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Clinics ; 76: e2597, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153997


A combination of immunosuppressants may improve outcomes due to the synergistic effect of their different action mechanisms. Currently, there is no consensus regarding the best immunosuppressive protocol after liver transplantation. This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tacrolimus associated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Eight randomized trials were included. The proportion of patients with at least one adverse event related to the immunosuppression scheme with tacrolimus associated with MMF was 39.9%. The tacrolimus with MMF immunosuppression regimen was superior in preventing acute cellular rejection compared with that of tacrolimus alone (risk difference [RD]=-0.11; p =0.001). The tacrolimus plus MMF regimen showed no difference in the risk of adverse events compared to that of tacrolimus alone (RD=0.7; p=0.66) and cyclosporine plus MMF (RD=-0.7; p=0.37). Patients undergoing liver transplantation who received tacrolimus plus MMF had similar adverse events when compared to patients receiving other evaluated immunosuppressive regimens and had a lower risk of acute rejection than those receiving in the monodrug tacrolimus regimen.

Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Liver Transplantation , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Immunosuppression , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects
Clinics ; 76: e2184, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153968


Non-tumoral portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in liver transplantation (LT). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of PVT in LT outcomes and analyze the types of surgical techniques used for dealing with PVT during LT. A systematic review was conducted in Cochrane, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, selecting articles from January 1990 to December 2019. The MESH-terms used were ("Portal Vein"[Mesh] AND "Thrombosis"[Mesh] NOT "Neoplasms"[Mesh]) AND ("Liver Transplantation"[Mesh]). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) recommendation was used, and meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager Version 5.3 software. A total of 1,638 articles were initially found: 488 in PubMed, 289 in Cochrane Library, and 861 in EMBASE, from which 27 were eventually selected for the meta-analysis. Surgery time of LT in patients with PVT was longer than in patients without LT (p<0.0001). Intraoperative red blood cell (p<0.00001), fresh frozen plasma (p=0.01), and platelets (p=0.03) transfusions during LT were higher in patients with PVT. One-year (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; p=0.002) and 5-year (OR 1.12; p=0.01) patient survival after LT was worse in the PVT group. Total occlusive PVT presented higher mortality (OR 3.70; p=0.00009) and rethrombosis rates (OR 3.47 [1.18-10.21]; p=0.02). PVT Yerdel III/IV classification exhibited worse 1-year [2.04 (1.21-3.42); p=0.007] and 5-year [0.98 (0.59-1.62); p=0.93] patient survival. Thrombectomy with primary anastomosis was associated with better outcomes. LT in patients with non-tumoral PVT demands more surgical time, needs more intraoperative transfusion, and presents worse 1- and 5-year patient survival. Total occlusive PVT and Yerdel III/IV PVT classification were associated with higher mortality. (PROSPERO, registration number: CRD42020132915).

Humans , Liver Transplantation , Venous Thrombosis , Portal Vein/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Thrombectomy , Liver Cirrhosis
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1625, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360011


RESUMO - RACIONAL: O câncer colorretal é a terceira neoplasia mais frequente e metade dos pacientes desenvolvem metástase hepática. O melhor fator prognóstico na metástase hepática de câncer colorretal (MHCCR) é a possibilidade de ressecção com margens livres, porém a maioria permanece irressecável. O racional em realizar transplante hepático (TH) em pacientes portadores de MHCCR está na ampliação do número de pacientes ressecáveis através de uma hepatectomia total. OBJETIVO: Apresentar protocolo brasileiro para realização de transplante hepático em pacientes com MHCCR irressecável. MÉTODO: O protocolo foi realizado por duas instituições com grande volume de ressecções e transplantes hepáticos no Brasil, baseado no trabalho realizado pela Universidade de Oslo. A elaboração foi dividida em 4 etapas. RESULTADO: É apresentada proposta de protocolo para esta doença a ser validada na aplicação clínica. CONCLUSÃO: Foi possível elaborar protocolo de transplante hepático para MHCCR irressecável a fim de uniformizar o tratamento e melhor avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos.

ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common neoplasm, and half of the patients with CRC develop liver metastasis. The best prognostic factor for colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) is the possibility of performing a resection with free margins; however, most of them remain unresectable. The justification for performing liver transplantation (LT) in patients with CRLM regards an increase in the number of resectable patients by performing total hepatectomy. AIM: The aim of this study was to provide a Brazilian protocol for LT in patients with unresectable CRLM. METHOD: The protocol was carried out by two Brazilian institutions, which perform a large volume of resections and LTs, based on the study carried out at the University of Oslo. The elaboration of the protocol was conducted in four stages. RESULT: A protocol proposal for this disease is presented, which needs to be validated for clinical use. CONCLUSION: The development of an LT protocol for unresectable CRLM aims to standardize the treatment and to enable a better evaluation of surgical results.

Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Brazil , Hepatectomy
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1618, 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355518


ABSTRACT Background: Hilar cholangiocarcinoma represents more than half of all cholangiocarcinoma cases, having poor prognosis and presenting a median overall survival after diagnosis of 12-24 months. In patients who have unresectable tumors with a better prognosis, the proposal to perform liver transplantation emerged for expanding the possibility of free margins by performing total hepatectomy. Aim: To provide a Brazilian protocol for liver transplantation in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Method: The protocol was carried out by two Brazilian institutions which perform a large volume of resections and liver transplantations, based on the study carried out at the Mayo Clinic. The elaboration of the protocol was conducted in four stages. Result: A protocol proposal for this disease is presented, which needs to be validated for clinical use. Conclusion: The development of a liver transplantation protocol for cholangiocarcinoma aims not only to standardize the treatment, but also enable a better assessment of the surgical results in the future.

RESUMO Racional: O colangiocarcinoma hilar representa mais da metade de todos os casos de colangiocarcinoma; tem prognóstico reservado e sobrevida global mediana de 12- 24 meses após o diagnóstico. A proposta de realizar transplante hepático surgiu para ampliar a possibilidade de margens livres através de hepatectomia total nos portadores de tumoresirressecáveis com melhor prognóstico. Objetivo: Apresentar protocolo brasileiro para realização de transplante hepático em pacientes com colangiocarcinoma hilar. Método: O protocolo foi realizado por duas instituições com grande volume de ressecções e transplantes hepáticos no Brasil, baseado no trabalho realizado pela MayoClinic. A elaboração foi dividida em quatro etapas. Resultado: É apresentada proposta de protocolo para esta doença a ser validada na aplicação clínica. Conclusão: Foi possível elaborar protocolo de transplante hepático para colangiocarcinoma a fim de uniformizar o tratamento e melhor avaliar os resultados cirúrgicos.

Humans , Bile Duct Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Transplantation , Cholangiocarcinoma/surgery , Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Klatskin Tumor/surgery , Hepatectomy
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(3): e1622, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355516


ABSTRACT Background: The incidence of abdominal hernia in cirrhotic patients is as higher as 20%; in cases of major ascites the incidence may increase up to 40%. One of the main and most serious complications in cirrhotic postoperative period (PO) is acute kidney injury (AKI). Aim: To analyze the renal function of cirrhotic patients undergoing to hernia surgery and evaluate the factors related to AKI. Methods: Follow-up of 174 cirrhotic patients who underwent hernia surgery. Laboratory tests including the renal function were collected in the PO.AKI was defined based on the consensus of the ascite´s club. They were divided into two groups: with (AKI PO) and without AKI . Results: All 174 patients were enrolled and AKI occurred in 58 (34.9%). In the AKI PO group, 74.1% had emergency surgery, whereas in the group without AKI PO it was only 34.6%.In the group with AKI PO, 90.4% presented complications, whereas in the group without AKI PO they occurred only in 29.9%. Variables age, baseline MELD, baseline creatinine, creatinine in immediate postoperative (POI), AKI and the presence of ascites were statistically significant for survival. Conclusions: There is association between AKI PO and emergency surgery and, also, between AKI PO and complications after surgery. The factors related to higher occurrence were initial MELD, basal Cr, Cr POI. The patients with postoperative AKI had a higher rate of complications and higher mortality.

RESUMO Racional: A incidência de hérnia abdominal em pacientes cirróticos é elevada, em torno de 20%. Em casos de ascite volumosa, a incidência atinge valores até 40%. Uma das principais e mais graves complicações no pós-operatório de correção de hérnias de pacientes cirróticos é a insuficiência renal aguda (IRA). Objetivo: Analisar a função renal de pacientes cirróticos submetidos a herniorrafias, comparando aqueles que apresentavam IRA pós-operatório com os demais, para determinar os fatores relacionados à sua ocorrência. Método: Seguimento de pacientes cirróticos submetidos à cirurgia de hérnia entre 2001 e 2014 no Serviço de Transplante de Fígado. Foram coletados exames laboratoriais para avaliar a função renal no pós-operatório rotineiramente. A IRA foi definida com base no consenso do clube da ascite em 2015. Resultados: Dos 174 pacientes incluídos, ocorreu IRA em 58 pacientes (34,9%). Houve diferença entre grupos para as seguintes variáveis: MELD inicial, creatinina basal e creatinina, o grupo com IRA apresentou medias superiores ao grupo que não apresentou IRA. No grupo IRA PO, 74,1% das cirurgias, foram realizadas em caráter de emergência, enquanto que no grupo sem IRA no pós-operatório, 34,6%. No grupo IRA, 90,4% dos indivíduos apresentaram complicações no pós-operatório, enquanto no grupo sem IRA, 29,9%. As variáveis idade, MELD inicial, creatinina basal e creatinina no pós-operatório inicial foram estatisticamente significantes na análise de sobrevida. Conclusões: Existe uma associação entre IRA pós-operatória e cirurgia de emergência e IRA pós-operatóri e complicações pós-operatórias. Os fatores relacionados à maior ocorrência de IRA em pacientes cirróticos submetidos à cirurgia de hérnia são o MELD inicial, creatinina basal, creatinina pós-operatória inicial. O preparo de pacientes cirróticos com hérnia abdominal antes de procedimentos cirúrgicos deve ocorrer sistematicamente, pois apresentam alta incidência de IRA pós-operatória.

Humans , Hernia, Abdominal , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Abdomen , Liver Cirrhosis/complications
Clinics ; 75: e2192, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142761


More than 18 million people in 188 countries have been diagnosed as having coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and COVID-19 has been responsible for more than 600,000 deaths worldwide. Brazil is now the second most affected country globally. Faced with this scenario, various public health measures and changes in the daily routines of hospitals were implemented to stop the pandemic. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are at an increased risk for severe COVID-19 as they present with two major diseases: cancer and concomitant chronic liver disease. The COVID-19 pandemic can significantly impact the management of HCC patients from diagnosis to treatment strategies. These patients need special attention and assistance at this time, especially since treatment for tumors cannot be delayed in most cases. The aim of this guideline was to standardize the management of HCC patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. This document was developed, on the basis of the best evidence available, by a multidisciplinary team from Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP), and Instituto Central of the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo (HC-FMUSP), which are members of the São Paulo Clínicas Liver Cancer Group.

Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Pandemics , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , Consensus , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Clinics ; 75: e1983, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133389


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) rapidly progresses to severe acute respiratory syndrome. This review aimed at collating available data on COVID-19 infection in solid organ transplantation (SOT) patients. We performed a systematic review of SOT patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The MEDLINE and PubMed databases were electronically searched and updated until April 20, 2020. The MeSH terms used were "COVID-19" AND "Transplant." Thirty-nine COVID-19 cases were reported among SOT patients. The median interval for developing SARS-CoV-2 infection was 4 years since transplantation, and the fatality rate was 25.64% (10/39). Sixteen cases were described in liver transplant (LT) patients, and the median interval since transplantation was 5 years. The fatality rate among LT patients was 37.5% (6/16), with death occurring more than 3 years after LT. The youngest patient who died was 59 years old; there were no deaths among children. Twenty-three cases were described in kidney transplant (KT) patients. The median interval since transplantation was 4 years, and the fatality rate was 17.4% (4/23). The youngest patient who died was 71 years old. Among all transplant patients, COVID-19 had the highest fatality rate in patients older than 60 years : LT, 62.5% vs 12.5% (p=0.006); KT 44.44% vs 0 (p=0.039); and SOT, 52.94% vs 4.54% (p=0.001). This study presents a novel description of COVID-19 in abdominal SOT recipients. Furthermore, we alert medical professionals to the higher fatality risk in patients older than 60 years. (PROSPERO, registration number=CRD42020181299)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Betacoronavirus , Kidney Transplantation/mortality , Liver Transplantation/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901003, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054672


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate that Connexin (Cx43) plays a role in lesions after hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods: We use Cx43 deficient model (heterozygotes mice) and compared to a wild group. The groups underwent 1 hour ischemia and 24 hours reperfusion. The heterozygote genotype was confirmed by PCR. We analyzed the hepatic enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT) and histology. Results: The mice with Cx43 deficiency showed an ALT mean value of 4166 vs. 307 in the control group (p<0.001); AST mean value of 7231 vs. 471 in the control group (p<0.001); GGT mean value of 9.4 vs. 1.7 in the control group (p=0.001); histology showed necrosis and inflammation in the knockout group. Conclusions: This research demonstrated that the deficiency of Cx43 worses the prognosis for liver injury. The topic is a promising target for therapeutics advancements in liver diseases and procedures.

Animals , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Connexin 43/deficiency , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/analysis , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mice, Knockout , Connexin 43/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/analysis , Genotyping Techniques , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/analysis , Liver/pathology , Necrosis
Clinics ; 74: e1070, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039540


OBJECTIVE: With the increasing prevalence of steatosis, the number of steatotic liver grafts from deceased donors is also increasing. Thus, determining the prevalence and the population risk factors of steatosis may assist in risk stratification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of steatosis and steatohepatitis among livers from adults who died due to non-burn trauma. METHODS: Specimens were collected from 224 adults undergoing autopsy at a regional autopsy referral center from September 2011 to April 2013. Histopathological examination was performed on six samples obtained from different lobes of each liver. The outcomes of interest were the presence of steatosis, steatohepatitis, NASH inflammation and NASH fibrosis. The main predictors were body mass index, abdominal circumference, liver weight and volume, presence of cholelithiasis, and siderosis. Our modeling strategy made use of a series of generalized linear models with a binomial family. RESULTS: Our sample had a mean age of 40 years; steatosis was diagnosed in 48.2% of cases, and steatohepatitis was diagnosed in 2.7%. The presence of a high proportion of fatty changes was more prevalent among males and older individuals, with the most affected age group being 41-60 years. When evaluating the crude odds ratio for steatosis, the factors significantly associated with an increased risk of steatosis were greater abdominal circumference, BMI, and liver weight and the presence of siderosis. CONCLUSION: Our study reinforces the role of older age, obesity and hepatomegaly as predictors of fatty liver disease. These variables should be considered in the assessment of fatty changes in the livers of potential liver donors.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Fatty Liver/pathology , Autopsy , Tissue Donors , Severity of Illness Index , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(1): e1360, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949206


ABSTRACT Background: Liver elastography have been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with higher values; however, it is unclear to identify morbimortality risk on liver transplantation waiting list. Aim: To assess liver stiffness, ultrasound and clinical findings in cirrhotic patients with and without HCC on screening for liver transplant and compare the morbimortality risk with elastography and MELD score. Method: Patients with cirrhosis and HCC on screening for liver transplant were enrolled with clinical, radiological and laboratory assessments, and transient elastography. Results: 103 patients were included (without HCC n=58 (66%); HCC n=45 (44%). The mean MELD score was 14.7±6.4, the portal hypertension present on 83.9% and the mean transient elastography value was 32.73±22.5 kPa. The median acoustic radiation force impulse value of liver parenchyma was 1.98 (0.65-3.2) m/s and 2.16 (0.59-2.8) m/s in HCC group. The HCC group was significantly associated with HCV infection (OR 26.84; p<0.0001), higher levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein (OR 5.51; p=0.015), clinical portal hypertension (OR 0.25; p=0.032) and similar MELD score (p=0.693). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) showed sensitivity and specificity for serum alpha-fetoprotein (cutoff 9.1 ng/ml), transient elastography value (cutoff value 9 kPa), and acoustic radiation force impulse value (cutoff value 2.56 m/s) of 50% and 86%, 92% and 17% and 21% and 92%, respectively. The survival group had a mean transient elastography value of 31.65±22.2 kPa vs. 50.87±20.9 kPa (p=0.098) and higher MELD scores (p=0.035). Conclusion: Elastography, ultrasound and clinical findings are important non-invasive tools for cirrhosis and HCC on screening for liver transplant. Higher values in liver elastography and MELD scores predict mortality.

RESUMO Racional: A elastografia hepática tem sido relatada nos carcinomas hepatocelulares (CHC); porém, não é claro identificar o risco de morbimortalidade na lista de transplante hepático. Objetivo: Avaliar a morbimortalidade com elastografia transitória e escore MELD. Método: Pacientes adultos com cirrose na triagem para transplante de fígado foram incluídos no estudo. Resultados: Foram incluídos 103 pacientes (sem CHC n=58 (66%), CHC n=45 (44%). O escore MELD médio foi de 14,7±6,4, a hipertensão portal foi de 83,9% e o valor médio de elastografia transitória foi de 32,73±22,5 kPa. O valor médio de ARFI (Impulsão de Força de Radiação Acústica) do parênquima hepático foi de 1,98 (0,65-3,2) m/s e 2,16 (0,59-2,8) m/s no grupo CHC. O grupo CHC foi significativamente associado à infecção por vírus da hepatite C (OR 26,84, p<0,0001), níveis mais altos de alfa-feto proteína sérica (OR 5,51; p=0,015), hipertensão portal clínica (OR 0,25; p=0,032) e pontuação MELD semelhante (p=0,693). Os valores de AUROCs (Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics) mostraram sensibilidade e especificidade para a alfa-feto proteína sérica (limite de 9,1 ng/ml), valor elastografia transitória (valor de corte 9 kPa) e valor ARFI (valor de corte 2,56 m/s) de 50% e 86%, 92% e 17% e 21% e 92%, respectivamente. O grupo de sobrevivência apresentou valor elastografia transitória médio de 31,65±22,2 kPa vs. 50,87±20,9 kPa (p=0,098) e valores mais elevados de MELD (p=0,035). Conclusão: Valores mais elevados na elastografia do fígado e nos escores MELD predizem a mortalidade.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Waiting Lists , Liver Transplantation , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/surgery , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/surgery , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/complications
Clinics ; 73: e49, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952783


OBJECTIVES: The number of pancreatic transplants has decreased in recent years. Pancreatic grafts have been underutilized compared to other solid grafts. One cause of discard is the macroscopic appearance of the pancreas, especially the presence of fatty infiltration. The current research is aimed at understanding any graft-related association between fatty tissue infiltration of the pancreas and liver steatosis. METHODS: From August 2013 to August 2014, a prospective cross-sectional clinical study using data from 54 multiple deceased donor organs was performed. RESULTS: Micro- and macroscopic liver steatosis were significantly correlated with the donor body mass index ([BMI]; p=0.029 and p=0.006, respectively). Positive gamma associations between pancreatic and liver macroscopic and microscopic findings (0.98; confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-1 and 0.52; CI 0.04-1, respectively) were observed. Furthermore, comparisons of liver microscopy findings showed significant differences between severe versus absent (p<0.001), severe versus mild (p<0.001), and severe versus moderate classifications (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating curve was 0.94 for the diagnosis of steatosis by BMI evaluation using a cut-off BMI of 27.5 kg/m2, which yielded 100% sensitivity, 87% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a positive association of macroscopic and microscopic histopathological findings in steatotic livers with adipose infiltration of pancreatic grafts.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Pancreas/pathology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Fatty Liver/pathology , Liver/pathology , Tissue Donors/statistics & numerical data , Biopsy , Body Mass Index , Adipose Tissue/transplantation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Pancreas Transplantation , Area Under Curve , Parenchymal Tissue/pathology , Liver/ultrastructure
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 30(3): 169-172, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885730


ABSTRACT Background: Laparoscopic totally extraperitoneal (TEP) hernia repair is a technically demanding procedure. Recent studies have identified BMI as an independent factor for technical difficulty in the learning period. Aim: To analyze the effect of overweight and obesity on the technical difficulties of TEP. Method: Prospective study on patients who underwent a symptomatic inguinal hernia by means of the TEP technique. Were analyzed gender, BMI, previous surgery, hernia type, operative time and complications. Technical difficulty was defined by operative time, major complications and recurrence. Patients were classified into four groups: 1) underweight, if less than 18,5 kg/m²; 2) normal range if BMI between 18,5 and 24,9 kg/m²; 3) overweight if BMI between 25-29,9 kg/m²; and 4) obese if BMI≥30 kg/m². Results: The cohort had a total of 190 patients, 185 men and 5 women. BMI values ranged from 16-36 kg/m² (average 26 kg/m²). Average operating time was 55.4 min in bilateral hernia (15-150) and 37.8 min in unilateral (13-150). Time of surgery was statistically correlated with increased BMI in the first 93 patients (p=0.049). Conclusion: High BMI and prolonged operative time are undoubtedly correlated. However, this relationship may be statistically significant only in the learning period. Although several clinical features can influence surgical time, upon reaching an experienced level, surgeons appear to easily handle the challenges.

RESUMO Racional: A hernioplastia laparoscópica totalmente extraperitoneal (TEP) é procedimento tecnicamente exigente. Estudos recentes identificaram o IMC como um fator independente para a dificuldade técnica durante o período de aprendizagem. Objetivo: Analisar o efeito do sobrepeso e da obesidade sobre as dificuldades técnicas na TEP. Método: Estudo prospectivo em pacientes submetidos à hernioplastia inguinal sintomática por meio da TEP. Foram analisados gênero, IMC, operação prévia, tipo de hérnia, tempo operatório e presença de complicações. A dificuldade técnica foi definida pelo tempo operatório, complicações maiores e recorrência. Os pacientes foram classificados em quatro grupos: 1) baixo peso, se menor que 18,5 kg/m²; 2) peso normal se IMC entre 18,5 e 24,9 kg/m²; 3) sobrepeso se IMC entre 25 e 29,9 kg/m²; e 4) obesos se IMC≥30 kg/m². Resultados: A coorte incluiu 190 pacientes, 185 homens e cinco mulheres. Os valores de IMC variaram de 16-36 kg/m² (média de 26 kg/m²). O tempo médio de operação foi de 55,4 min nas hérnias bilaterais (15-150) e 37,8 min nas unilaterais (13-150). O tempo cirúrgico foi estatisticamente correlacionado com o aumento do IMC nos primeiros 93 pacientes (p=0,049). Conclusão: IMC elevado e tempo operatório prolongado estão indubitavelmente correlacionados. No entanto, esta relação pode ser estatisticamente significativa apenas no período de aprendizagem. Embora várias características clínicas possam influenciar o tempo cirúrgico, ao chegar a um nível experiente, os cirurgiões parecem lidar facilmente com os desafios.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Clinical Competence , Laparoscopy , Herniorrhaphy/methods , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Hernia, Inguinal/complications , Obesity/complications , Peritoneum , Prospective Studies , Overweight/complications
Clinics ; 72(6): 333-342, June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840084


OBJECTIVES: Although liver transplantation procedures are common and highly expensive, their cost structure is still poorly understood. This study aimed to develop models of micro-costs among patients undergoing liver transplantation procedures while comparing the role of individual clinical predictors using tree regression models. METHODS: We prospectively collected micro-cost data from patients undergoing liver transplantation in a tertiary academic center. Data collection was conducted using an Intranet registry integrated into the institution’s database for the storing of financial and clinical data for transplantation cases. RESULTS: A total of 278 patients were included and accounted for 300 procedures. When evaluating specific costs for the operating room, intensive care unit and ward, we found that in all of the sectors but the ward, human resources were responsible for the highest costs. High cost supplies were important drivers for the operating room, whereas drugs were among the top four drivers for all sectors. When evaluating the predictors of total cost, a MELD score greater than 30 was the most important predictor of high cost, followed by a Donor Risk Index greater than 1.8. CONCLUSION: By focusing on the highest cost drivers and predictors, hospitals can initiate programs to reduce cost while maintaining high quality care standards.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Costs and Cost Analysis , Hospital Costs/statistics & numerical data , Liver Transplantation/economics , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment
Clinics ; 72(4): 238-243, Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840061


Among the innovations for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, islet transplantation is a less invasive method of treatment, although it is still in development. One of the greatest barriers to this technique is the low number of pancreas donors and the low number of pancreases that are available for transplantation. Rodent models have been chosen in most studies of islet rejection and type 1 diabetes prevention to evaluate the quality and function of isolated human islets and to identify alternative solutions to the problem of islet scarcity. The purpose of this study is to conduct a review of islet xenotransplantation experiments from humans to rodents, to organize and analyze the parameters of these experiments, to describe trends in experimental modeling and to assess the viability of this procedure. In this study, we reviewed recently published research regarding islet xenotransplantation from humans to rodents, and we summarized the findings and organized the relevant data. The included studies were recent reports that involved xenotransplantation using human islets in a rodent model. We excluded the studies that related to isotransplantation, autotransplantation and allotransplantation. A total of 34 studies that related to xenotransplantation were selected for review based on their relevance and current data. Advances in the use of different graft sites may overcome autoimmunity and rejection after transplantation, which may solve the problem of the scarcity of islet donors in patients with type 1 diabetes.

Humans , Animals , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/methods , Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults/surgery , Models, Animal , Transplantation, Heterologous/methods , Graft Survival , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/trends , Mice, Inbred C57BL/surgery , Rodentia , Transplantation, Heterologous/statistics & numerical data , Transplantation, Heterologous/trends
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 30(1): 38-41, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837572


ABSTRACT Background: Computed tomography volumetry (CTV) is a useful tool for predicting graft weights (GW) for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Few studies have examined the correlation between CTV and GW in normal liver parenchyma. Aim: To analyze the correlation between CTV and GW in an adult LDLT population and provide a systematic review of the existing mathematical models to calculate partial liver graft weight. Methods: Between January 2009 and January 2013, 28 consecutive donors undergoing right hepatectomy for LDLT were retrospectively reviewed. All grafts were perfused with HTK solution. Estimated graft volume was estimated by CTV and these values were compared to the actual graft weight, which was measured after liver harvesting and perfusion. Results: Median actual GW was 782.5 g, averaged 791.43±136 g and ranged from 520-1185 g. Median estimated graft volume was 927.5 ml, averaged 944.86±200.74 ml and ranged from 600-1477 ml. Linear regression of estimated graft volume and actual GW was significantly linear (GW=0.82 estimated graft volume, r2=0.98, slope=0.47, standard deviation of 0.024 and p<0.0001). Spearman Linear correlation was 0.65 with 95% CI of 0.45 - 0.99 (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The one-to-one rule did not applied in patients with normal liver parenchyma. A better estimation of graft weight could be reached by multiplying estimated graft volume by 0.82.

RESUMO Racional: A volumetria por tomografia computadorizada (VTC) é uma ferramenta útil para a previsão do peso do enxerto (PE) para o transplante hepático com doador vivo (TFDV). Poucos estudos examinaram a correlação entre o VTC e PE no parênquima hepático normal. Objetivo: Analisar a correlação entre VTC e PE em uma população adulta de doadores para o TFDV e realização de revisão sistemática dos modelos matemáticos existentes para calcular o peso de enxertos hepáticos parciais. Métodos: Foram revisados retrospectivamente 28 doadores consecutivos submetidos à hepatectomia direita para o TFDV entre janeiro de 2009 a janeiro de 2013. Todos os doadores eram adultos saudáveis ​​com VTC pré-operatório. Os enxertos foram perfundidos com solução de preservação HTK. O volume estimado foi obtido por VTC e estes valores foram comparados com o peso real do enxerto, o qual foi aferido depois da hepatectomia e perfusão do enxerto. Resultados: A mediana do PE real foi de 782,5 g, média de 791,43±136 g, variando de 520-1185 g. A mediana do volume estimado do enxerto foi de 927,5 ml, média de 944,86±200,74 ml e variou de 600-1477 ml. A regressão linear volume estimado do enxerto e PE real foi significativamente linear (PE=0.82 do volume estimado do enxerto, r2=0,98, declive=0,47, desvio-padrão de 0,024 e p<0,0001). Correlação linear de Spearman foi de 0,65, com IC de 95% do 0,45-0,99 (p<0,0001). Conclusão: A regra de "um-para-um" não deve ser empregada em pacientes com parênquima hepático normal. A melhor estimativa do peso do enxerto hepático de doador vivo pode ser alcançado através da multiplicação do VTC por 0,82.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Preoperative Care , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Liver Transplantation , Liver/anatomy & histology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Organ Size , Retrospective Studies , Living Donors , Models, Theoretical
Clinics ; 72(3): 178-182, Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840055


OBJECTIVE: This study reports the first four cases of a uterine transplant procedure conducted in sheep in Latin America. The aim of this study was to evaluate the success of uterine transplantation in sheep. METHOD: The study was conducted at Laboratory of Medical Investigation 37 (LIM 37) at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine. Four healthy mature ewes weighing 40-60 kg were used as both the donor and recipient for a transplant within the same animal (auto-transplant). Institutional guidelines for the care of experimental animals were followed. RESULTS: The first two cases of auto-transplant were performed to standardize the technique. After complete uterine mobilization and isolation of the blood supply, the unilateral vascular pedicle was sectioned and anastomosed on the external iliac vessels. After standardization, the protocol was implemented. Procurement surgery was performed without complications or bleeding. After isolation of uterine arteries and veins as well as full mobilization of the uterus, ligation of the distal portion of the internal iliac vessels was performed with subsequent division and end-to-side anastomosis of the external iliac vessels. After vaginal anastomosis, the final case presented with arterial thrombosis in the left uterine artery. The left uterine artery anastomosis was re-opened and flushed with saline solution to remove the clot from the artery lumen. Anastomosis was repeated with restoration of blood flow for a few minutes before another uterine artery thrombosis appeared on the same side. All four animals were alive after the surgical procedure and were euthanized after the experimental period. CONCLUSION: We describe the success of four uterine auto-transplants in sheep models.

Animals , Female , Models, Animal , Sheep/surgery , Uterus/transplantation , Anastomosis, Surgical , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Iliac Artery/surgery , Infertility, Female/surgery , Reperfusion , Reproducibility of Results , Transplantation, Autologous , Uterus/blood supply