (68,6%) concordaram com a entrevista, sendo que dois foram excluídos por ausência de viagem no ultimo ano. Esta amostragem tinha predominância de homens (37/44, 84,1%), entre os 40 e 50 anos de idade (32/44, 72,7%) todos com educação superior como esperado. A maioria era sedentária ou referia exercício ocasional, com apenas 15,9% (7/44) informando exercício regular. Doenças pré-existentes foram referidas por 15 viajantes. A maioria das viagens durou uma semana ou menos no destino. A duração da viagem estava relacionada ao destino sendo que viagens com mais de 12 h eram sempre relacionadas a destinos no exterior, 68,2% (30/44) das viagens, sendo mais rápidas (< 3h ) as viagens domésticas. A maioria das viagens foi aérea (41/44) e o lazer motivou 31,8% (14/44) delas. Aconselhamento de saúde anterior à viagem foi descrito apenas por 2 (4,5%) e a maioria (61,4% ou 27/44) referia vacinação embora 11/30 apenas descrevia vacinação não atualizada. 30% (9/30) viajaram sem nenhum tipo de seguro de saúde. Como um grupo total, seis homens (13,6%) viajando ao exterior apresentaram pelo menos um problema de saúde atribuído à viagem. Cinco apresentaram problemas respiratórios, como influenza ou resfriado, sendo que ocorreram problemas neurológicos, ortopédicos, de hipertensão em viajantes isolados, com um caso de problema de crime. Não houve diferenças quanto ao gênero ou grupo etário, destinos ou tipo de transporte, aconselhamento prévio, motivação da viagem, ou doenças preexistentes. É interessante notar que os dois aconselhamentos prévios foram feitos apenas para viagens de destinos nacionais. Nossos dados mostram que há problemas de saúde em viagens em um número significante de viajantes altamente educados, apesar da pequena amostra, e eles têm despreocupação com saúde, com número significante de viagens sem aconselhamento prévio ou seguro de saúde. Sugere-se a implantação de um programa de aconselhamento para segurança quanto aos problemas de saúde em viagens.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Faculty/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Preventive Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 54(5): 239-244, Sept.-Oct. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-648557


Foodborne diseases represent operational risks in industrial restaurants. We described an outbreak of nine clustered cases of acute illness resembling acute toxoplasmosis in an industrial plant with 2300 employees. These patients and another 36 similar asymptomatic employees were diagnosed with anti-T. gondii IgG titer and avidity by ELISA. We excluded 14 patients based on high IgG avidity and chronic toxoplasmosis: 13 from controls and one from acute disease other than T. gondii infection. We also identified another three asymptomatic employees with T.gondii acute infection and also anti-T. gondii IgM positive as remaining acute cases. Case control study was conducted by interview in 11 acute infections and 20 negative controls. The ingestion of green vegetables, but not meat or water, was observed to be associated with the incidence of acute disease. These data reinforce the importance of sanitation control in industrial restaurants and also demonstrate the need for improvement in quality control regarding vegetables at risk for T. gondii oocyst contamination. We emphasized the accurate diagnosis of indexed cases and the detection of asymptomatic infections to determine the extent of the toxoplasmosis outbreak.

Doenças transmitidas por alimentos representam riscos operacionais em restaurantes industriais. Descrevemos surto de nove casos agrupados de doença aguda semelhante à toxoplasmose em indústria de 2300 funcionários. Estes pacientes e outros 36 funcionários assintomáticos foram diagnosticados por ELISA para o título e avidez de IgG anti-T. gondii. Foram excluídos 14 pacientes com toxoplasmose crônica e alta avidez: 13 de controles e um de doença aguda não relacionada à infecção por T. gondii. Também identificamos três empregados assintomáticos com infecção aguda por T.gondii, que como os restantes agudos apresentavam anti-T.gondii IgM ELISA positivo. Conduzimos estudo caso controle por entrevista em 11 infecções agudas e 20 controles negativos. A ingestão de vegetais, mas não de carne ou água, foi associada com a incidência da doença aguda. Esses dados reforçam a importância do controle sanitário em restaurantes industriais e também demonstram a necessidade de melhoria no controle de qualidade sobre vegetais em risco de contaminação por oocistos de T. gondii. Enfatizamos o diagnóstico preciso de casos e a detecção de infecções assintomáticas para determinar a extensão do surto de toxoplasmose.

Humans , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Disease Outbreaks , Industry , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Restaurants , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/transmission
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 21(3): 185-191, July-Sept. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-653702


The increased incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is due to a lack of effective disease control measures. In addition to that, no effective treatment exists for canine VL in response to synthetic drugs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the essential oils of Coriandrum sativum and Lippia sidoides, and oleoresin from Copaifera reticulata, on Leishmania chagasi promastigotes and amastigotes. We also examined the toxicity of these treatments on the murine monocyte cell line RAW 264.7. To determine the IC50 a MTT test (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was performed on promastigotes, and an in situ ELISA assay was conducted on amastigotes. Here, we demonstrate that oleoresin from C. reticulata was effective against both promastigotes (IC50 of 7.88 µg.mL-1) and amastigotes (IC50 of 0.52 µg.mL-1), and neither of the two treatments differed significantly (p > 0.05) from pentamidine (IC50 of 2.149 µg.mL-1) and amphotericin B (IC50 of 9.754 µg.mL-1). Of the three plant oils tested, only oleoresin showed no toxicity toward monocyte, with 78.45% viability after treatment. Inhibition of promastigote and amastigote growth and the lack of cytotoxicity by C. reticulata demonstrate that oleoresin may be a viable option for analyzing the in vivo therapeutic effects of leishmanicidal plants.

O aumento na incidência da Leishmaníase Visceral (LV) no Brasil deve-se à ineficácia das medidas de controle da doença. Além disso, não há tratamento efetivo para LV canina com drogas sintéticas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos óleos essenciais de Coriandrum sativum e de Lippia sidoides e do óleo-resina de Copaiferareticulata sobre promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi e analisar o grau de toxicidade sobre células monocíticas murinas RAW 264.7. Para determinar a CI50 sobre promastigotas foi usado teste MTT (brometo de 3-[4,5-dimetil-tiazol-2-il]-2,5-difeniltetrazólio) e sobre amastigotas foi realizado imunoensaio in situ pela técnica de ELISA. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que o óleo-resina de C. reticulata foi o mais eficaz contra as formas promastigotas (CI50 de 7,88 µg.mL-1) e amastigotas (CI50 de 0,52 µg.mL-1) e em nenhum dos dois testes diferiu do controle pentamidina que obteve CI50 de 2,149 µg.mL-1, no teste sobre promastigotas, e anfotericina B que obteve CI50 de 9,754 µg.mL-1, nos testes com amastigotas (p > 0.05). Quanto à citotoxicidade apenas o óleo-resina não apresentou toxicidade com 78,45% de monócitos viáveis. Os resultados obtidos sobre promastigotas e amastigotas e a ausência de citotoxicidade do óleo-resina de C. reticulata evidenciam que este óleo-resina pode ser viável para a análise de seus efeitos terapêuticos em testes in vivo.

Animals , Mice , Coriandrum , Fabaceae , Lippia , Leishmania/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Monocytes/parasitology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(4): 485-490, July-Aug. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646904


INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is usually a benign infection, except in the event of ocular, central nervous system (CNS), or congenital disease and particularly when the patient is immunocompromised. Treatment consists of drugs that frequently cause adverse effects; thus, newer, more effective drugs are needed. In this study, the possible activity of artesunate, a drug successfully being used for the treatment of malaria, on Toxoplasma gondii growth in cell culture is evaluated and compared with the action of drugs that are already being used against this parasite. METHODS: LLC-MK2 cells were cultivated in RPMI medium, kept in disposable plastic bottles, and incubated at 36ºC with 5% CO2. Tachyzoites of the RH strain were used. The following drugs were tested: artesunate, cotrimoxazole, pentamidine, pyrimethamine, quinine, and trimethoprim. The effects of these drugs on tachyzoites and LLC-MK2 cells were analyzed using nonlinear regression analysis with Prism 3.0 software. RESULTS: Artesunate showed a mean tachyzoite inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.075µM and an LLC MK2 toxicity of 2.003µM. Pyrimethamine was effective at an IC50 of 0.482µM and a toxicity of 11.178µM. Trimethoprim alone was effective against the in vitro parasite. Cotrimoxazole also was effective against the parasite but at higher concentrations than those observed for artesunate and pyrimethamine. Pentamidine and quinine had no inhibitory effect over tachyzoites. CONCLUSIONS: Artesunate is proven in vitro to be a useful alternative for the treatment of toxoplasmosis, implying a subsequent in vivo effect and suggesting the mechanism of this drug against the parasite.

INTRODUÇÃO: Toxoplasmose é geralmente uma infecção benigna, exceto nos eventos de doença ocular, congênito e do sistema nervoso central, e particularmente quando o paciente é imunocomprometido. O tratamento consiste de drogas que frequentemente causam efeitos adversos, então novas drogas, mais efetivas são necessárias. Neste estudo, a possível atividade de artesunato, uma droga usada com sucesso no tratamento da malária, sobre o crescimento de Toxoplasma gondii em cultura celular é avaliado e comparado à ação de drogas que já estão sendo utilizadas contra este parasita. MÉTODOS: Células LLC-MK2 foram cultivadas em meio RPMI, mantidas em garrafas plásticas descartáveis e incubados a 36ºC com 5% CO2. Taquizoítos da cepa RH foram usados. As seguintes drogas foram testadas: artesunato, cotrimoxazol, pentamidina, pirimetamina, quinino e trimetoprima. Os efeitos dessas drogas sobre taquizoítos foram analisados por análise regressiva não linear com o software Prism 3.0. RESULTADOS: Artesunato mostrou uma concentração inibitória media (IC50) de 0,075µM e uma toxicidade sobre células LLC MK2 de 2,003µM. Pirimetamina foi efetiva a uma IC50 de 0,482µM e uma toxicidade de 11,178µM. Trimetoprima sozinha foi efetiva contra o parasita in vitro. Cotrimoxazol também foi efetivo contra o parasita, mas a concentrações mais altas que aquelas observadas para artesunato e pirimetamina. Pentamidina e quinino não tiveram efeitos inibitórios sobre os taquizoítos. CONCLUSÕES: Provou-se que artesunato in vitro pode ser uma alternativa útil para o tratamento da toxoplasmose, implicando um subsequente efeito in vivo e sugerindo o mecanismo desta droga contra o parasita.

Animals , Mice , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Artemisinins/pharmacology , Toxoplasma/drug effects , Cell Line , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Macaca mulatta , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(5): 567-571, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-602898


INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries, with a total of 12 million people infected and 350 million at risk. In the search for new leishmanicidal agents, alkaloids and acetogenins isolated from leaves of Annona squamosa and seeds of Annona muricata were tested against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. METHODS: Methanol-water (80:20) extracts of A. squamosa leaves and A. muricata seeds were extracted with 10 percent phosphoric acid and organic solvents to obtain the alkaloid and acetogenin-rich extracts. These extracts were chromatographed on a silica gel column and eluted with a mixture of several solvents in crescent order of polarity. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds were tested against Leishmania chagasi, which is responsible for American visceral leishmaniasis, using the MTT test assay. The cytotoxicity assay was evaluated for all isolated compounds, and for this assay, RAW 264.7 cells were used. RESULTS: O-methylarmepavine, a benzylisoquinolinic alkaloid, and a C37 trihydroxy adjacent bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin were isolated from A. squamosa, while two acetogenins, annonacinone and corossolone, were isolated from A. muricata. Against promastigotes, the alkaloid showed an IC50 of 23.3 µg/mL, and the acetogenins showed an IC50 ranging from 25.9 to 37.6 µg/mL; in the amastigote assay, the IC50 values ranged from 13.5 to 28.7 µg/mL. The cytotoxicity assay showed results ranging from 43.5 to 79.9 µg/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These results characterize A. squamosa and A. muricata as potential sources of leishmanicidal agents. Plants from Annonaceae are rich sources of natural compounds and an important tool in the search for new leishmanicidal therapies.

INTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose visceral é uma enfermidade endêmica em 88 países, com um total de 12 milhões de pessoas infectadas e 350 milhões em risco. Na procura de novos agentes com ação leishmanicida, alcalóides e acetogeninas isoladas de Annona squamosa e Annona muricata, foram testados contra as formas promastigotas e amastigotas de Leishmania chagasi. MÉTODOS: Foram preparados extratos com metanol: água (80: 20) das folhas de A. squamosa e sementes de A. muricata que foram extraídos com solução de ácido fosfórico 10 por cento e solventes orgânicos, para obter extratos ricos em alcalóides e acetogeninas. Estes extratos foram cromatografados em coluna de sílica gel sendo eluídos com solventes de diferentes polaridades para o isolamento dos constituintes, e feita a determinação estrutural por análise espectroscópica. Os constituintes isolados foram testados contra Leishmania chagasi, responsável pela leishmaniose visceral, utilizando o teste MTT. Testes de toxicidade foram realizados em todos os compostos isolados, sendo utilizadas células RAW 264.7. RESULTADOS: Um alcalóide benzilisoquinolínico, O-metilarmepavina, e uma C37-triidróxi-acetogenina com anel bistetrahidrofurânico adjacente foram isolados de A. squamosa e duas acetogeninas annonacinona e corossolona da A. muricata. O alcalóide mostrou um índice de inibição médio (IC50) de 23,3µg/mL e as acetogeninas apresentaram IC50 variando entre 25,9 a 37,6µg/mL contra promastigotas, e no ensaio de amastigotas, o IC50 valores variaram entre 13,5 a 28,7 µg/mL. A toxicidade mostrou resultados que variaram entre 43,5 a 79,9µg/mL. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados caracterizam A. squamosa e A. muricata como fontes potenciais de agentes leishmanicidas.

Annona/chemistry , Leishmania infantum/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Trypanocidal Agents/pharmacology , /analogs & derivatives , /isolation & purification , /pharmacology , /toxicity , Acetogenins/isolation & purification , Acetogenins/pharmacology , Acetogenins/toxicity , Benzylisoquinolines/isolation & purification , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/toxicity , Chromatography, Gel , Furans/isolation & purification , Furans/pharmacology , Furans/toxicity , Mutagenicity Tests , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Trypanocidal Agents/isolation & purification , Trypanocidal Agents/toxicity
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 52(6): 291-295, Nov.-Dec. 2010. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-570727


Toxoplasmosis, a protozoan disease, causes severe disease in fetuses during pregnancy and deadly encephalitis in HIV patients. There are several studies on its seroprevalence around the world, but studies focusing on African countries are limited in number and mostly anecdotal. We studied two groups of samples from Mozambique by ELISA, using serum samples from 150 pregnant women and six Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from AIDS patients with encephalitis. HIV status was confirmed, and CD4 blood counts were obtained from HIV-positive pregnant women. IgG seroprevalence of the group as a whole was 18.7 percent (28/150), with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive individuals compared to those who were HIV-negative (31.3 percent, [18/58] vs. 10.9 percent, [10/92]) patients. These data may be biased due to cumulative effects of exposition affecting disease prevalence. If corrected, this data may indicate an interaction of HIV and T. gondii. Prevalence of both diseases increases with age, but this is more clearly seen for toxoplasmosis (p < 0.005) than HIV infection, possibly explained by higher transmission of HIV after childhood. In HIV patients suffering from encephalitis, CSF serology showed that 33 percent of specific IgG CSF had a high avidity, which was in accordance with the data from the group of pregnant women. Lower prevalence rates of both infections in older groups could be explained by more deaths in the infected groups, resulting in an artificially lower prevalence. Using CD4 counts as a marker of time of HIV infection, and correcting for age, patients with contact with T. gondii had fewer CD4 cells, suggesting prolonged HIV disease or other causes. Toxoplasma IgG prevalence is higher in HIV+ groups, which could be ascribed to HIV- and T. gondii-associated risk factors, such as exposure to higher and more diverse social contacts. The low incidence of Toxoplasma IgG in younger age groups shows that transmission could be related to better access to cyst-containing meat in adulthood, as environmental transmission due to oocysts is usually blamed for higher incidence in children. Taken together, these data support the urgent need of research in toxoplasmosis in Africa, especially in the presence of HIV epidemics.

Toxoplasmose, uma protozoonose, causa doença grave em fetos de mulheres grávidas com infecção aguda e encefalite letal em portadores de HIV. Apesar de muitos estudos sobre sua prevalência no Mundo, existem apenas alguns relatos da toxoplasmose na África Austral, geralmente anedóticos. Estudamos por ELISA dois grupos de amostras de Moçambique, usando 150 amostras de soros de mulheres grávidas e seis amostras de Liquido Cefalorraquidiano (LCR) de pacientes com AIDS e encefalite. O estado da infecção pelo HIV foi confirmado e a contagem de células CD4+ no sangue foi obtida das pacientes grávidas infectadas pelo HIV. No grupo das gestantes, IgG anti T.gondii foi encontrada em 18.7 por cento (28/150), mais freqüente em pacientes HIV positivas (31.3 por cento, 18/58) do que em HIV negativas (10.9 por cento, 10/92). A ocorrência de ambas as doenças aumenta com a idade, mais claramente vista na toxoplasmose (p < 0.005) do que na infecção pelo HIV, devido maior transmissão do HIV após a infância. Na encefalite em pacientes HIV+, a sorologia do LCR mostrou uma ocorrência de 33 por cento de IgG especifica de alta avidez, que está de acordo com a ocorrência neste grupo etário, baseado nos dados de nossas gestantes. A menor ocorrência de ambas as infecções em grupos etários mais idosos pode ser explicada pela mortalidade cumulativa por qualquer causa nos grupos mais idosos, resultando em menor ocorrência relativa. Usando as contagens de células CD4+ como marcadores da progressão da infecção pelo HIV e corrigindo para grupos etários, as gestantes HIV+ com contato com T. gondii tem menores níveis de células CD4+ do que as gestantes HIV+ sem contato com T.gondii. A ocorrência maior da toxoplasmose em gestantes HIV+ pode ser atribuída a fatores de risco semelhantes, como exposição a maior contato social. A baixa ocorrência da toxoplasmose em grupos mais jovens pode se relacionar com menor acesso a carne contendo cistos, já que a transmissão ambiental por oocistos está associada à maior incidência em crianças. Todos estes dados reforçam a necessidade de pesquisa da toxoplasmose na África Austral, especialmente na presença da epidemia pelo HIV.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , AIDS Dementia Complex/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Age Factors , AIDS Dementia Complex/cerebrospinal fluid , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Incidence , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Mozambique/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/complications , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis
Clinics ; 65(10): 1027-1032, 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-565989


PURPOSE: To search for anti-retina antibodies that serve as markers for eye disease in uveitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stored sera from patients with uveitis, ocular toxoplasmosis (n = 30) and non-infectious, immune-mediated uveitis (n = 50) and from asymptomatic individuals who were positive (n = 250) and negative (n = 250) for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were tested. Serum anti-retina IgG was detected by an optimized ELISA using a solid-phase whole human retina extract, bovine S-antigen or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. RESULTS: Uveitis patients showed a higher mean reactivity to whole human retina extract, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein and S-antigen in comparison to the asymptomatic population. These findings were independent of the uveitis origin and allowed the determination of the lower anti-retina antibody cut-off for the three antigens. Asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-positive individuals showed a higher frequency of antihuman whole retina extract antibodies in comparison to asymptomatic anti-Toxoplasma serum-negative patients. The bovine S-antigen and interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein ELISAs also showed a higher mean reactivity in the uveitis groups compared to the asymptomatic group, but the observed reactivities were lower and overlapped without discrimination. CONCLUSION: We detected higher levels of anti-retina antibodies in uveitis patients and in a small fraction of asymptomatic patients with chronic toxoplasmosis. The presence of anti-retina antibodies in sera might be a marker of eye disease in asymptomatic patients, especially when whole human retina extract is used in a solid-phase ELISA.

Humans , Asymptomatic Infections , Autoantibodies/blood , Retina/immunology , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/diagnosis , Toxoplasmosis/complications , Uveitis/diagnosis , Analysis of Variance , Antigens/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Toxoplasmosis, Ocular/etiology , Toxoplasmosis/immunology , Uveitis/etiology
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 51(5): 283-288, Sept.-Oct. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-530135


Toxoplasma gondii causes severe fetal disease during acute infection in pregnant women, thus demanding early diagnosis for effective treatment and fetus preservation. Fetal tests are inefficient and risky, and diagnosis is based on maternal IgM serology, which had weak screening ability due to increased sensitivity, with alternative IgG avidity tests. Here, we performed ELISA and avidity assays using a recombinant T. gondii antigen, rROP2, in samples from 160 pregnant women screened from a large public hospital who were referred due to positive IgM assays. IgG serology and avidity assays were compared using whole T. gondii extract or rROP2. ELISA IgG detection with rROP2 showed good agreement with assays performed with T. gondii extract, but rROP2 IgG avidity assays were unrelated to whole extract antigen IgG avidity, regardless of the chaotrope used. These data show that avidity maturation is specific to individual antigen prevalence and immune response during infection. ELISA rROP2 IgG assays may be an alternative serological test for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, although our data do not support their use in avidity assays.

A toxoplasmose causa grave doença fetal durante a infecção aguda da gestante, assim demanda diagnóstico precoce para tratamento efetivo e preservação fetal. Os testes fetais são de baixa eficiência e o diagnóstico é baseado na sorologia para IgM materna, que tem fraca capacidade de triagem devido a sensibilidade crescente dos testes, sendo uma alternativa os testes de avidez de IgG. Apresentamos aqui um ELISA e ensaio de avidez de IgG usando antígeno recombinante de T. gondii, rROP2, em amostras de 162 gestantes triadas para um grande hospital público por uma sorologia positiva para IgM. O ELISA IgG e o ensaio de avidez de IgG foram comparados usando o antígeno rROP2 ou extrato total de T. gondii. O ELISA usando rROP2 mostrou excelente concordância com os ensaios usando extrato de T. gondii, mas nos ensaios de avidez usando rROP2, os valores encontrados não se relacionaram com os encontrados na avidez com extrato de T. gondii, independente do tipo de caotrópico utilizado. Estes dados mostram que a maturação da avidez é especifica para a resposta imune ou a prevalência de um antígeno durante a infecção. Os ELISA para IgG anti rROP2 podem ser teste sorológico alternativo para o diagnóstico da toxoplasmose durante a gravidez, embora nossos dados não apóiem seu uso em ensaios de avidez de IgG

Animals , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antigens, Protozoan , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic/diagnosis , Toxoplasma/immunology , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Antibody Affinity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity