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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879103

ABSTRACT

Dendrobium huoshanense is a precious medicinal plant belonging to Dendrobium of Orchidaceae. It is a special medicinal material and extremely scarce in Huoshan county, Anhui province. At present, D. huoshanense has been greatly protected, which also makes it possible to industrialize relying on tissue culture and artificial cultivation technology. Three main planting methods were utilized for cultivating D. huoshanense including facility cultivation, under forest cultivation and simulative habitat cultivation. Firstly, the three cultivation modes and technical characteristics of D. huoshanense were compared and analyzed, and it was found that the ecological environment of D. huoshanense cultivated in the simulated environment was closer to that of wild D. huoshanense. Secondly, based on comparing the characters and quality of three cultivation modes, the results showed that the shape of D. huoshanense cultivated in simulated environment was more similar to that of "grasshopper thigh" recorded in Bencao Jing Jizhu, and its quality was better than that of facilities and under forest cultivation. The comprehensive benefit comparison of three modes showed that the simulated cultivation had high income, the lowest input-output ratio and significant economic benefit. The quality of cultivated D. huoshanense was further evaluated from four aspects of "excellent environment" "excellent shape" "high quality" "excellent effect", which summarized the comprehensive advantages of simulative habitat cultivation of D. huoshanense as follows: the original habitat and site environment of simulated wild D. huoshanense, the closer shape to the wild, the more content of main medicinal components, and higher economic benefit and better efficacy. The quality of D. huoshanense was improved by the use of simulative habitat cultivation, which has practical significance to guide its large-scale cultivation.


Subject(s)
Dendrobium , Ecosystem , Forests , Plants, Medicinal
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879101

ABSTRACT

This study steps through four key principles, four open problems and future perspectives of Chinese materia medica(CMM) ecological agriculture by presenting the historical development, existing theories and practice outcomes. Then, it focuses on refining the main principles of CMM ecological agriculture:(1)the principles of ecological niche associated with yield and comprehensive income;(2)principles of biological diversity associated with the integrated control of diseases, pests and weeds;(3)principles of adversity effects associated with the quality improvement of CMM;(4)principles of structural stability associated with the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture. On this basis, four burning issues of CMM ecological agriculture were obtained,(1)ecological planting mode and supporting technologies need to be perfect;(2)multi-integrated industrial coupling remains to strengthen;(3) quality assurance system of CMM ecological agriculture and high-quality and favorable price model remains to be formed;(4)awareness of the demonstration and extension of CMM ecological agriculture needs to be desired. Finally, suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture are put forward:(1)strengthen the national planning and layout, develop CMM ecological agriculture accor-ding to local conditions;(2)pay equal attention to inheritance and innovation, and strengthen the theory and practical technology research of CMM ecological agriculture;(3)strengthen industrial coupling and realize the transformation of CMM ecological agriculture from a production-based to a multi-in-one compound model;(4)intensify standards and brands, building a quality assurance system for CMM ecological products;(5) publicize the demonstration and popularization of CMM ecological agriculture. In summary, the development of CMM ecological agriculture possessed a firmer theory and practice foundation, although there is still much room for improvement. A better field of Chinese medicine agricultural development with immense economic and social benefits will not a question of "if" but "when" by accurately grasp the way forward.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878974

ABSTRACT

The differences of the active ingredients in Dendrobium huoshanense of different growth years and their protective effects on acute liver injury were studied to provide evidence for optimizing harvest time. The contents of polysaccharides, total flavonoids and total alkaloids in D. huoshanense of different growth years were determined by UV spectrophotometry, and the contents of gigantol in D. huoshanense were determined by HPLC. C57 BL/6 mice were randomly divided into blank control group(saline), modeling group(saline), high-dose(7.5 g·kg~(-1)) and low-dose(1.25 g·kg~(-1)) groups of D. huoshanense of different growth years. Each group was intragastrically administered every day for 2 weeks. 500 mg·kg~(-1) paracetamol was injected intraperitoneally 2 h after last treatment except the control group. After 12 hours, the serum and liver tissues were collected to detect the activities of ALT and AST, and the levels of SOD and MDA. The hepatic histopathological examination was performed. The results showed that the chemical constituents of D. huo-shanense of different growth years were significantly different(P<0.05). The contents of polysaccharide and gigantol of D. huoshanense of 2 growth years were the highest. The contents of flavonoids and alkaloids of D. huoshanense of 3 growth years were the hig-hest, followed by the D. huoshanense of 2 growth years, and the lowest were that of 1 growth year. Compared with the modeling group, D. huoshanense of different growth years could decrease the activities of ALT and AST in serum. Meanwhile, the levels of MDA reduced significantly, while those of SOD increased markedly. Histopathological results suggested that all D. huoshanense samples were effective in the reduction of the necrosis of hepatocytes in different degrees. The results of the multi-component SPSS paired tests showed that polysaccharide and gigantol probably played a leading role in the liver protection effects, while D. huoshanense of 2 growth years showed the best efficacy. The optimal harvesting time of D. huoshanense is 2 growth years.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Dendrobium , Liver , Mice , Polysaccharides
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827993

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzed life form, habitats and environmental stresses of medicinal plants and algal fungi collected in Chinese Pharmacopoeia(2015). ①It was found that only 0.94% of the medicinal plants mainly cultivated in field. The most common habitats of medicinal plants are divided into two types: those whose natural habitats are forest margins/undergrowth(about 42.53%) and those whose natural habitats are roadside, hillside, wasteland/sand(about 43.78%). The former mainly faces environmental stresses such as weak light, pests and diseases; the latter often faces the main environmental stresses of drought, strong light, ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, low temperature(day and night or annual temperature difference is large), nutrient deficiency, pests and so on. ②Based on analyzing the strategies of medicinal plants to adapt to environmental stresses, it is pointed out that the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites are the most important strategies of medicinal plants to protect against environmental stresses. In the process of long-term adaptation to specific stress, the accumulation of relevant genetic variation and epigenetic inheritance has become an important condition for the formation of quality of medicinal plants. ③It is proposed that "simulative habitat cultivation" has obvious advantages in balancing growth and secondary metabolism and guaranting the quality of traditional Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Ecosystem , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal , Ultraviolet Rays
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774578

ABSTRACT

In order to explore endophytes diversity and difference in Dendrobium huoshanense,in this paper,the metagenomics method was used to analyze the endophytic bacteria and fungi community of 5 groups include 30 samples in different growth years. The results indicate that 3 540 bacterial OTUs were identified from D. huoshanense,and there are 138 OTUs in 5 groups simultaneously;2 168 fungal OTUs were identified,and 143 OTUs exist in 5 groups simultaneously. The dominate endophytic bacteria community are Sphingomonas sp.,Acinetobacter sp.,Burkholderia sp.,Methylobacterium sp.,Enterococcus sp.,Bacillus sp.,the difference endophytic bacteria community are Oceanobacillusd sp.,Actinomycetospora sp.,Paenibacillus sp.. The dominate endophytic fungi community are Zasmidium sp.,Zymoseptoria sp.,Alternaria sp.,Cladosporium sp.,Fusarium sp.,the difference endophytic fungi community are Cyphellophore sp.,Fusarium sp.. The results of clustering revealed that both the endophytic bacteria and the endophytic fungi,ⅢY2 and ⅢY3 are complete clustered,and ⅡY1 and ⅢY1 are also cluster completely. These enriched the species and resources of endophytic bacteria and fungi in D. huoshanense,and provided a theoretical reference for the reasonable harvest of D. huoshanense.


Subject(s)
Ascomycota , Bacteria , Dendrobium , Endophytes , Fungi , Fusarium , Phylogeny
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775340

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Dendrobium huoshanense on the expressions and activities of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450s in mice, and to provide a reference for the evaluation of drug-drug interactions between D. huoshanense and clinical drugs. The C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into blank control group, D. huoshanense low dose group (crude drug 1.25 g·kg⁻¹), D. huoshanense high dose group (crude drug 7.5 g·kg⁻¹), and phenobarbital positive control group (0.08 g·kg⁻¹). Each group was intragastrically administered with drugs for 2 weeks. The mice were sacrificed and their liver microsomes were prepared. The expressions of major subtypes of P450 enzyme were determined by Western blot and the probe drugs were used to detect the enzyme activities of P450 subtypes with protein expression changes. Western blot analysis showed that the protein expressions of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B in liver tissues were up-regulated in D. huoshanense-treated group. In vitro enzyme activity tests showed that there were no significant difference in metabolism of 7-ethoxyresorufin (a probe drug for CYP1A1) and bupropion (a probe drug for CYP2B) between D. huoshanense group and control group. The metabolism of phenacetin (a probe drug for CYP1A2) showed a statistical difference in rate Vmax, and it was significantly increased by approximately 20% in D. huoshanense group as compared with the blank control group, and the clearance CLint in treated group was also increased by about 32%. Therefore, oral administration of D. huoshanense had no effects on the activities of most hepatic P450 enzymes in mice, with no drug-drug interaction related to the P450 enzyme system in most clinical drugs theoretically. However, oral administration of D. huoshanense may accelerate the metabolism of CYP1A2-catalyzed drugs, which needs to be considered in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 , Metabolism , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System , Metabolism , Dendrobium , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microsomes, Liver , Random Allocation
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230965

ABSTRACT

The ecological agriculture of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is generally acknowledged as the most advanced agricultural mode. However, it's still a doubt whether ecological agriculture could be widely applied in TCM agriculture. In this study, we first analyze both the differences and relationships between ecological and organic agriculture, which suggesting that ecological agriculture does not need all the inputs as traditional agriculture. After introducing the situation of ecological agriculture from all across the world, we analyze the differences and characteristics between ecological and chemical agricultures. Considered with the big challenge caused by chemical agriculture, we pointed out that ecological agriculture could definitely replace chemical agriculture. Last but not the least, combined with the situation and problems of Chinese agriculture, we analyze the distinctive advantages of TCM ecological agriculture from 3 aspects as its unique quality characteristics, its unique habitat requirements in production and its unique application and market characteristics, respectively. In conclusion, ecological agriculture is the straight way of TCM agriculture.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256070

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the protective effect of Dendrobium huoshanense, D.officinale(Huoshan), D.officinale(Yunnan), D.moniliforme and D. henanense on CCl4-induced hepatic damage in mice. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, high-dose(7.5 g•kg⁻¹) and low-dose (1.25 g•kg⁻¹) groups of the five Dendrobium. Each group was intragastrically administered with drugs for 2 weeks. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with Olive oil solution, while the other groups were intraperitoneally given 0.5%CCl4combined with Olive oil solution 2 h later after the last administration. Subsequently, ALT and AST activities in serum, SOD activities and MDA contents in liver tissues were determined in all groups 16 h later after administration. The liver index was calculated, and hepatic histopathological examination was performed. The mRNA expressions of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were analyzed by Real-time PCR. Compared with the CCl4 model group, the activities of ALT and AST in serum decreased significantly in the five different Dendrobium groups. Meanwhile, in liver tissues, the levels of MDA reduced obviously, while the SOD activities markedly increased. Furthermore, liver tissue damage induced by CCl4 was ameliorated according to the histopathological examination. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in D.huoshanense-treated liver tissues were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the five different Dendrobium groups showed hepatoprotective effects on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. However, there were differences among Dendrobium of different types and origins. The protect effect of D.huoshanense is the most obvious, and the order of the protective effect of the other Dendrobium from high to low is D.officinale(Yunnan), D. officinale(Huoshan), D.henanense and D.moniliforme. The differences between the different types of Dendrobium might be related to their chemical components.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320855

ABSTRACT

Shihu is one of the most valuable Chinese medicines in China. The sources of Shihu are complex and the quality evaluation of it mainly depends on morphologic characteristics distinction. In order to understand the Shihu's quality evaluation concept of Chinese herbalists in the past dynasties. This paper summarizes the methods of quality evaluation in ancient bencao systematically. The ancient bencao records that the quality of Shihu is closely related to its germplasm, habitat, processing and character. The concept of germplasm about shihu includes generalized and narrow sense, besides, the clinical applications of Dendrobium huoshanenese, D. officinale and D. nobile are focused on different diseases. D. huoshanenese has been regarded as Dao-di herbs since Qing Dynasty. The main products of Shihu contain fresh goods and dry goods, their clinical applications are also treated differently. Fengdou is one of the commodity specifications in Shihu. Its processing method probably dated from the Qing Dynasty, but now, it has become the mainstream commodityform. There was a common sense that different kinds of Shihu owed different characters and curative effects in ancient bencao, and the quality would enhance with the increasing viscidity. Therefore, the "Germplasm", "Geoherbs", "processing", "characters" were integrated into traditional quality evaluation methods of Shihu. Meanwhile, we should pay attention to the clinical efficacy of shihu with different species and processing methods.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321348

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical support for the CMM production; (5) To deepen the understanding of GAP, to vigorously promote ecological planting and precision agriculture, in order to overcome the continuous cropping obstacle. The authors think that despite the fact that we are still facing with a huge array of management and technological problems, the GAP in the CMM growing has already enjoyed widespread support and showed great potential. In the future, with people's deeper understanding of GAP and the great progress of the science and technology, the GAP will constantly be fused with the theory, methodology and technology in the modern agriculture like precision agriculture, eco-agriculture and etc.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Economics , Methods , Reference Standards , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Economics , Reference Standards , Humans , Materia Medica , Chemistry , Economics , Reference Standards , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327875

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellaria Radix, for standardizing market order and achieving industrialization, standardization and modernization of Pseudostellariae Radix.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The different areas and grade medicinal materials of Pseudostellariae Radix were respectively measured in quantitative characteristics of appearance, and the present grade classification of Pseudostellaria Radix was scientifically verified by the content of polysaccharide. Then the determination data were evaluated by spss correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. So combining with the actual production, the commodity grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix was formulated.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Correlation analysis indicated that the present grade classification of Pseudostellaria Radix was reasonable, and the more the grade of Pseudostellariae Radix was high, the more the content of polysaccharide was high. Meanwhile, length as a classification index was not suitable for the commodity grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix. Using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, combining actual production, the thickest diameter, weight of single root tuber and the number of 50 g root tuber were filtrated and the grade was divided into 5 ranks: big, mid- dle, small selected goods, big ungraded goods and small ungraded goods.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>the commodity specification and grade standard of Pseudostellariae Radix that mainly included the thickest diameter, weight of single root tuber and the number of 50 g root tuber was formulated, the standard was divided into 5 grade. Each grade was not only consistent with the present situation of medicinal materials market, it could also reflected the intrinsic quality of Pseudostellariae Radix. In conclusion, the standard could be used as a classifica- tion basis to the commodity specification and grade.</p>


Subject(s)
Caryophyllaceae , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Quality Control , Reference Standards
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of AIBL on Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate snail host of Schistosoma japonicum.@*METHODS@#The enzyme histochemical profiles of cholinesterase, cytochrome oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, nitric oxide synthase, and succinate dehydrogenase in the soft tissues of Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum, were analyzed before and after treatment with the active ingredient of Buddleia lindleyana (AIBL), a potent and safe plant molluscicide.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with AIBL induced a notable decrease in the activities of the five enzymes (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results indicate that AIBL impairs the activities of the enzymes, thereby influencing the transfer of neurotransmitter and energy supply in Oncomelania hupensis and ultimately harming their various physiological functions, which are considered to cause death of the species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Buddleja , Chemistry , Disease Reservoirs , Ganglia , Chemistry , Histocytochemistry , Liver , Chemistry , Muscles , Chemistry , Oxidoreductases , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Schistosomiasis japonica , Snails
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