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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Phenols/analysis , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Flavonoids/analysis , Blood Glucose/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Plant Roots/chemistry , Dipeptidyl-Peptidases and Tripeptidyl-Peptidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Phytochemicals , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 53(1): e15177, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839449

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, conditions were optimized for development of a simple RP-HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of gatifloxacin and dexamethasone in different matrices like pharmaceuticals, human serum and urine. Good separation of gatifloxacin and dexamethasone from the induced degradation products was accomplished using C8 as stationary phase; 0.02 M phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and methanol (42:58 v/v) as mobile phase. The concentration was measured with DAD at 270 nm. Linearity was observed in the range of 0.000040-0.000280 mol/L for gatifloxacin (r2≥0.999) and 0.000013-0.000091 mol/L for dexamethasone (r2≥0.999). Both the analyte peaks were completely separated from the peaks of induced degradation products as indicated by the peak purity index (≥0.9999 for both analytes). The optimized method is recommended to be used for concurrent analysis of gatifloxacin and dexamethasone in different matrices.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drug Stability , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Dexamethasone/analysis , Validation Study
3.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 51(3): 607-615, July-Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-766311

ABSTRACT

Diacerein is used for symptomatic relief and cartilage regeneration in osteoarthritis. Due to gastrointestinal side effects, poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability, its clinical usage has been restricted. The objective of the present study was to enhance its dissolution profile and to attain sustained release by designing a novel delivery system based on niosomes. Five niosomal formulations (F1-F5) with non-ionic surfactant (sorbitan monostearate) and cholesterol in varying ratios of 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2 and 9:1 were developed by the reverse-phase evaporation technique. The size and polydispersivity index (PDI) were found in the range of 0.608 µm to 1.010 µm and 0.409 to 0.781, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the selected formulation (F3) revealed spherical vesicles, and 79.8% entrapment was achieved with F3 (7:3). Dissolution studies using the dialysis method showed sustained release behaviour for all formulations. The optimized surfactant-to-cholesterol concentration (7:3) in formulation F3sustained the drug-release time (T50%) up to 10 hours. Kinetic modelling exhibited a zero-order release (R2=0.9834) and the release exponent 'n' of the Korsmayer-Peppas model (n=0.90) confirmed non-fickian and anomalous release. The results of this study suggest that diacerein can be successfully entrapped into niosomes using sorbitan monostearate and that these niosomes have the potential to deliver diacerein efficiently at the absorption site.


A diacereína é usada para o alívio sintomático e para a regeneração da cartilagem na osteoartrite. Devido aos efeitos adversos gastrointestinais, baixa solubilidade aquosa e biodisponibilidade, o seu uso clínico tem sido restrito. O objetivo do presente estudo foi melhorar o perfil de dissolução deste fármaco e obter liberação prolongada através do planejamento de um novo sistema de liberação designado de niossoma. Cinco formulações distintas de niossomas (F1 a F5) contendo tensoativos não iônicos (monoestearato de sorbitano) e colesterol, em diferentes proporções, de 5:5, 6:4, 7:3, 8:2 e 9:1, foram desenvolvidas através da técnica de evaporacão de fase reversa. Os tamanhos e índices de polidispersibilidade (PDI) obtidos variam entre 0,608 e 1,01 µm e entre 0,409 e 0,7781, respectivamente. Imagens de microscopia electrônica de varrimento (SEM) da formulação selecionada (F3) revelaram vesículas esféricas. Obteve-se encapsulação de 79,8% com a formulação F3 (7:3). Estudos de dissolução usando o método de diálise demonstraram padrão de liberacão prolongada para todas as formulações. A proporção de tensoativo e colesterol (7:3) na formulacão F3 prolongou o tempo de liberação do fármaco (T50%) até 10 horas. Estudos de modelação cinética demonstraram ordem de liberacão zero (R2=0,9834) e o expoente de liberação "n" do modelo de Korsmayer-Peppas (n=0.90) confirmou a liberação não-fickiana e anômala. Os resultados deste estudo sugerem que a diacereína pode ser encapsulada com sucesso no interior de niossomas, utilizando monostearato de sorbitano, o qual tem potencial para liberar, eficientemente, a diacereína no local de absorção.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/classification , Surface-Active Agents/analysis , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/classification , Dissolution , Liposomes/analysis
4.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 50(3): 629-638, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728700

ABSTRACT

A viable cost-effective and isocratic approach employing C-18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) based HPLC has been utilized to separate and estimate the drugs, rosuvastatin, amlodipine and their stress induced degradation products, simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulations. Focused on ICH guideline parameters, the efficient separation of both drugs and their degradation products was achieved by optimizing a 30:70 (v/v) solvent mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1 M ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5) as mobile phase. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.5 mL/min and all the detections were carried out at 240 nm using UV detector. The method was linear in the concentration range of 1-200 µg/mL for rosuvastatin with 0.996 coefficient of determination value. For amlodipine, linearity was in the range of 0.5-100 µg/ml with 0.994 coefficient of determination value. Both the drugs along with their degradation products were separated in less than twenty minutes. The results of within-day and between-day precision were varied from 0.72 to 1.81% for rosuvastatin and 0.83 to 1.88% for amlodipine. The results show that this ICH validated method can be employed successfully for the routine as well as stability quantification of both the active ingredients simultaneously in pharmaceutical formulations.


Utilizou-se abordagem de viabilidade custo-efetividade e isocrática, baseada em CLAE, empregando coluna C-18 (250 mm x 4,6 mm, 5 µm) para separar e avaliar os fármacos, rosuvastatina, anlodipino e seus produtos de degradação induzida por estresse, simultaneamente, em formulações farmacêuticas. Focada nos parâmetros das diretrizes da ICH, a separação eficiente de ambos os fármacos e de seus produtos de degradação foi obtida por meio da otimização da fase móvel com mistura de solventes 30:70 (v/v), respectivamente, acetonitrila e tampão acetato de amônio O,1 M (pH 5). A velocidade de fluxo da fase móvel foi de 1,5 mL/min e todas as detecções foram realizadas em 240 nm, utilizando detector de UV. O método foi linear no intervalo de concentração de 1-200 µg/mL para a rosuvastatina com coeficiente de determinação 0,996. Para o anlodipino, a linearidade ficou na faixa de 0.5-100 µg/mL, com coeficiente de determinação 0,994. Ambos os fármacos, junto com seus produtos de degradação, foram separados em menos de vinte minutos. Os resultados de precisão intra-dia e inter-dia variaram de 0,72 a 1,81% para a rosuvastatina e de 0,83 a 1,88%, para o anlodipino. Os resultados mostram que este método validado pelo ICH pode ser empregado com sucesso tanto para a rotina quanto para a quantificação simultânea da estabilidade de ambos os ingredientes ativos em formulações farmacêuticas.


Subject(s)
Amlodipine/analysis , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Rosuvastatin Calcium/analysis , Acetonitriles/analysis
5.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 49(2): 301-309, Apr.-June 2013. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680641

ABSTRACT

The present study describes the development and subsequent validation of simple and accurate stability indicating RP-HPLC method for the determination of sparfloxacin and dexamethasone in pharmaceutical formulations in the presence of their stress-induced degradation products. Both the drugs and their stress-induced degradation products were separated within 10 minutes using C8 column and mixture of methanol and 0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 3.0 (60:40 v/v, respectively) as mobile phase at 270 nm using diode array detector. Regression analysis showed linearity in the range of 15-105 µg/mL for sparfloxacin and 5-35 µg/mL for dexamethasone. All the analytes were adequately resolved with acceptable tailing. Peak purity of the two drugs was also greater than 0.9999, showing no co-elution peaks. The developed method was applied for simultaneous determination of sparfloxacin and dexamethasone in pharmaceutical formulations for stability studies.


O presente estudo descreve o desenvolvimento e a subsequente validação de indicador de estabilidade simples e acurada por RP-HPLC para a determinação de esparfloxacino e dexametasona em formulações farmacêuticas na presença de produtos de degradação induzidos por estresse. Tanto os fármacos quanto os produtos de degradação induzidos pelo estresse foram separados em 10 minutos, utilizando coluna C8 e mistura de methanol e tampão fosfato 0,02 M, pH 3,0 (60:40 v/v, respectivamente) como fase móvel e detector de arranjo de diodo a 270 nm, A análise de regressão mostrou linearidade na faixa de 15-105 µg/mL para esparfloxacino e 5-35 µg/mL para a dexametsona. Todos os analitos foram resolvidos adequadamente com tailing aceitável. O pico de pureza dos dois foi maior que 0.9999, não mostrando picos de co-eluição. O método desenvolvido foi aplicado para a determinação simultânea de esparfloxacino e dexametasona em formulações farmacêuticas e para estudos de estabilidade.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/instrumentation , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Determination , Dexamethasone/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis
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