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1.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135390

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a significant global health concern. The most important risk factor for the development of MDR-TB is previous anti-tuberculosis therapy. Category II pulmonary TB includes those patients who had failed previous TB treatment, relapsed after treatment, or defaulted during previous treatment. We carried out this study to ascertain the prevalence of MDR-TB among category II pulmonary TB patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study involving category II pulmonary TB patients diagnosed between 2005 and 2008. All sputum-positive category II TB cases were subjected to mycobacterial culture and drug-susceptibility testing (DST). MDR-TB was defined as TB caused by bacilli showing resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Results: A total of 196 cases of sputum-positive category II pulmonary tuberculosis patients were included. Of these, 40 patients (20.4%) had MDR-TB. The mean age of MDR-TB patients was 33.25 ± 12.04 yr; 9 patients (22.5%) were female. Thirty six patients showed resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid; while 4 patients showed resistance to rifampicin, isoniazid and streptomycin. The prevalence of MDR-TB among category-II pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 20.4 per cent. Interpretation & conclusions : The prevalence of MDR-TB in category II TB patients was significant. However, nation-wide and State-wide representative data on prevalence of MDR-TB are lacking. We stress the importance of continuous monitoring of drug resistance trends, in order to assess the efficacy of current interventions and their impact on the TB epidemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135389

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: The prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is increasing throughout the world. Although previous treatment for TB is the most important risk factor for development of MDR-TB, treatment-naïve patients are also at risk due to either spontaneous mutations or transmission of drug-resistant strains. We sought to ascertain the prevalence of MDR-TB among new cases of sputum-positive pulmonary TB. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study involving newly diagnosed cases of sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed between 2008 and 2009 carried out in New Delhi, India. All sputum-positive TB cases were subjected to mycobacterial culture and first-line drug-susceptibility testing (DST). MDR-TB was defined as TB caused by bacilli showing resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. Results: A total of 218 cases of sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled between 2008 and 2009. Of these, 41 cases had negative mycobacterial cultures and DST was carried out in 177 cases. The mean age of the patients was 27.8 ± 10.2 yr; 59 patients (27%) were female. All patients tested negative for HIV infection. Out of 177 cases, two cases of MDR-TB were detected. Thus, the prevalence of MDR-TB among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 1.1 per cent. Interpretation & conclusions: MDR-TB prevalence is low among new cases of sputum-positive pulmonary TB treated at primary care level in Delhi. Nation-wide and State-wide representative data on prevalence of MDR-TB are lacking. Efforts should be directed towards continued surveillance for MDR-TB among newly diagnosed TB cases.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Young Adult
3.
Indian J Cancer ; 2009 Oct-Dec; 46(4): 303-310
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144266

ABSTRACT

Background: The product of Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (WT1), a nuclear transcription factor, regulates the expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF) systems, both of which are implicated in breast tumorigenesis and are known to facilitate angiogenesis. In the present study, WT1 allelic integrity was examined by Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) studies in infiltrating breast carcinoma (n=60), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n=10) and benign breast disease (n=5) patients, to determine its possible association with tumor progression. Methods: LOH at the WT1 locus (11p13) as determined by PCR-RFLP for Hinf1 restriction site and was subsequently examined for its association with intratumoral expression of various growth factors i.e. TGF-β1, IGF-II, IGF-1R and angiogenesis (VEGF and Intratumoral micro-vessel density) in breast carcinoma. Results: Six of 22 (27.2%) genetically heterozygous of infiltrating breast carcinoma and 1 of 4 DCIS cases showed loss of one allele at WT1 locus. Histologically, the tumors with LOH at WT1 were Intraductal carcinoma (IDC) and were of grade II and III. There was no correlation in the appearance of LOH at WT1 locus with age, tumor stage, menopausal status, chemotherapy status and lymph node metastasis. The expression of factor IGF-II and its receptor, IGF-1R was significantly higher in carcinoma having LOH at WT1 locus. A positive correlation was observed between the TGF-β1, VEGF expression and IMD scores in infiltrating carcinoma. Conclusions: The current study indicates that the high frequency of loss of allelic integrity at Wilms' tumor suppressor gene-1 locus in high-graded breast tumors is associated with aggressiveness of the tumor.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma in Situ/genetics , Carcinoma in Situ/pathology , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/genetics , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast/pathology , Genes, Wilms Tumor , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/biosynthesis , Loss of Heterozygosity , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Receptor, IGF Type 1/biosynthesis , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/biosynthesis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/biosynthesis
4.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2007 Mar; 105(3): 140
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-100288

ABSTRACT

Leprosy in a preschool child appearing at the age of four years is reported due to its rarity, particularly at a time when we are hoping for its elimination. A 5-year-old female child presented with an erythematous rash over-her right buttock for last one year. Histopathological examination from the patch revealed it to be a case of indeterminate leprosy. The child responded favourably with antileprosy treatment.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Clofazimine/administration & dosage , Dapsone/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Leprostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Leprosy, Borderline/diagnosis , Leprosy, Tuberculoid/diagnosis , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
5.
Indian J Cancer ; 2006 Jul-Sep; 43(3): 110-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-50990

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer among Indian women. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection holds the potential to be used as a tool to identify women, at risk for subsequent development of cervical cancer. There is a pressing need for identifying prevalence of asymptomatic cervical HPV infection in the local population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA in women with benign cervical cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women visiting the gynecology outpatient with varied complaints were subjected to Pap smear. Four hundred and seventy two samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction, using consensus primers for low and high-risk HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33). The samples that were positive for HPV DNA were subsequently assessed for high-risk consensus primers, types 16, 18, 31 and 33 as well as for HPV type 16 and 18. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy four (36.8%) women tested positive for HPV DNA. Thirty nine (8.2%) of the entire cohort tested positive for high-risk HPV. Fifteen samples were positive for type 16, 22 for type 18 and two for both types 16 and 18. A statistically higher prevalence of high-risk HPV was observed in poorly educated and rural groups. No association of HPV prevalence was noted with age, parity and age at marriage. CONCLUSION: The study generates epidemiological data of prevalence of sub-clinical HPV in the women visiting a tertiary care institute as well as peripheral health centres. The data generated will be useful for laying guidelines for mass screening of HPV, treatment and prophylaxis in the local population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , DNA, Viral/analysis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Vaginal Smears
6.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2005 Jul; 48(3): 337-40
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74485

ABSTRACT

Screening of drug-resistant variants is very important for the effective clinical management of HIV-infected patients and development of new strategies. The present study was aimed to detect codon-184 mutations in the pol-gene of HIV leading to resistance to lamivudine (3-TC) by nested cum ARMS-PCR approach in 10 treated and 9 treatment naive patients. For correlation the whole blood CD4/CD8 cell counts and the soluble TNFRII levels in plasma were also determined. Of the 19 patients tested, mutant variants were observed in 2 patients (Met Val in one and Met Val & lle in second) both being treated with 3-TC. No mutations were detected in the treatment-naive patients. The results confirmed that, drug resistant variants of codon-184 emerge rapidly in patients receiving 3-TC containing regimens including our population, which is mainly infected with subtypeC of the virus that could be detected along with wild viral population using sensitive approaches such as ARMS-PCR.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Codon , Drug Resistance, Viral , Drug Therapy, Combination , Genes, pol/genetics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/drug effects , HIV-1/drug effects , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Lamivudine/pharmacology , Mutation , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology
7.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2005 Jul; 48(3): 325-30
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74196

ABSTRACT

Tumors of the central nervous system account for approximately 9% of all primary neoplasm in humans, while tumors of covering elements, the meninges, account for 13-19% and constitute the second largest group of brain tumors. These are known to exhibit a variety of chromosomal abnormalities besides change in the expression level of certain oncogenes. Among oncogenes, bcl2, an anti-apoptotic factor and ROS1 that encodes a protein with a structure similar to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin receptor and has a tyrosine kinase activity, have been shown to be associated with many malignant tumors. In the present study we have analysed the expression of bcl2 using immuno-histochemistry and ROS1 expression by reverse-transcription coupled with polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the transcript using primers specific for the intra-cellular domain and then tried to correlate the findings with the subtype of the meningioma defined on the basis of histology. Out of the six bcl2 positive cases in our study, there were three transitional tumors, two fibroblastic and one recurrent meningioma subtype. bcl2 seemed to be more consistently expressed in the cytoplasm of spindle cell component of meningiomas. Thirteen meningiothelial meningiomas did not show any staining for bcl2. ROS1 gene expression could be detected in 4 tumors all of those were Grade-I meningothelial meningiomas. One of the malignant meningioma included in the study was clearly negative for bcl2 as well as ROS1. Thus bcl2 and ROS1 oncogene expression in meningiomas are not concurrent and neither can be ascribed to any histologic subtype or grade of tumor.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression , Genes, bcl-2 , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Meningeal Neoplasms/genetics , Meningioma/genetics , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(3): 469-475, mar. 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-394798

ABSTRACT

Phytotherapies have offered alternative sources of therapy for migraine and gained much importance in prophylactic treatment. Sapindus trifoliatus is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing wild in south India that belongs to the family Sapindaceae. The pericarp is reported for various medicinal properties. A thick aqueous solution of the pericarp is used for the treatment of hemicrania, hysteria or epilepsy in folklore medicine. We have investigated the antihyperalgesic effects of the lyophilized aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus in animal models predictive of experimental migraine models using morphine withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia on the hot-plate test and on 0.3 percent acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in adult male Swiss albino mice. The extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05) increased the licking latency in the hot-plate test when administered ip at 10 mg/kg (6.70 ± 0.39 s in saline control vs 18.76 ± 0.96 s in S. trifoliatus-treated animals) and significantly (N = 10, P < 0.001) reduced the abdominal constrictions when administered ip at 2 and 10 mg/kg (40.20 ± 1.36 in saline control vs 30.20 ± 1.33 and 23.00 ± 0.98 for 2 and 10 mg/kg, ip, respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals). Furthermore, when administered ip at 20 and 100 mg/kg, the extract significantly (N = 10, P < 0.05) inhibited the apomorphine-induced climbing behavior in mice (climbing duration 15.75 ± 5.0 min for saline control vs 11.4 ± 1.28 and 3.9 ± 1.71 min for 20 and 100 mg/kg, respectively, in S. trifoliatus-treated animals). In receptor radioligand-binding studies, the extract exhibited affinity towards D2 receptors. The findings suggest that dopamine D2 antagonism could be the mechanism involved in the antihyperalgesic activity of the aqueous extract of S. trifoliatus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Dopamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Sapindus/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
9.
Neurol India ; 2003 Mar; 51(1): 120-1
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-120000

ABSTRACT

A 13-year-old boy presented with acute stroke leading to right-sided hemiparesis. A contrast CT scan of the brain showed a hemorrhagic infarct in the left basal ganglia region with surrounding edema. Echocardiography showed a hydatid cyst in the right atrial chamber extending into the left atrium. A single hepatic hydatid was also seen.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Echinococcosis/complications , Heart Diseases/parasitology , Humans , Intracranial Embolism/parasitology , Male , Stroke/parasitology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2002 Mar-Apr; 68(2): 108-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-52534

ABSTRACT

A rare case of fixed drug eruption due to metronidazole is reported.

15.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 1990 Oct; 33(4): 299-303
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74763

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen for pyoderma in India. Phage pattern of bacteria gives valuable information in epidemiological studies of infection. Two hundred and two strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pyoderma cases at Gorakhpur, were phage grouped and phage typed. It was found that 43.1 percent strains were not typable. Most common group was mixed phage group (23.8 percent) followed by phage group III (12.4 percent). Predominant phage types in mixed phage group was 84/81/85 and in phage group III was 84/85.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage Typing , Humans , India , Pyoderma/microbiology , Staphylococcal Skin Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/classification
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-13879

ABSTRACT

One hundred and three children with seizure disorder were studied. Plain radiograph skull was normal in all the cases. CT scan skull done in 34 patients, showed abnormalities in 24 cases. More than 80% children in partial seizures group had treatable lesions on CT scans, mainly CNS tuberculoma. The need for omitting plain radiograph skull as a routine investigation for epilepsy cases is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Child, Preschool , Epilepsy/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Indian J Lepr ; 1989 Oct; 61(4): 503-13
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-55180

ABSTRACT

Out of 514 leprosy cases studied, 229(44.56%) had disability. Disability was most commonly seen in lepromatous leprosy. There was an increasing trend in disability with increasing age of patient and duration of disease. Disability rate was higher in males as compared to females. Nerve thickening and reactional states were more common in disabled cases. Dapsone treated group showed a disability rate of 63.8% as compared to 30.0% in untreated group. Hand was the most commonly affected site and mobile claw hand was the single most common disability. The overall disability index-D.I. (2) of Bachelli was 1.25 and lepromatous cases had highest D.I. (1.89). Disability index was higher in males and was found to increase with increasing age of patient and duration of disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Child , Dapsone/adverse effects , Disabled Persons , Female , Humans , India , Leprosy/physiopathology , Leprosy, Borderline/physiopathology , Leprosy, Lepromatous/physiopathology , Leprosy, Tuberculoid/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors
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