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Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875608


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a worldwide pandemic. The first reports of patients with COVID-19 were provided to World Health Organization on December 21, 2019 and were presumably associated with seafood markets in Wuhan, China. As of October 25, 2020, more than 42 million cases have been confirmed worldwide, with more than 1.1 million deaths. Asymptomatic transmission contributes significantly to transmission, and clinical features are non-specific to the disease. Thus, the diagnosis of COVID-19 requires specific viral RNA testing. The disease demonstrates extensive human-to-human transmissibility and has infected healthcare workers at high rates. Clinical awareness of the epidemiology and the risk factors for nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 is essential to preventing infection. Moreover, effective control measures should be further identified by comprehensive evaluation of hospital and community responses. In this review, we provide a comprehensive update on the epidemiology, presentation, transmission, risk factors, and public health measures associated with COVID-19. We also review past insights from previous coronavirus epidemics [i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)] to suggest measures to reduce transmission.

Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 349-358, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833377


Globally and in Africa specifically, female sex workers (FSWs) are at an extraordinarily high risk of contracting human immunodeficiencyvirus (HIV). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as an effective and ethical method with which to preventHIV infection among FSWs. PrEP efficacy is, however, closely linked to adherence, and adherence to PrEP among FSWs is a complexand interrelated process that has been shown to be of importance to public health policies and HIV control and interventionprograms. This comprehensive review categorizes barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HIV PrEP for FSWs, and describes fivestrategies for promoting PrEP adherence among FSWs. These strategies encompass 1) a long-term educational effort to decreasethe stigma associated with sex work and PrEP use, 2) education on how PrEP works, 3) lifestyle modification, 4) research on nextgenerationPrEP products to address the inconvenience of taking daily pills, and 5) integration of PrEP into existing services, suchas social services and routine primary care visits, to reduce the economic burden of seeking the medication. Our review is expectedto be useful for the design of future PrEP intervention programs. Multidisciplinary intervention should be considered to promotePrEP adherence among FSWs in order to help control the HIV epidemic.

Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785580


Contrast-associated acute kidney injury (CA-AKI) is a major concern when iodinated contrast material is administered, especially in patients at risk. Efforts have been undertaken to understand the detrimental effects of contrast media (CM). With the use of low-osmolar or iso-osmolar CM the incidence of CA-AKI has steadily decreased within the past decade; however, especially in the pediatric population information is scarce. Incidence rates have been reported to range between 0% to 18.75%, particularly depending on indication, selection of population (i.e. preexisting co-morbidities), and definition of AKI. Different biomarkers have been proposed, but confirmatory studies are either lacking or have contributed to their lack of diagnostic power. Proteomic approaches have been employed and may pave the way to such discovery. Prevention strategies have been tested and proposed, but the recently published AMACING and PRESERVE trials have shown that commonly used strategies (such as systematic hydration or administration of N-acetylcysteine) have no role in the prevention of CA-AKI. We propose that thoughtful assessment of one's fluid state is the most appropriate approach and depending on the hydration status diuretics or fluid administration should be provided to achieve an euvolemic state ahead of contrast exposure.

Acute Kidney Injury , Biomarkers , Child , Contrast Media , Diuretics , Humans , Incidence , Renal Insufficiency
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61666


Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) in children is characterized by massive proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is the most common form of INS in children. The pathogenesis of MCNS still remains unclear, however, several hypotheses have been recently proposed. For several decades, MCNS has been considered a T-cell disorder, which causes the impairment of the glomerular filtration barrier with the release of different circulating factors. Increased levels of several cytokines are also suggested. Recently, a "two-hit" theory was proposed that included the induction of CD80 (B7-1) and regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction, with or without impaired autoregulatory functions of the podocyte. In contrast to the well-established involvement of T cells, the role of B cells has not been clearly identified. However, B-cell biology has recently gained more attention, because rituximab (a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20-bearing cells) demonstrated a very good therapeutic response in the treatment of childhood and adult MCNS. Here, we discuss recent insights into the pathogenesis of MCNS in children.

Adult , B-Lymphocytes , Biology , Child , Cytokines , Glomerular Filtration Barrier , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Nephrotic Syndrome , Podocytes , Proteinuria , Rituximab , T-Lymphocytes