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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897466

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Radiotherapy (RT) is one of main strategies of cancer treatment. However, some cancer cells are resistant to radiation-induced cell death, including apoptosis. Therefore, alternative approaches targeting different anti-tumor mechanisms such as cell senescence are required. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on radiation-induced cell death and senescence in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. @*Materials and Methods@#The cells were divided into four groups depending on the cell treatment (control, ALA, RT, and ALA+RT). Cells were analyzed for morphology, apoptotic cell death, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, membrane potential, cellular senescence, and cell cycle. @*Results@#Our data showed that ALA significantly promoted apoptotic cell death when combined with RT, as reflected by Annexin V staining, expression of apoptosis-related factors, mitochondrial damages as well as cell morphological changes and reduction of cell numbers. In addition, ALA significantly enhanced radiation-induced cellular senescence, which was shown by increased HMGB1 expression in the cytosol fraction compared to the control, increased p53 expression compared to the control, activation of p38 as well as nuclear factor кB, and G2/M cell cycle arrest. @*Conclusion@#The current study is the first report showing a new mode of action (senescence induction) of ALA beyond apoptotic cell death in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells known to be resistant to RT.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889762

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Radiotherapy (RT) is one of main strategies of cancer treatment. However, some cancer cells are resistant to radiation-induced cell death, including apoptosis. Therefore, alternative approaches targeting different anti-tumor mechanisms such as cell senescence are required. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on radiation-induced cell death and senescence in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. @*Materials and Methods@#The cells were divided into four groups depending on the cell treatment (control, ALA, RT, and ALA+RT). Cells were analyzed for morphology, apoptotic cell death, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, membrane potential, cellular senescence, and cell cycle. @*Results@#Our data showed that ALA significantly promoted apoptotic cell death when combined with RT, as reflected by Annexin V staining, expression of apoptosis-related factors, mitochondrial damages as well as cell morphological changes and reduction of cell numbers. In addition, ALA significantly enhanced radiation-induced cellular senescence, which was shown by increased HMGB1 expression in the cytosol fraction compared to the control, increased p53 expression compared to the control, activation of p38 as well as nuclear factor кB, and G2/M cell cycle arrest. @*Conclusion@#The current study is the first report showing a new mode of action (senescence induction) of ALA beyond apoptotic cell death in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells known to be resistant to RT.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1188-1198, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831126

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In pulmonary oligometastases from colorectal cancer (POM-CRC), the primarily recommended local therapy is metastasectomy. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is another local therapy modality that is considered as an alternative option in patients who cannot undergo surgery. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to demonstrate the effects of SBRT on POM-CRC by integrating the relevant studies. @*Materials and Methods@#The authors explored MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and SCOPUS, and selected studies including patients treated with SBRT for POM-CRC and availability of local control (LC) or overall survival (OS) rate. In this meta-analysis, the effect of SBRT was presented in the form of the LC and OS rates for 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after SBRT as pooled estimates, and the frequency of pulmonary toxicity of grade 3 or higher after SBRT (PTG3-SBRT). @*Results@#Fourteen full texts among the searched 4,984 studies were the objects of this meta-analysis. The overall number of POM-CRC patients was 495 as per the integration of 14 studies. The pooled estimate LC rate at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after SBRT was 81.0%, 71.5%, 56.0%, and 61.8%, and the OS rate was 86.9%, 70.1%, 57.9%, and 43.0%, respectively. The LC and OS rates gradually declined until 3 years after SBRT in a similar pattern. Among the 14 studies, only two studies reported PTG3-SBRT as 2.2% and 10.8%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#For POM-CRC, SBRT is an ablative therapy with a benefit on LC and OS rates and less adverse effects on the lung.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#This study examined the expressions of p16 and the programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L1) in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) treated with radiotherapy (RT) to identify the correlation between p16 and PD-L1 expression, and to examine the prognostic significance of these markers for OPC patients receiving RT.SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Forty-eight OPC patients diagnosed and treated at a tertiary referral hospital were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. Patients were initially treated with RT or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with curative intent and completed the planned schedule. Expression of p16 and PD-L1 by primary tumors was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and results were interpreted separately and dichotomized according to outcome analyses.@*RESULTS@#Of the 48 patients, 25 (52.1%) expressed p16 and 15 (31.3%) expressed PD-L1. Expression of these markers showed a mutual positive correlation (p=0.046). Positive PD-L1 expression was associated with poor complete remission (CR) rates after RT (p=0.040). Positive p16 expression was associated with better recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p=0.004) but not overall survival (OS) (p=0.192). PD-L1 expression showed no independent association with survival (p>0.05); however, PD-L1 expression tended toward poorer RFS, even in p16-positive individuals.@*CONCLUSION@#There was a positive correlation between the expression of p16 and PD-L1 in OPCs. PD-L1 expression was associated with poorer CR rates after RT or CRT. PD-L1 alone did not show an association with RFS or OS, but when combined with p16, it tended toward poorer RFS, even in p16-positive cases.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to assess prognostic value of metastatic pelvic lymph node (mPLN) in early-stage cervical cancer treated with radical surgery followed by postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Also, we sought to define a high-risk group using prognosticators for recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted using the data from 13 Korean institutions from 2000 to 2010. A total of 249 IB-IIA patients with high-risk factors were included. We evaluated distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in relation to clinicopathologic factors including pNstage, number of mPLN, lymph node (LN)ratio (number of positive LN/number of harvested LN), and log odds of mPLNs (log(number of positive LN+0.5/number of negative LN+0.5)). RESULTS: In univariate analysis, histology (squamous cell carcinoma [SqCC] vs. others), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), number of mPLNs (≤ 3 vs. > 3), LN ratio (≤ 17% vs. > 17%), and log odds of mPLNs (≤ -0.58 vs. > -0.58) were significant prognosticators for DMFS and DFS. Resection margin involvement only affected DFS. No significant survival difference was observed between pN0 patients and patients with 1-3 mPLNs. Multivariate analysis revealed that mPLN > 3, LVI, and non-SqCC were unfavorable index for both DMFS (p 3 in early-stage cervical cancer affects DMFS and DFS. A scoring system using mPLNs > 3, LVI, and non-SqCC could stratify risk groups of recurrence in surgically resected early-stage cervix cancer with high-risk factors.


Subject(s)
Chemoradiotherapy , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis , Multivariate Analysis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
6.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 130-141, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the technical feasibility of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with the major portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). METHODS: Ten institutions affiliated with the Korean Stereotactic Radiosurgery Group were provided the contours of four cases: the first case was the first branch PVTT with sufficient normal liver volume (NLV), the second was the first branch PVTT with insufficient NLV, the third was the main trunk PVTT at confluence level, and the fourth was the main trunk PVTT with entire length. The institutions were asked to make SBRT plans according to their current treatment protocols and to complete facility questionnaires. RESULTS: Based on institutional protocols, SBRT was feasible in nine institutions for the first case (32–60 Gy in 3–5 fractions), in eight institutions for the second case (32–50 Gy in 3–5 fractions), in seven institutions for the third case (35–60 Gy in 3–5 fractions), and in four institutions for the fourth case (35–42 Gy in 4–5 fractions). The other institutions recommended hypo- or conventional fractionation due to insufficient NLV or gastrointestinal organ proximity. With analysis of the SBRT dose to the central hepatobiliary tract, the major PVTT could theoretically be associated with a high risk of hepatobiliary toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: Although SBRT is a technically feasible option for HCC with the major PVTT, there was a variability among the participating institutions. Therefore, further studies will be necessary to standardize the practice of SBRT for the major PVTT.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Clinical Protocols , Liver , Portal Vein , Radiosurgery , Thrombosis
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To analyze clinical outcome of CyberKnife (CK) tumor-tracking stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer (Pca) according to the magnitude of intra-fractional prostate motion. METHODS: Medical records and daily treatment logs for 71 patients who received CK tumor-tracking SBRT were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical relationships between prostate motion and various outcome results, including local recurrence (LR), biochemical failure (BF), and treatment-related toxicity, were investigated in order to evaluate motion-dependent efficacy of tumor-tracking SBRT for Pca. RESULTS: In a total 71 patients, 3 (4.2%) patients with LR, 12 (16.9%) patients with BF, and 22 (31%) patients with grade-II or worse toxicities to rectal or bladder (22 to rectal, 22 to bladder and 8 patients to both) were observed in a median follow-up of 47 months. Magnitudes of intra-fractional tumor motion along superior-inferior, right-left, and anterior-posterior (AP) axes were 0.15 ± 0.31, 0.12 ± 0.19, and 0.73 ± 0.32 mm, respectively. Radial magnitude was estimated to be 1.0 ± 0.35 mm. Intra-fractional movement was not significantly correlated with tumor control. However, it was significant correlated with the incidence of grade-II or worse toxicity to rectum or bladder particularly when tumor motion was in the AP axis. CONCLUSION: Our quantitative results revealed that toxicity related to SBRT treatment was highly sensitive to intra-fractional prostate movements, although local-tumor control was not affected by such movements. Our results demonstrate that precise motion correction is essential in prostate SBRT, even if it seems to be small.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Medical Records , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Rectum , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Bladder
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although intracavitary radiotherapy (ICR) is essential for the radiation therapy of cervical cancer, few institutions in Korea perform 3-dimensional (3D)-based ICR. To identify patients who would benefit from 3D-based ICR, dosimetric parameters for tumor targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared between 2-dimensional (2D)- and 3D-based ICR. METHODS: Twenty patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who underwent external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) following 3D-based ICR were retrospectively evaluated. New 2D-based plans based on the Manchester system were developed. Tumor size was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The mean high risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) D90 value was about 10% lower for 2D- than for 3D-based plans (88.4% vs. 97.7%; P = 0.068). Tumor coverage did not differ between 2D- and 3D-based plans in patients with tumors ≤ 4 cm at the time of brachytherapy, but the mean HR-CTV D90 values in patients with tumors > 4 cm were significantly higher for 3D-based plans than for 2D-based plans (96.0% vs. 78.1%; P = 0.017). Similar results were found for patients with tumors > 5 cm initially. Other dosimetric parameters for OARs were similar between 2D- and 3D-based plans, except that mean sigmoid D2cc was higher for 2D- than for 3D-based plans (67.5% vs. 58.8%; P = 0.043). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that 3D-based ICR plans improve tumor coverage while satisfying the dose constraints for OARs. 3D-based ICR should be considered in patients with tumors > 4 cm size at the time of brachytherapy or > 5 cm initially.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Colon, Sigmoid , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Korea , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Organs at Risk , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129240

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In a recent meta-analysis, post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) reduced any first recurrence (AFR) and improved survival in N1 and N2 patients. We investigated risk factors for AFR in N1 after optimal systemic therapy without PMRT, to define a subgroup of patients who may benefit from PMRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand three hundred eighty-two pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without PMRT between 2005 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Only 0.6% had no systemic therapy. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 173 AFR (53 loco-regional recurrence [LRR] without distant metastases [DM], 38 LRR with DM, and 82 DM without LRR). The 5-year LRR and AFR rates were 6.1% and 12.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that close resection margin (p=0.001) was the only independent risk factor for LRR. Multivariate analysis for AFR revealed that age < 35 years (p=0.025), T2 stage (p=0.004), high tumor grade (p=0.032), close resection margin (p=0.035), and triple-negative biological subtype (p=0.031) were independent risk factors. Two or three positive lymph nodes (p=0.078) were considered a marginally significant factor. When stratified by these six factors, the 5-year LRR rates were 3.6% with 0-1 (n=606), 7.5% with 2-3 (n=655), and 12.7% with 4-6 (n=93) risk factors. The 5-year AFR rates were 7.1% with 0-1, 15.0% with 2-3, and 24.5% with 4-6 risk factors. CONCLUSION: Patients with pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and optimal systemic therapy showed excellent loco-regional control and disease control. The patients with four or more risk factors may benefit from PMRT, and those with two or three risk factors merit consideration of PMRT.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-129226

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In a recent meta-analysis, post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) reduced any first recurrence (AFR) and improved survival in N1 and N2 patients. We investigated risk factors for AFR in N1 after optimal systemic therapy without PMRT, to define a subgroup of patients who may benefit from PMRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand three hundred eighty-two pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy without PMRT between 2005 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Only 0.6% had no systemic therapy. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 5.9 years, there were 173 AFR (53 loco-regional recurrence [LRR] without distant metastases [DM], 38 LRR with DM, and 82 DM without LRR). The 5-year LRR and AFR rates were 6.1% and 12.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that close resection margin (p=0.001) was the only independent risk factor for LRR. Multivariate analysis for AFR revealed that age < 35 years (p=0.025), T2 stage (p=0.004), high tumor grade (p=0.032), close resection margin (p=0.035), and triple-negative biological subtype (p=0.031) were independent risk factors. Two or three positive lymph nodes (p=0.078) were considered a marginally significant factor. When stratified by these six factors, the 5-year LRR rates were 3.6% with 0-1 (n=606), 7.5% with 2-3 (n=655), and 12.7% with 4-6 (n=93) risk factors. The 5-year AFR rates were 7.1% with 0-1, 15.0% with 2-3, and 24.5% with 4-6 risk factors. CONCLUSION: Patients with pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer who underwent mastectomy and optimal systemic therapy showed excellent loco-regional control and disease control. The patients with four or more risk factors may benefit from PMRT, and those with two or three risk factors merit consideration of PMRT.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-44798

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the dose distribution between carotid sparing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and opposed lateral field technique (LAFT), and to determine the effects of carotid sparing IMRT in early glottic cancer patients who have risk factors for atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten early glottic cancer patients were treated with carotid sparing IMRT. For each patient, the conventional LAFT plan was developed for comparison. IMRT and LAFT plans were compared in terms of planning target volume (PTV) coverage, conformity index, homogeneity index, and the doses to planning organ at risk volume (PRV) for carotid arteries, spinal cord and pharyngeal constrictor muscle. RESULTS: Recurrence was not observed in any patients during the follow-up period. V95% for PTV showed no significant difference between IMRT and LAFT plans, while V100% was significantly higher in the IMRT plan (95.5% vs. 94.6%, p = 0.005). The homogeneity index (11.6%) and conformity index (1.4) in the IMRT plan were significantly better than those in the LAFT plans (8.5% and 5.1, respectively) (p = 0.005). The median V5Gy (90.0%), V25Gy (13.5%), and V50Gy (0%) for carotid artery PRV in the IMRT plan were significantly lower than those in the LAFT plan (99.1%, 89.0%, and 77.3%, respectively) (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that carotid sparing IMRT can significantly decrease the dose to carotid arteries compared to LAFT, and it would be considered for early glottic cancer patient with high risk of atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Carotid Arteries , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Spinal Cord
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146129

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for low- to intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Thirty-nine patients were retrospectively reviewed. The SBRT was delivered using the CyberKnife with the fiducial tracking method combined with In-tempo imaging. The gross target volume, which included the prostate only, was delineated on the fused CT/MRI scans. The prescription dose was delivered every other day as 5 fractions of 7.5 Gy. Venous blood was obtained before and after SBRT to assess the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Toxicity was evaluated using the CTCAE, v4.03. The median follow-up time was 30.0 months. The median initial PSA level was 7.7 ng/mL. PSA levels decreased in all patients treated with SBRT, and after 5 months, the median PSA was less than 2 ng/mL. The rate of overall 3-yr actuarial biochemical failure free survival was 93.9%. Acute side effects were generally comparable with those of previous studies. The PSA change and toxicity after SBRT for low- to intermediate-risk prostate adenocarcinoma indicates favorable biochemical responses and tolerable levels of toxicity. Additionally short course treatment may produce cost benefit and convenience to patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Radiosurgery/methods , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted , Radiotherapy, Image-Guided/methods , Risk Assessment , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189088

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) with 3-weekly doses of cisplatin is a standard treatment for loco-regionally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, treatment with 3-weekly doses of cisplatin is often associated with several adverse events. Therefore, we conducted this retrospective analysis to determine the efficacy and tolerance of CRT with a low weekly dose of cisplatin in stage IV HNSCC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of patients who were diagnosed with stage IV HNSCC and received concurrent CRT were analyzed. All patients were treated weekly with cisplatin at 20-30 mg/m2 until radiotherapy was completed. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients were reviewed. Median follow up was 10.7 months (range, 1.7 to 90.5 months), the median radiation dose was 7,040 cGy, and the median dose of cisplatin received was 157 mg/m2. Eleven patients received docetaxel combination chemotherapy. Overall, 25 patients (71.4%) achieved complete response (CR), eight (22.9%) showed partial response. The median overall survival was 42.7 months, the 3-year survival rate was 51.2% and the 3 year disease-free survival rate was 72.8%. Overall survival was improved in patients who achieved CR relative to others (59.7 months vs. 13.4 months; p=0.008). There were significant differences in survival between patients who received docetaxel combination and cisplatin alone (51.8 months vs. 7.9 months; p=0.009). Grade 3-4 adverse events included stomatitis (82.9%), dermatitis (22.9%), infection (11.4%), dysphagia (8.6%), and neutropenia (5.7%). CONCLUSION: CRT with low dose weekly cisplatin is likely effective and tolerable, even in patients with locally advanced-stage IV HNSCC.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Deglutition Disorders , Dermatitis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Humans , Medical Records , Neck , Neutropenia , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Stomatitis , Survival Rate
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-213732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In some unusual cases, in patients with cervical cancer, an elevation of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) was not observed at diagnosis but was observed on recurrence, or vice versa. The objective of this study was to identify patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors associated with this unusual level of SCC-Ag, and to determine whether SCC-Ag is a useful tumor marker in such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among 129 patients with recurrence, 14 who showed a normal SCC-Ag level at diagnosis but an elevated level at recurrence were classified as group I; 22 patients with an elevated SCC-Ag level at diagnosis but not at recurrence were classified as group II; and 76 patients with an elevated SCC-Ag level at both diagnosis and recurrence were classified as group III. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, unusual SCC-Ag showed statistically significant relationships with pathology and biochemical response to treatment. However, in the multivariate analysis, none of the clinicopathologic factors showed a statistical relationship with unusual levels of SCC-Ag. The 5-year disease-free survival rates for groups I, II, and III were 7.1%, 9.1%, and 0% (p=0.418), and the 5-year overall survival rates were 34.3%, 58.4%, and 33.3% (p=0.142), respectively. CONCLUSION: The value of SCC-Ag has been confirmed in all patients; thus, check of SCC-Ag level at follow-up should be considered. Although no statistically significant differences were observed among the groups, we conclude that patients with a high initial SCC-Ag and elevated SCC-Ag at relapse have poor prognosis due to high SCC-Ag level.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Recurrence , Serpins , Survival Rate , Biomarkers, Tumor , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
15.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 185-190, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-115569

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of early chemoradiotherapy on the treatment of patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2011, thirty-one patients with histologically proven LS-SCLC who were treated with two cycles of chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and consolidation chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The chemotherapy regimen was composed of etoposide and cisplatin. Thoracic radiotherapy consisted of 50 to 60 Gy (median, 54 Gy) given in 5 to 6.5 weeks. RESULTS: The follow-up period ranged from 5 to 53 months (median, 22 months). After chemoradiotherapy, 35.5% of the patients (11 patients) showed complete response, 61.3% (19 patients) showed partial response, 3.2% (one patient) showed progressive disease, resulting in an overall response rate of 96.8% (30 patients). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 66.5%, 41.0%, and 28.1%, respectively, with a median OS of 21.3 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression free survival (PFS) rates were 49.8%, 22.8%, and 13.7%, respectively, with median PFS of 12 months. The patterns of failure were: locoregional recurrences in 29.0% (nine patients), distant metastasis in 9.7% (three patients), and both locoregional and distant metastasis in 9.7% (three patients). Grade 3 or 4 toxicities of leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in 32.2%, 29.0%, and 25.8%, respectively. Grade 3 radiation esophagitis and radiation pneumonitis were shown in 12.9% and 6.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: We conclude that early chemoradiotherapy for LS-SCLC provides feasible and acceptable local control and safety.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Chemoradiotherapy , Cisplatin , Consolidation Chemotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Esophagitis , Etoposide , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Leukopenia , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiation Pneumonitis , Radiotherapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma , Thrombocytopenia
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163538

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A recent revision of the FIGO staging system does not recommend the mandatory use of cystoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical utility of CT or MRI scans for ruling out bladder or rectal invasion and determine the indication for endoscopy in patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 769 patients with cervical cancer, who underwent imaging and endoscopic work-up between January 1997 and December 2010. Using endoscopy as the standard reference for comparison, we calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the imaging modality for bladder or rectal invasion. RESULTS: The CT scan showed 68.2% and 85.7% for sensitivity and 96.4% and 98.9% for specificity in detecting bladder and rectal invasion, respectively. CT scan provided a low PPV (51.7%, 54.5%) and a high NPV (98.2%, 99.8%). MRI scan showed 88.0% and 75.0% for sensitivity and 93.1% and 98.9% for specificity in detecting bladder and rectal invasion, respectively. MRI scan provided a low PPV (35.6%, 42.9%) and a high NPV (99.4%, 99.7%). The accuracies of CT and MRI scans in identifying bladder invasion were 94.9% and 92.8%, respectively. The accuracies of CT and MRI in identifying rectal invasion were 98.7% and 98.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that additional invasive endoscopy is not necessary for patients who present with no invasion on imaging work-up, and therefore, endoscopy should be considered a tool for confirming cases that are positive for invasion based on imaging work-up.


Subject(s)
Cystoscopy , Endoscopy , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sigmoidoscopy , Urinary Bladder , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11429

ABSTRACT

External-beam radiation therapy with intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy is the standard treatment modality for advanced cervical cancer; however, late gastrointestinal complications are a major concern after radiotherapy. While radiation proctitis is a well-known side effect and radiation oncologists make an effort to reduce it, the sigmoid colon is often neglected as an organ at risk. Herein, we report two cases of radiation sigmoiditis mimicking sigmoid colon cancer after external-beam radiation therapy with intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer with dosimetric consideration.


Subject(s)
Brachytherapy , Colon, Sigmoid , Proctitis , Sigmoid Neoplasms , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
18.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 140-145, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-97534

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Combined chemoradiotherapy is standard management for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), but standard treatment for elderly patients with LA-NSCLC has not been confirmed yet. We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for elderly patients with LA-NSCLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among patients older than 65 years with LA-NSCLC, 36 patients, who underwent CCRT were retrospectively analyzed. Chemotherapy was administered 3-5 times with 4 weeks interval during radiotherapy. Thoracic radiotherapy was delivered to the primary mass and regional lymph nodes. Total dose of 54-59.4 Gy (median, 59.4 Gy) in daily 1.8 Gy fractions and 5 fractions per week. RESULTS: Regarding the response to treatment, complete response, partial response, and no response were shown in 16.7%, 66.7%, and 13.9%, respectively. The 1- and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates were 58.2% and 31.2%, respectively, and the median survival was 15 months. The 1- and 2-year progression-free survivals (PFS) were 41.2% and 19.5%, respectively, and the median PFS was 10 months. Regarding to the toxicity developed after CCRT, pneumonitis and esophagitis with grade 3 or higher were observed in 13.9% (5 patients) and 11.1% (4 patients), respectively. Treatment-related death was not observed. CONCLUSION: The treatment-related toxicity as esophagitis and pneumonitis were noticeably lower when was compared with the previously reported results, and the survival rate was higher than radiotherapy alone. The results indicate that CCRT is an effective in terms of survival and treatment related toxicity for elderly patients over 65 years old with LA-NSCLC.


Subject(s)
Aged , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Esophagitis , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Pneumonia , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
19.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 191-198, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151091

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the role of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) as a predictive and prognostic factor for uterine cervical cancer has been identified in previous studies, 1) the effective patient group of screening for recurrence with SCC-Ag, 2) the relationship between SCC-Ag and recurrence site, and 3) the relationship between the change of SCC-Ag and treatment outcome or recurrence have not been described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 506 patients with histologically proven uterine cervical cancer between January 1994 and December 2010. We determining the serum SCC-Ag level before treatment and after treatment, and conducted a retrospective review of the patients' records. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of SCC-Ag for the detection of tumor recurrence by comparing biochemical recurrence with clinical recurrence. RESULTS: The pretreatment SCC-Ag level and the proportion of patients over 1.5 ng/mL were higher in poor prognostic patient group. In the univariate and multivariate analysis, pretreatment SCC-Ag showed a statistically significant correlation with tumor size, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, pathology. In patients with biochemical recurrence vs. those without, 5-year DFS and OS were 27.6 vs. 92.7% (p < or = 0.001) and 53.7 vs. 92.5% (p < or = 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study reconfirmed the known function of pretreatment SCC-Ag, but could not confirm the function of biochemical response as a predictive factor for treatment and as a prognostic factor. There was no statistically significant relationship between SCC-Ag level and recurrence site. We confirmed the role of SCC-Ag as a follow-up tool for recurrence of disease and which patient groups SCC-Ag was more useful for.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Neoplasm , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cervix Uteri , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gynecology , Humans , Mass Screening , Multivariate Analysis , Obstetrics , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serpins , Treatment Outcome , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
20.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 206-213, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-151089

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a high precision therapy technique that can achieve a conformal dose distribution on a given target. However, organ motion induced by respiration can result in significant dosimetric error. Therefore, this study explores the dosimetric error that result from various patterns of respiration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experiments were designed to deliver a treatment plan made for a real patient to an in-house developed motion phantom. The motion pattern; the amplitude and period as well as inhale-exhale period, could be controlled by in-house developed software. Dose distribution was measured using EDR2 film and analysis was performed by RIT113 software. Three respiratory patterns were generated for the purpose of this study; first the 'even inhale-exhale pattern', second the slightly long exhale pattern (0.35 seconds longer than inhale period) named 'general signal pattern', and third a 'long exhale pattern' (0.7 seconds longer than inhale period). One dimensional dose profile comparisons and gamma index analysis on 2 dimensions were performed RESULTS: In one-dimensional dose profile comparisons, 5% in the target and 30% dose difference at the boundary were observed in the long exhale pattern. The center of high dose region in the profile was shifted 1 mm to inhale (caudal) direction for the 'even inhale-exhale pattern', 2 mm and 5 mm shifts to exhale (cranial) direction were observed for 'slightly long exhale pattern' and 'long exhale pattern', respectively. The areas of gamma index >1 were 11.88%, 15.11%, and 24.33% for 'even inhale-exhale pattern', 'general pattern', and 'long exhale pattern', respectively. The long exhale pattern showed largest errors. CONCLUSION: To reduce the dosimetric error due to respiratory motions, controlling patient's breathing to be closer to even inhaleexhale period is helpful with minimizing the motion amplitude.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiration
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