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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250575, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350309


Abstract Cancer is a fatal malignancy and its increasing worldwide prevalence demands the discovery of more sensitive and reliable molecular biomarkers. To investigate the GINS1 expression level and its prognostic value in distinct human cancers using a series of multi-layered in silico approach may help to establish it as a potential shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of different cancer subtypes. The GINS1 mRNA, protein expression, and promoter methylation were analyzed using UALCAN and Human Protein Atlas (HPA), while mRNA expression was further validated via GENT2. The potential prognostic values of GINS1 were evaluated through KM plotter. Then, cBioPortal was utilized to examine the GINS1-related genetic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), while pathway enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID. Moreover, a correlational analysis between GINS1 expression and CD8+ T immune cells and a the construction of gene-drug interaction network was performed using TIMER, CDT, and Cytoscape. The GINS1 was found down-regulated in a single subtypes of human cancer while commonly up-regulated in 23 different other subtypes. The up-regulation of GINS1 was significantly correlated with the poor overall survival (OS) of Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (LIHC), Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). The GINS1 was also found up-regulated in LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of GINS1 in two diverse pathways, while few interesting correlations were also documented between GINS1 expression and its promoter methylation level, CD8+ T immune cells level, and CNVs. Moreover, we also predicted few drugs that could be used in the treatment of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC by regulating the GINS1 expression. The expression profiling of GINS1 in the current study has suggested it a novel shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC.

Resumo O câncer é uma doença maligna fatal e sua crescente prevalência mundial exige a descoberta de biomarcadores moleculares mais sensíveis e confiáveis. Investigar o nível de expressão de GINS1 e seu valor prognóstico em cânceres humanos distintos, usando uma série de abordagens in silico em várias camadas, pode ajudar a estabelecê-lo como um potencial biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de diferentes subtipos de câncer. O mRNA de GINS1, a expressão da proteína e a metilação do promotor foram analisados ​​usando UALCAN e Human Protein Atlas (HPA), enquanto a expressão de mRNA foi posteriormente validada via GENT2. Os valores prognósticos potenciais de GINS1 foram avaliados por meio do plotter KM. Em seguida, o cBioPortal foi utilizado para examinar as mutações genéticas relacionadas ao GINS1 e as variações do número de cópias (CNVs), enquanto a análise de enriquecimento da via foi realizada usando DAVID. Além disso, uma análise correlacional entre a expressão de GINS1 e células imunes T CD8 + e a construção de uma rede de interação gene-droga foi realizada usando TIMER, CDT e Cytoscape. O GINS1 foi encontrado regulado negativamente em um único subtipo de câncer humano, enquanto comumente regulado positivamente em 23 outros subtipos diferentes. A regulação positiva de GINS1 foi significativamente correlacionada com a sobrevida global pobre (OS) de Carcinoma Hepatocelular de Fígado (LIHC), Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão (LUAD) e Carcinoma de Células Claras Renais de Rim (KIRC). O GINS1 também foi encontrado regulado positivamente em pacientes LIHC, LUAD e KIRC de diferentes características clínico-patológicas. A análise de enriquecimento de vias revelou o envolvimento de GINS1 em duas vias diversas, enquanto poucas correlações interessantes também foram documentadas entre a expressão de GINS1 e seu nível de metilação do promotor, nível de células imunes T CD8 + e CNVs. Além disso, também previmos poucos medicamentos que poderiam ser usados ​​no tratamento de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC, regulando a expressão de GINS1. O perfil de expressão de GINS1 no estudo atual sugeriu que é um novo biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/genetics , Kidney Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms , Prognosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Up-Regulation , DNA-Binding Proteins , DNA Copy Number Variations
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-161413


To evaluate the contemporary role of traditional medicine in maintaining health, to develop a scientific approach to policy–making in traditional medicine, and, ultimately, to assess how traditional medicine can be harmonized with modern medicine. There is dire need for identifying research requirements in traditional medicine on the past research, barriers to the acceptance of traditional medicine, research methodology and evidence–based medicine. In the course of these discussions, we concluded that there were challenges to the harmonization of traditional and modern medicine. Better access to information, facilitating appropriate clinical trials, improving rigour in clinical trials, improving education and collaboration of practitioners and researchers, and respecting traditional practices in research were all identified as important steps towards achieving harmonization. We should be believed that evidence–based research could be an essential step towards the harmonization. Findings of well–designed and well–performed research should be disseminated as widely as possible. This should include the preparation and dissemination in English and native languages of rigorous systematic reviews based on the research literature from various countries. Research that establishes the value of traditional medicine in promoting health and wellness beyond treating diseases should be encouraged. Clinical trials of widely used and established traditional remedies should be encouraged and undertaken prior to obtaining the results of extensive ‘pre–clinical’ basic research. This is done by support training in research methodologies by encourage in conducting of high quality research.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-161335


Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity has been reported from different plants such as Cinnamomum cassia, Chrysanthemum indicum, Lycopus europaeus, Polygonum cuspidatum, Acacia confuse, Coccinia grandis, Datura metel, Strychnos nux-vomica, Vitex negundo, Coccinia grandis, Vitex negundo, Fraxinus angustifolia, Pistacia lentiscus, Hyptis obtusiflora, H. lantanaefolia, Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan, Blumea balsamifera, Chrysanthemum sinense, Tetracera scandens, C. sinense, Allium Cepa, Pistacia integerrima, Caesalpinia sappan and Caesalpinia sappan. This review very clearly specify that plants could be utilized for the inhibition of xathine oxidase and out of them Clerodendrum floribundum, Eremophila maculata, Stemodia grossa Benth, Eucalyptus deglupta, Syzygium malaccense and Larix laricina exhibited 84%, 61%, 57%, 51%, 64%, 86 % xanthine pxidase inhibition at concentration of 50 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 44.5 μg/ml, 51 μg/ml, 6.26mg/dl respectively.