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1.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 145-153, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002923

ABSTRACT

Patients frequently report that stress causes or exacerbates gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, indicating a functional relationship between the brain and the GI tract. The brain and GI tract are closely related embryologically and functionally, interacting in various ways. The concept of the brain–gut axis was originally established in the 19th and early 20th centuries based on physiological observations and experiments conducted in animals and humans. In recent years, with the growing recognition that gut microbiota plays a vital role in human health and disease, this concept has been expanded to the brain–gut–microbiota axis. The brain influences the motility, secretion, and immunity of the GI tract, with consequent effects on the composition and function of the gut microbiota. On the other hand, gut microbiota plays an essential role in the development and function of the brain and enteric nervous system. Although knowledge of the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota influences distant brain function is incomplete, studies have demonstrated communication between these organs through the neuronal, immune, and endocrine systems. The brain–gut–microbiota axis is an essential aspect of the pathophysiology of functional GI disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, and is also involved in other GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. This review summarizes the evolving concept of the brain–gut–microbiota axis and its implications for GI diseases, providing clinicians with new knowledge to apply in clinical practice.

2.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 42-51, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968722

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Esophageal perforation is associated with high mortality and morbidity in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with esophageal injury. We investigated the effectiveness of initial CT scan in patients with esophageal injury to determine the risk factors for complications. @*Methods@#Patients admitted through the ED for evaluation of esophageal injuries between January 2001 and May 2020, were investigated. Demographic data, etiological factors, comorbidities, treatment administered, and outcomes were collected. Esophageal injury was graded based on the following CT criteria: (a) normal, (b) pneumomediastinum, (c) mediastinitis, fluid collection, abscess, or overt esophageal wall injury, and (d) pleural effusion, subcutaneous emphysema, or pneumothorax. Grade 2 was defined as microperforation and grades 3 and 4 as overt perforation. @*Results@#Of 281 patients with esophageal injury, 38 had CT-documented overt perforations and 20 had microperforations. Foreign body-induced injury (n=37), Boerhaave syndrome (n=12), and chemical injury (n=3) were common causes of esophageal injury. Complications occurred in 24 (8.5%) patients. Risk factors for complications were age ≥65 years (OR 4.14, 95% CI 1.18~14.56, P=0.027), cerebrovascular disease (OR 8.58, 95% CI 1.13~65.19, P=0.038), Boerhaave syndrome (OR 12.52, 95% CI 2.07~75.68, P=0.006), chemical injury (OR 15.72, 95% CI 3.67~67.28, P<0.001), and CT-documented grade 4 perforation (OR 15.75, 95% CI 4.39~56.55, P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#Initial CT-based grading in the ED are useful for predicting potential complications and for managing patients with esophageal injury and suspected perforation.

3.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 52-62, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968719

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is useful for management of uncontrolled upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding. We investigated clinical outcomes of TAE for non-variceal bleeding from benign UGI diseases uncontrolled with endoscopic intervention. @*Methods@#This retrospective study performed between 2017 and 2021 across four South Korean hospitals. Ninety-two patients (72 men, 20 women) who underwent angiography were included after the failure of endoscopic intervention for benign UGI disease- induced acute non-variceal bleeding. We investigated the factors associated with endoscopic hemostasis failure, the technical success rate of TAE, and post-TAE 30-day rebleeding and mortality rates. @*Results@#The stomach (52/92, 56.5%) and duodenum (40/92, 43.5%) were the most common sites of bleeding. Failure of endoscopic procedures was attributable to peptic ulcer disease (81/92, 88.0%), followed by pseudo-aneurysm (5/92, 5.4%), and angiodysplasia (2/92, 2.2%). Massive bleeding that interfered with optimal visualization of the endoscopic field was the most common indication for TAE both in the stomach (22/52, 42.3%) and duodenum (14/40, 35.0%). Targeted TAE, empirical TAE, and exclusive arteriography were performed in 77 (83.7%), nine (9.8%), and six patients (6.5%), respectively. The technical success rate, the post-TAE 30-day rebleeding rate, and the overall mortality rate were 100%, 22.1%, and 5.8%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, coagulopathy (OR, 5.66; 95% CI, 1.71~18.74; P=0.005) and empirical embolization (OR, 5.71; 95% CI, 1.14~28.65; P=0.034) were independent risk factors for post-TAE 30-day rebleeding episodes. @*Conclusions@#TAE may be useful for acute non-variceal UGI bleeding. Targeted embolization and correction of coagulopathy can improve clinical outcomes.

4.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 235-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903647

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic spontaneous intraperitoneal hemorrhage is both rare and potentially fatal. The incidence of gastroepiploic artery rupture, especially a non-aneurysmal rupture, is extremely low. We report the case of an elderly woman who was mistakenly diagnosed with procedure-related bleeding after gastroscopy. A 0.3 cm polyp was identified and removed during the procedure. The patient later developed shock due to which gastroscopy was repeated; however, no unusual findings were observed. Therefore, abdominopelvic computerized tomography was performed and gastroepiploic artery rupture was detected. Transcatheter arterial embolization was immediately performed without laparotomy, without any complications. The bleeding was controlled, and the patient was discharged after embolization. It is important to acknowledge the possibility of spontaneous rupture of the visceral arteries in elderly individuals with hypertension or atherosclerosis, especially in the event of sudden abdominal pain or shock immediately after an endoscopic procedure. This is the first case report of idiopathic spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery successfully managed by transcatheter arterial embolization in South Korea.

5.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 235-238, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895943

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic spontaneous intraperitoneal hemorrhage is both rare and potentially fatal. The incidence of gastroepiploic artery rupture, especially a non-aneurysmal rupture, is extremely low. We report the case of an elderly woman who was mistakenly diagnosed with procedure-related bleeding after gastroscopy. A 0.3 cm polyp was identified and removed during the procedure. The patient later developed shock due to which gastroscopy was repeated; however, no unusual findings were observed. Therefore, abdominopelvic computerized tomography was performed and gastroepiploic artery rupture was detected. Transcatheter arterial embolization was immediately performed without laparotomy, without any complications. The bleeding was controlled, and the patient was discharged after embolization. It is important to acknowledge the possibility of spontaneous rupture of the visceral arteries in elderly individuals with hypertension or atherosclerosis, especially in the event of sudden abdominal pain or shock immediately after an endoscopic procedure. This is the first case report of idiopathic spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery successfully managed by transcatheter arterial embolization in South Korea.

6.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 203-212, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914984

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The impact of the interval between previous endoscopy and diagnosis on the treatment modality or mortality of undifferentiated (UD)-type gastric cancer is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of endoscopic screening interval on the stage, cancerrelated mortality, and treatment methods of UD-type gastric cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed the medical records of newly diagnosed patients with UD gastric cancer in 2013, in whom the interval between previous endoscopy and diagnosis could be determined. The patients were classified into different groups according to the period from the previous endoscopy to diagnosis (<12 months, 12–23 months, 24–35 months, ≥36 months, and no history of endoscopy), and the outcomes were compared between the groups. In addition, patients who underwent endoscopic and surgical treatment were reclassified based on the final treatment results. @*Results@#The number of enrolled patients was 440, with males representing 64.1% of the study population; 11.8% of the participants reported that they had undergone endoscopy for the first time in their cancer diagnosis. The percentage of stage I cancer at diagnosis significantly decreased as the interval from the previous endoscopy to diagnosis increased (65.4%, 63.2%, 64.2%, 45.9%, and 35.2% for intervals of <12 months, 12–23 months, 24–35 months, ≥36 months, and no previous endoscopy, respectively, P<0.01). Cancer-related mortality was significantly lower for a 3-year interval of endoscopy (P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#A 3-year interval of endoscopic screening reduces gastric-cancer-related mortality, particularly in cases of UD histology.

7.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 345-354, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891604

ABSTRACT

Early detection of gastric cancer is crucial because the survival rate can be improved through curative treatment. Although surgery and gastrectomy with lymph node dissection remain as the gold standard for curative treatment, early gastric cancer (EGC) with negligible risk of lymph node metastasis can be treated with endoscopic resection (ER), such as endoscopic submucosal dissection. Among gastric cancers, undifferentiated-type cancer is distinguished from differentiated-type cancer in various aspects in terms of clinical features and pathophysiology. The undifferentiated-type cancer is also known to be associated with an aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. Therefore, the indication of ER for undifferentiated EGC is limited compared with differentiated-type. Recent studies have reported that ER for undifferentiated EGC is safe and shows favorable short- and long-term outcomes. However, it is necessary to understand the details of the research results and to selectively accept them. In this review, we aimed to evaluate the current practice guidelines and the short-term and long-term outcomes of ER for undifferentiated type EGC.

8.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 345-354, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899308

ABSTRACT

Early detection of gastric cancer is crucial because the survival rate can be improved through curative treatment. Although surgery and gastrectomy with lymph node dissection remain as the gold standard for curative treatment, early gastric cancer (EGC) with negligible risk of lymph node metastasis can be treated with endoscopic resection (ER), such as endoscopic submucosal dissection. Among gastric cancers, undifferentiated-type cancer is distinguished from differentiated-type cancer in various aspects in terms of clinical features and pathophysiology. The undifferentiated-type cancer is also known to be associated with an aggressive behavior and a poor prognosis. Therefore, the indication of ER for undifferentiated EGC is limited compared with differentiated-type. Recent studies have reported that ER for undifferentiated EGC is safe and shows favorable short- and long-term outcomes. However, it is necessary to understand the details of the research results and to selectively accept them. In this review, we aimed to evaluate the current practice guidelines and the short-term and long-term outcomes of ER for undifferentiated type EGC.

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