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1.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 443-449, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-992621

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors and their warning value for the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma.Methods:A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 92 patients with severe multiple trauma admitted to Yuyao People′s Hospital from July 2019 to October 2021. There were 71 males and 21 females, with the age range of 36-55 years [(45.5±13.6)years]. The injury severity score (ISS) was 20-29 points [(25.3±6.4)points]. The patients were divided into sepsis group ( n=32) and non-sepsis group ( n=60) according to whether sepsis occurred during hospitalization. Data were recorded for the two groups, including gender, age, basic diseases, cause of injury, number of injury sites, ISS, post-injury complications, and levels of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) at 1, 3 and 5 days after injury. The above data were analyzed to identify their correlation with the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma by univariate analysis. The independent risk factors for sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma were determined by multivariate Logistic regression analysis. The warning value of the single or combined risk factors for the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC). Results:By univariate analysis, it was demonstrated that the occurrence of sepsis was correlated with ISS, level of AHR at day 1 after injury, level of CRP at day 3 after injury and level of PCT at day 3 after injury ( P<0.05 or 0.01), but not with age, sex, basic diseases, level of AHR at 3, 5 days after injury, level of PCT at 1, 5 days after injury and level of CRP at 1, 5 days after injury (all P>0.05). By multivariate Logistic regression analysis, higher ISS ( OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01, 1.24, P<0.05), level of AHR at day 1 after injury ( OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.52, P<0.01) and level of PCT at day 3 after injury ( OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.08, 3.03, P<0.05) were found to be strongly correlated with the occurrence of sepsis. ROC curve analysis showed that higher ISS (AUC=0.69, 95% CI 0.57, 0.76) and level of AHR at day 1 after injury (AUC=0.79, 95% CI 0.68, 0.90) had warning value for the occurrence of sepsis, and the warning efficiency of combined panel was much better (AUC=0.86, 95% CI 0.77, 0.95). Conclusions:Higher ISS, level of AHR at day 1 after injury and level of PCT at day 3 after injury are independent risk factors for the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma. ISS, AHR and combination of both exhibit good warning value for the occurrence of sepsis in patients with severe multiple trauma.

2.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 921-926, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-956077

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the value of monocyte subsets and CD64 expression in the diagnosis and prognosis of sepsis.Methods:A prospective case-control study was designed. 30 septic patients and 30 non-septic patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the PLA Army Characteristic Medical Center from March 2021 to March 2022 were enrolled. After 1, 3, and 5 days of ICU admission, peripheral blood samples were taken from patients. Flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of monocyte subsets and the expression level of CD64 on the surface, and the difference of expression between patients in two group was analyzed. The risk variables for sepsis were analyzed using single-factor and multi-factor Logistic regression. The diagnostic efficacy of each risk factor for sepsis was determined using the receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve).Results:One day after ICU admission, the proportions of monocytes and classic monocytes in white blood cells (WBC) of septic patients were significantly lower than those of non-septic patients [proportion of monocytes to WBC: (4.13±2.03)% vs. (6.53±3.90)%, proportion of classic monocytes to WBC: 1.97 (1.43, 2.83)% vs. 3.37 (1.71, 5.98)%, both P < 0.05]. The proportion of non-classical monocytes in monocytes was significantly higher in septic patients than that in non-septic patients [(11.42±9.19)% vs. (6.57±4.23)%, P < 0.05]. The levels of CD64 expression in monocytes, classic monocytes, intermediate monocytes and non-classic monocytes were significantly higher in sepsis patients than those in non-septic patients [mean fluorescence intensity (MFI): 13.10±6.01 vs. 9.84±2.83 for monocytes, 13.58±5.98 vs. 10.03±2.84 for classic monocytes, 13.48±6.35 vs. 10.22±2.99 for intermediate monocytes, 8.21±5.52 vs. 5.79±2.67 for non-classic monocytes, all P < 0.05]. Multivariate Logistic regression research showed that CD64 in typical monocytes [odds ratio ( OR) = 1.299, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was 1.027-1.471, P = 0.025] and the proportion of non-typical monocytes in monocytes ( OR = 1.348, 95% CI was 1.034-1.758, P = 0.027) were the independent risk factors for sepsis. ROC curve showed that the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of CD64 expression of classical monocytes, the fraction of non-classical monocytes in monocytes, and procalcitonin (PCT) in the diagnosis of sepsis was 0.871. A correlation analysis revealed a negative relationship between the acute physiology and chronic health status evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) on the first, third, and fifth days following ICU admission and the expression level of CD64 in patients' classic monocytes ( r values were -0.264, -0.428 and -0.368, respectively, all P < 0.05). Conclusions:Combining the proportion of non-classical monocytes in monocytes, the level of plasma PCT, and the CD64 expression of classic monocytes in peripheral blood has good efficacy in identifying sepsis and assessing its severity.

3.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 11-22, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932205

ABSTRACT

Blast injury of the chest injury is the most common wound in modern war trauma and terrorist attacks, and is also the most fatal type of whole body explosion injury. Most patients with severe blast injury of the chest die in the early stage before hospitalization or during transportation, so first aid is critically important. At present, there exist widespread problems such as non-standard treatment and large difference in curative effect, while there lacks clinical treatment standards for blast injury of the chest. According to the principles of scientificity, practicality and advancement, the Trauma Society of Chinese Medical Association has formulated the guidance of classification, pre-hospital first aid, in-hospital treatment and major injury management strategies for blast injury of the chest, aiming to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

4.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 223-228, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883862

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the dynamic changes of cellular immune function in peripheral blood of trauma patients and its role in the evaluation of traumatic complications.Methods:A prospective cohort study design was conducted. Patients with blunt trauma admitted to Chongqing Emergency Medical Center from November 2019 to January 2020 were consecutively enrolled. The peripheral blood samples were collected at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after injury. The expressions of CD64, CD274, and CD279 on the surface of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes as well as CD3 +, CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry. The trauma patients were divided into different groups according to the injury severity score (ISS) and sepsis within 28 days after injury, respectively. The dynamic changes of cellular immune function in different time points after injury and differences between different groups were compared. Furthermore, the correlation with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHEⅡ), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), and ISS were evaluated by Pearson correlation analysis. Results:A total of 42 patients with trauma were finally enrolled, containing 8 severe trauma patients with ISS greater than 25 scores, 17 patients with ISS between 16 and 25 scores, and 17 patients with ISS less than 16 scores. The sepsis morbidity rates were 14.3% (n = 6) within 28 days after injury. CD64 index and CD4 +T lymphocyte subsets were significantly increased at different time points after trauma (H = 15.464, P = 0.004; F = 2.491, P = 0.035). The CD64 index and positive rates of CD279 in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were increased with the severity of injury at day 1 and day 3 after injury, respectively. At the first day after injury, CD64 index were 2.81±1.79, 1.77±0.92, 3.49±1.09; positive rate of CD279 in neutrophils were 1.40% (0.32%, 2.04%), 0.95% (0.44%, 2.70%), 12.73% (3.00%, 25.20%); positive rate of CD279 in lymphocytes were 3.77% (3.04%, 5.15%), 4.71% (4.08%, 6.32%), 8.01% (4.59%, 11.59%); positive rate of CD279 in monocytes were 0.57% (0.24%, 1.09%), 0.85% (0.22%, 1.25%), 6.74% (2.61%, 18.94%) from mild to severe injury groups, respectively. The CD64 index in severe injury group was significantly higher than that in moderate group, and the positive rates of CD279 in neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes of severe injury patients were higher than those in other two groups (all P < 0.05). At 3rd day after injury, compared to moderate group, severe injury patients had significantly higher CD64 index and positive rate of CD279 in lymphocytes [4.58±2.41 vs. 2.43±1.68, 7.35% (5.90%, 12.28%) vs. 4.63% (3.26%, 6.06%), both P < 0.05]. Compared with the non-sepsis patients, the sepsis patients had significantly higher CD64 index and positive rate of CD279 in monocytes at day 1 after injury [4.06±1.72 vs. 2.36±1.31, 3.29% (1.14%, 12.84%) vs. 0.67% (0.25%, 1.48%), both P < 0.05], and positive rate of CD279 in lymphocytes significantly higher at 3rd day after injury [8.73% (7.52%, 15.82%) vs. 4.67% (3.82%, 6.21%), P < 0.05]. In addition, correlation analysis showed that positive rate of CD279 in lymphocytes was positively correlated with SOFA and ISS, respectively (r values were 0.533 and 0.394, both P < 0.05), positive rate of CD279 in monocytes was positively correlated with APACHEⅡ, SOFA and ISS scores, respectively (r values were 0.579, 0.452 and 0.490, all P < 0.01), positive rate of CD279 in neutrophils was positively correlated with APACHEⅡ and ISS, respectively (r values were 0.358 and 0.388, both P < 0.05). Conclusions:CD64 index and CD279 expression in neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes are significantly related to the severity and prognosis of trauma. Dynamic monitoring the cellular immune function may be helpful for assessing the prognosis of trauma patients.

5.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 829-834, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-754721

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical relevance of mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene polymorphism with traumatic sepsis in Hainan Province. Methods A retrospective case control study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 112 severe trauma patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College and Haikou People's Hospital from June 2017 to June 2018. There were 73 males and 39 females, aged 17-83 years [(41. 8 ± 8. 9)years]. There were 48 patients in the sepsis group and 64 patients in the non-sepsis group. Multiplex single nucleotide extension polymorphism ( SNaPshot ) typing technique was used to detect the MBL2 gene polymorphism. The correlation between different genotypes and the risk of sepsis was analyzed. ELISA method was used to detect the level of MBL2 in plasma of each group. Results Among the three polymorphic loci of MBL2 gene (rs5030737, rs1800450 and rs1800451), the mutation frequency of rs1800450 was 27. 7%, while the mutation frequency of rs5030737 and of rs1800451 was 0. The genotype distribution in two groups was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of GA genotype in sepsis group was significantly higher than that in non-sepsis group (P<0. 05). A allele frequency in sepsis group was also much higher than that in non-sepsis group (P<0. 05). Patients with GA genotype had increased risk of traumatic sepsis when compared to GG genotype(OR=3. 442, 95%CI 1. 447-8. 187). Allele A increased the prevalence of sepsis significantly as well when compared to allele G(OR =2. 799, 95%CI 1. 270-6. 170). The MBL2 level in serum in sepsis patients with genotype GG and GA was significantly lower than that in non-sepsis group (P<0. 05). In sepsis group, the MBL2 serum level of patients with genotype GA was obviously lower than that in patients with genotype GG (P<0. 05). Conclusion MBL2 rs1800450G/A polymorphism is closely related to the occurrence of sepsis in Hainan province, and may be related to the decrease of serum MBL2 level in patients with mutant type.

6.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 829-834, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797408

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the clinical relevance of mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL2) gene polymorphism with traumatic sepsis in Hainan Province.@*Methods@#A retrospective case control study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 112 severe trauma patients admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College and Haikou People's Hospital from June 2017 to June 2018. There were 73 males and 39 females, aged 17-83 years [(41.8±8.9)years]. There were 48 patients in the sepsis group and 64 patients in the non-sepsis group. Multiplex single nucleotide extension polymorphism (SNaPshot) typing technique was used to detect the MBL2 gene polymorphism. The correlation between different genotypes and the risk of sepsis was analyzed. ELISA method was used to detect the level of MBL2 in plasma of each group.@*Results@#Among the three polymorphic loci of MBL2 gene (rs5030737, rs1800450 and rs1800451), the mutation frequency of rs1800450 was 27.7%, while the mutation frequency of rs5030737 and of rs1800451 was 0. The genotype distribution in two groups was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of GA genotype in sepsis group was significantly higher than that in non-sepsis group (P<0.05). A allele frequency in sepsis group was also much higher than that in non-sepsis group (P<0.05). Patients with GA genotype had increased risk of traumatic sepsis when compared to GG genotype(OR=3.442, 95%CI 1.447-8.187). Allele A increased the prevalence of sepsis significantly as well when compared to allele G(OR=2.799, 95%CI 1.270-6.170). The MBL2 level in serum in sepsis patients with genotype GG and GA was significantly lower than that in non-sepsis group (P<0.05). In sepsis group, the MBL2 serum level of patients with genotype GA was obviously lower than that in patients with genotype GG (P<0.05).@*Conclusion@#MBL2 rs1800450G/A polymorphism is closely related to the occurrence of sepsis in Hainan province, and may be related to the decrease of serum MBL2 level in patients with mutant type.

7.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 230-235, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707296

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the expression change and their clinical role of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) in patients with severe thoracic trauma.Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the clinical data of 52 patients with severe thoracic trauma (trauma group) hospitalized from October 2016 to May 2017.The peripheral anticoagulant blood samples were collected at days 1,3,5,7 and 14 after trauma.Meanwhile,10 healthy volunteers were enrolled in control group and their blood samples were collected once.According to injury severity score (ISS),the patients were divided into ISS low-score group (< 20 points,n =15) and high-score group (≥20 points,n =37).The patients were assigned to traumatic non-sepsis group (n =34) and traumatic sepsis group (n =18) by the latest definition and standard of sepsis 3.0 issued by the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM)/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM).The expressions of TREM-1 on neutrophils and monocytes were measured by flow cytometry.Pairwise comparisons were done between trauma group and healthy volunteers,ISS low-score group and ISS high-score group,and traumatic sepsis group and non-sepsis group,respectively.The accuracy of traumatic sepsis prediagnosis by TREM-1 was evaluated by the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).Results Trauma group had 41 males and 11 females,with age of (45.9 ± 12.4) years,Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of (3.5 ± 0.6) points and Injury Severity Score (ISS) of (23.6 ± 8.5) points.Control group had eight males and two females,with the age of(29.1 ± 2.8) years.Compared to control group,trauma group had slightly lower TREM-1 expressions in neutrophils and significantly higher expressions in monocytes at days 1 to 14 (all P < 0.01).ISS high-score group had slightly lower TREM-1 expressions in neutrophils than ISS low-score group at days 1 to 7,with significant difference at day 1 (P < 0.05).ISS high-score group had slightly higher TREM-1 expressions in monocytes than ISS lowscore group at days 1 to 14,with significant difference at day 14 (P < 0.05).Compared to traumatic non-sepsis group,traumatic sepsis group had significantly lower TREM-1 expressions in neutrophils at days 1 to 14 (all P < 0.05).Traumatic sepsis group had slightly lower expressions in monocytes than traumatic non-sepsis group at days 1 to 7,with significant difference at day 3 (P < 0.05).AUC and 95% CI evaluating the role of neutrophils TREM-1 in traumatic sepsis prediagnosis were 0.852 (0.738,0.966) at day 1,0.835 (0.721,0.948) at day 3,0.797 (0.654,0.939) at day 5,0.756 (0.599,0.914) at day 7,and 0.707 (0.525,0.888) at day 14,respectively.Conclusions After severe thoracic trauma,the expressions of TREM-1 are decreased in neutrophils but increased in monocytes.TREM-1 might be used to assess the injury severity and has certain value in prediagnosis for traumatic sepsis.

8.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 447-452, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-613807

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of muhiple inflammatory cells and clinical score in early diagnosis and prognosis assessment of trauma sepsis risks.Methods This retrospective control study enrolled 209 severe trauma patients admitted from January 2010 and May 2016.White blood cell count,lymphocyte count and percentage,monocyte count and percentage,neutrophil count and percentage,ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte count (N/L),acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ score,sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA),improved early warning score (MEWS),Glasgow coma score (GCS),multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) score and lactic acid (LAC) were collected on the day of admission and 3,5,7 days after trauma.These data were applied to construct weighted and biological score models for early diagnosis and prognosis of traumatic sepsis.Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was performed and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to measure the value of the two models in early diagnosis and prognosis of sepsis.Results AUC of the weighted model combined by APACHE Ⅱ score,SOFA score and MEWS was 0.729 on the day of admission.AUC of the weighted model combined by inflammatory cells was 0.680 and AUC of the biological score model was 0.800 3 days after trauma (P < 0.05).AUC of the weighted models combined by inflammatory cells was 0.798 and AUC of the biological score model was 0.812 5 days after trauma (P < 0.05).AUC of the weighted models combined by inflammatory cells was 0.706 and AUC of the biological score model was 0.713 7 days after trauma (P > 0.05).AUC of the biological score model had significant difference 3 days and 5 days after trauma (P < 0.05).Of the weighted model combined by APACHE Ⅱ score,MODS score,GCS and LAC to evaluate the prognosis of sepsis,the AUC showed significant difference on the day of admission (0.838),3 days after trauma (0.878),5 days after trauma (0.947) and 7 days after trauma (0.936) (P < 0.05).Conclusions Biological score possesses better effect on early diagnosis of sepsis 3 days after trauma.Weighted model combined by APACHE Ⅱ score,MODS score,GCS and LAC can effectively predict the prognosis of sepsis 5 days after trauma.

9.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 453-457, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-489193

ABSTRACT

Objective To set up a warning diagnostic model by using the commonly used clinical indicators in an attempt to provide a basis for the early,fast and accurate diagnosis of posttraumatic sepsis.Methods Based on the presence of sepsis,165 patients were grouped into sepsis group (n =45) and non-sepsis group (n =120).Body temperature,respiration,heart rate,C-reactive protein(CRP),white blood cell,blood platelet count(PLT),activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT),acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) score and sepsis-related organ failure assessment(SOFA) score were tested to identify the independent predictors of sepsis.Warning diagnostic models of unweighted score (unwScore) and weighted score (wScore) for posttraumatic sepsis were constructed by combining the independent variables.Receiver operation characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the independent predictor and warning diagnostic models for posttraumatic sepsis.Results Body temperature,respiration,heart rate,CRP,APACHE Ⅱ score and SOFA score were significantly different between the two groups(P < 0.05).Multiple analysis showed body temperature,CRP and APACHE Ⅱ score were independently associated with sepsis.With the ROC analysis,areal under the curve (AUC),sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value of unwScore (0.915,0.87,0.85,69.64% and 94.50%) and wScore (0.931,0.96,0.78,63.24% and 97.85%) were better than these of body temperature (0.855,0.84,0.78,59.38% and 93.07%),CRP (0.761,0.64,0.80,55.77% and 85.84%) and APACHE Ⅱ (0.884,0.84,0.82,64.41% and 93.40%).Conclusions Body temperature,CRP and APACHE Ⅱ score are independent predictors of sepsis.Models combining body temperature,CRP and APACHE Ⅱ score demonstrate high performance in diagnosing sepsis in trauma patients.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1570-5, 2010.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-382263

ABSTRACT

Biodegradable four-arm star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lactic acid) copolymer (sPEG-b-PLLA), four-arm star-shaped poly(L-lactic acid) (sPLLA), linearly poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lactic acid) copolymer (PEG-b-PLLA) and linearly poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) were synthesized from L-lactice acid, pentaerythritol, poly(ethylene glycol) and star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol), using the method of melt polycondensation, and the products were characterized and confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR and GPC. Four types of ibuprofen loaded microspheres based on the above four types of polymers, i.e., IBU/PLLA, IBU/sPLLA, IBU/PEG-b-PLLA, and IBU/sPEG-b-PLLA microspheres were prepared using the method of solvent evaporation, and the optimized preparation technology was obtained via orthogonal experiments, and the drug-encapsulating properties and in vitro drug-releasing properties were studied. The results showed that compared with IBU/PLLA and IBU/PEG-b-PLLA microspheres, the drug encapsulate efficiency of IBU/sPLLA and IBU/sPEG-b-PLLA microspheres were higher and the in vitro drug releasing rate slowed down, which mainly due to the faster degradation of sPLLA and sPEG-b-PLLA for the star-shaped structure and the block copolymerization of sPEG. The drug releasing curves of these three types of microspheres could be fit by first-order equation, and the releasing mechanism was non-Fickian diffusing, i.e., the synergetic effect of polymer degradation and drug diffusion.

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