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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878961

ABSTRACT

The Qinling-Daba Mountains area is the main producing areas of Gynostemma longipes for medicinal usage, and samples of wild whole plants in Pingli, Shaanxi Province and Qingchuan, Sichuan Province were collected. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS~E) was used to profile the chemical compositions and analyze the similarities and differences of G. longipes samples in these areas. Based on the accurate molecular weight and fragment information obtained from Q-TOF-MS~E, the structures of the main components were identified by combining with the mass spectra, chromatographic behaviors of reference standards and related literatures. The results showed that the components of wild G. longipes from different places among Qinling-Daba Mountains area were similar. Forty-five chemical components were identified in the whole plant of G. longipes from Pingli, Shaanxi Province, including 43 triterpenoid saponins and 2 flavonoids which contain all main peaks in its fingerprint. The main components are dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins, such asgypenoside ⅩLⅨ, gypenoside A and its malonylated product of glycosyl.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gynostemma , Mass Spectrometry , Saponins
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878880

ABSTRACT

A method was established for content determination of two kinds of phenolic acids, including rosmarinic acid)(RA) and caffeic acid(CA), and six kinds of flavonoids including scutellarein-7-O-diglucuronide(SDG), luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide(LDG), apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide(ADG), scutellarin-7-O-glucuronide(SG), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide(LG), and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide(AG) in Perilla frutescens leaves. The content of eight chemical components was measured based on ten P. frutescens germplasms of different chemotypes of volatile oil, different cultivated years, and different harvesting periods. The results showed that there was a great difference between the two kinds of constituents of different germplasms. The total content of the two phenolic acids was 2.24-34.44 mg·g~(-1), and the total content of the six flavonoids was 11.55-34.71 mg·g~(-1). Then according to content from most to least, the order of each component was RA(2.13-33.97 mg·g~(-1)), LDG(1.31-14.80 mg·g~(-1)), SG(1.97-8.45 mg·g~(-1)), ADG(2.68-7.60 mg·g~(-1)), SDG(1.16-5.87 mg·g~(-1)), LG(0.78-1.91 mg·g~(-1)), AG(0.56-1.00 mg·g~(-1)), and CA(0.11-0.68 mg·g~(-1)). The chemical contents of the 5 PA-type germplasms in 2017 were mostly higher than those in 2018 showing a large variation with the cultivation years. These contents of two kinds of phenolic acids of 9 germplasms fluctuated with the harvesting time. The content decreased before early flower spike(the 3~(rd) to 18~(th) in August) at first and began to increase in flowering and fruiting period(the 18~(th) in August to 2~(nd) in September). However, these contents had slowly decreasing trend after 2~(nd) in September till 17~(th) in the same month. Interestingly, the content raised again in the maturity of fruits. The variation tendency of contents in six kinds of flavonoids components was inconsistent in different germplasms with the variation of harvesting time. The content of flavonoids in part of germplasms was negatively correlated with the fluctuation of phenolic acids. There was no correlation between phenolic acids and chemical type of the volatile oil. This paper may provide a reference for the high-quality germplasm of P. frutescens cultivation.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Oils, Volatile , Perilla frutescens , Phenols , Plant Leaves
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828053

ABSTRACT

In this study, the growth index including plant height, compound leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf water content, number of branches, and leaf biomass per plant and the icariin flavonoids such as epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C and icariin of Epimedium pseudowushanense were determined on 30 d and 60 d under light intensity(18.2±2.5) μmol·m~(-2)·s~(-1)(L1) and(90.9 ±2.5) μmol·m~(-2)·s~(-1)(L2), and white light as control, red light, blue light and yellow light were used as three light quality treatments, to study the effect of light quality on the growth and flavonoids accumulation of E. pseudowushanense. The E. pseudowushanense was sui-table for growth under L1 light intensity, the blue light treatment significantly reduced the leaf area, but had little effect on the stem height, the red light treatment and the yellow light treatment had no obvious effect on the stem height and leaf area, but the yellow light treatment significantly increased the germination of new branches, and had a sustained promoting effect, and the biomass was significantly higher than the white light treatment at 60 d. The content of icariin flavonoids in red light, blue light and yellow light treatment was higher than that in white light treatment at 30 d and 60 d under L1 light intensity, while yellow light treatment promoted the synthesis of icariin flavonoids to the largest extent, which was 1.8 and 1.9 times of white light treatment(30 d and 60 d).Under L2 light intensity, the effect of strong light on promoting stem germination became the main factor, while the yellow light treatment showed no significant effect on promoting stem germination, and the red light treatment exhibited a significant effect on reducing leaf area. Icariin flavonoids under red light, blue light and yellow light treatment were all lower than that under white light treatment, that is, the effect of white light treatment on the synthesis of icariin flavonoids is better than red light, blue light and yellow light treatment. When the time of strong light treatment was longer, the degradation range of icariin flavonoids in other light treatment appeared, while red light treatment promotes the synthesis of icariin flavonoids. Therefore, the influence of light quality on E. pseudowushanense is quite different under different light intensity, no matter from growth index or flavonoid content index. The results support that the biomass and icariin flavonoid content can be increased by providing appropriate red and yellow light.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epimedium , Flavonoids , Plant Leaves
4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 995-1003, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821682

ABSTRACT

Qualitative and relatively quantitative methods were used to study the quality of cultivated Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.) Maxim., Epimedium myrianthum Stearn, and Epimedium pubescens Maxim by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-Q-TOF/MSE). Thirty-two compounds in cultivated and wild samples of E. sagittatum, E. myrianthum and E. pubescens were identified using UHPLC-Q-TOF/MSE combined with the UNIFI data analysis platform. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to compare the cultivated and wild samples of these three species. The results show that the chemical compositions of cultivated samples were consistent with the corresponding wild samples. UHPLC-PDA was used to determine the relative content of 12 flavonoids as well as total flavonoids in all samples. The results show that the relative chemical content of these flavonoids in cultivated and wild samples is similar and the quality of cultivated Epimedium is more stable. These qualitative and relatively quantitative methods using UHPLC-PDA-Q-TOF/MSE combined with the UNIFI data analysis platform and PCA can be used to study the quality of cultivated Herba Epimedii. This research provides a scientific basis for the cultivation and rational development and utilization of Epimedium medicinal materials.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773156

ABSTRACT

The change of icariin( ICA) content in thirty-three samples of five Epimedium species listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition),including E. brevicornu,E. sagittatum,E. pubescens,E. koreanum,and E. wushanense has been investigated in this study. The results indicated that the optimized process procedure was baking at 150 ℃ for 30 min,and 3'''-carbonyl-2″-β-L-quinovosyl icariin( CQICA) could not be translated into ICA and ICA could be converted under this heating process condition. ICA increased remarkably after the heating process by 1-3 times in E. brevicornu,E. wushanense and E. koreanum,and increased lightly in E. brevicornum and E. pubescens,while ICA slightly increased or decreased in E. sagittatum and E. wushanense.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonoids , Hot Temperature , Phytochemicals , Specimen Handling
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773136

ABSTRACT

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen is one of the Chinese herbal medicine being susceptible to aflatoxins contamination. To investigate the sources of aflatoxins contamination and toxigenic fungi species on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen,32 samples were collected from multiple steps during the post-harvest processing in this study. Aflatoxins in these samples were determined by immunoaffinity column and HPLC coupled with post-column photochemical derivatization. The dilution-plate method was applied to the fungi isolation. The isolated fungi strains were identified by morphological characterization and molecular approaches. The results showed that aflatoxins were detected in 28 samples from every step during the processing of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. Three samples were detected with aflatoxin B_1 and 2 samples with both aflatoxin B_1 and total aflatoxin exceeding the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Especially the samples from the washing step,with the highest detected amounts of AFB_1 and AFs were reached 94. 79,121. 43 μg·kg~(-1),respectively. All 32 samples were contaminated by fungi. The fungal counts on the newly harvested samples were 2. 20 × 10~2 CFU·g~(-1). Moreover,it increased as tphreocessing progresses,and achieved 1. 16×10~6 CFU·g~(-1) after washing. A total of 321 isolates were identified to 17 genera. Aspergillus flavus was the main source of aflatoxins during the processing and storage of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. One isolate of A. flavus was confirmed producing AFB_1 and AFB_2. The fungal count was significantly increased by composting,and Aspergillus was the predominant genus after shell breaking. The contamination level of aflatoxins was increased by composting and washing.


Subject(s)
Aflatoxins , Aspergillus , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Fungi , Seeds , Chemistry , Microbiology , Ziziphus , Chemistry
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774600

ABSTRACT

UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the chemical differences in Bupleurum. chinense,B. marginatum,B. marginatum var. stenophyllum and B. smithii var. parvifolium. Chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity HSS T3 C_(18) column( 2. 1 mm ×100 mm,1. 8 μm,Waters) with the mobile phase composed of 0. 1% formic acid in water-acetonitrile in the gradient elution. A hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry( Q-TOF-MS~E) was used for mass spectrometric analysis. Finally,25 peaks were identified based on their exact mass data and fragmentation characteristics. B.chinense,B.marginatum,B. marginatum var. stenophyllum and B. smithii var. parvifolium were obviously clustered into 3 types through processing by principal component analysis( PCA). There was almost no difference between B. chinense and B. marginatum. However,the compounds existed in B. chinense were different from those in B. marginatum var. stenophyllum,and B. smithii var. parvifolium.


Subject(s)
Bupleurum , Chemistry , Classification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Phytochemicals , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777480

ABSTRACT

Fifty cultivated Perilla seeds were collected all over the country and planted in Beijing experiment field for morphology and chemical-type researches. Twenty morphological characteristics were selected and observed, and the essential oil from leaves was extracted by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-MS to confirm chemical-types. There were significant diversities in plant height, leaf color and morphology, and fruit color and weight. Clustering analysis was carried out based on these morphological characteristics. Six types were divided with their chemical-type designated. Type Ⅰ: Six germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. crispa, with dwarf plants, thin creased purple leaf, named Crispa, their chemical types were diversified, including EK, PAPK, PA and PK. Type Ⅱ: Six germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. crispa, plants were taller than type I and with thin and creased green leaf, named Big Crispa, all PK type. Type Ⅲ: Seventeen germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. frutescens with leaf color upside green and underside purple, tall plant and wide distribution all over the China, named Ordinary Frutescens, all PK. Type Ⅳ: Four germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. acuta with tall plant and small seed, named Acuta, all PK. Type Ⅴ: Seven germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. frutescens with green leaves, tall plants and long clusters, named Long-spike Frutescens, all PK. Type Ⅵ: Ten germplasms, attributed to P. frutescens var. frutescens with big, thick and creased leaf, named Thick-leaf Frutescens, including PK, PP, PL and PA. The morphological classification of this paper would lay the foundation for the taxonomic naming and following evaluation of the Perilla germplasm resources.This study also showed that there was no correspondence but a certain correlation between volatile oil chemical-types and subspecies classification and morphological characteristics of Perilla.


Subject(s)
China , Oils, Volatile , Perilla frutescens , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690505

ABSTRACT

In order to explore appropriate measures to promote germination after the harvest of Epimedium pseudowushanense, 6-BA, urea, ammonium bicarbonate and GA₃ were chosen to spray on the root and rhizomes, and then the biological indicators such as branches, leaf length, leaf width, plant height and so on, were measured in different periods, and the contents of epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C and icariin in the dry leaves were detected by HPLC. Results showed that 6-BA 90 mg·L⁻¹(B1), 6-BA 60 mg·L⁻¹(B2),6-BA 30 mg·L⁻¹+urea 300 mg·L⁻¹ (C1), 6-BA 60 mg·L⁻¹+urea 300 mg·L⁻¹(C2),6-BA 60 mg·L⁻¹+ ammonium bicarbonate 300 mg·L⁻¹(C4) significantly increased bud germination in the early period, and the plants quickly set up new system of photosynthesis, the branches in a month of which were higher than the control group respectively by 165.9%, 115.76%, 103.86%, 104.50%, 81.67%.However the branches developed the next year and the dry weight of leaves per plant in group B1 and B2 were much lower than that in control group. The groups that use 6-BA and nitrogen at the same time reaped a good yield of leaves even though the treatment had no significant influence on the branches developed the next year. The dry weight of leaves of C1, C2, C4 treatments were 36.80%, 32.84%, 45.97% more than the control group respectively. Therefore, C1, C2 and C4 treatments are the more appropriate to promote recovery after harvest. Furthermore, different groups, except 10 mg·L⁻¹ 6-BA treatment significantly reduced the content of epimedin C, other groups didn't have any significant effect on the contents of such flavonoids.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350217

ABSTRACT

The morphological traits of 55 Chinese Perilla fruit samples (size, 100 grains weight, color, hardness, surface ridge height) are described and the statistically analyzed. It can be divided into 6 categories by cluster analysis, namely: Ⅰ, big grain (diameter 1.5 mm above and 100 grains weight above 0.16 g), low ridge, hard; Ⅱ, big grain, low ridge, soft; Ⅲ, big grain, high ridge, soft, fruit; Ⅳ, big grain. high ridge, gray brown or dark brown; Ⅴ, small grain (diameter 1.5 mm below and 100 grain weight 0.16 g below), low ridge, hard, dark brown; Ⅵ, small grain, low ridge, hard, yellow brown. The 38 fruit samples were planted, among which 31 ones were P. frutescens var. frutescens, 4 ones P. frutescens var. crispa and 3 ones P. frutescens var. acuta. By chemotype classification, they were 29 PK type, 3 PA type, 2 PL type, 2 PP type, 1 EK type and 1 PAPK type. According the description of herb Perillae Fructus in China Pharmacopoeia, the plant originates from P. frutescens var. frutescens. In contrast, not all fruits of P. frutescens var. frutescens have accord features. The fruits with white pericarp are mainly from P. frutescens var. frutescens with purple leaves. The materials with small grain, low ridge, hard, yellow brown or dark brown, are likely to be PA type and mainly P. frutescens var. crispa.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350211

ABSTRACT

To compare the differences of main components between in rhizoma and fibrous root of Trillium tschonoskii and T. kamtschaticum, a simple, accurate and reliable high performance liquid chromatography coupled with the charged aerosol detector (HPLC-CAD) method was developed and then successfully applied for simultaneous quantitative analysis of three compounds, including polyphyllin Ⅶ (T1),pennogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2) [α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (T2),polyphyllin Ⅵ (T3), in 16 batches of rhizome and 14 batches of fibrous root. The analytes were well separated from other constituents on TSK gel ODS (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with acetonitrile-water (43∶57) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL•min⁻¹. The injection volume was 20 μL. The nitrogen inlet pressure for the CAD system was 35 psi and the nebulizer chamber temperature was 35 ℃.The method was validated for linearity (r>0.999 0), intra and inter-day precision (0.29%-3.0%), repeatability (0.45%-1.4%), stability (1.9%-2.6%), recovery (100.1%-100.2%, 1.2%-1.8%), limits of detection (0.002 g•L⁻¹), and limits of quantification (0.005 g•L⁻¹).The obtained datasets were processed by principal component analysis (PCA) and it showed that there was almost no difference in rhizoma of T. tschonoskii and T. kamtschaticum from different areas of China. However, the 3 major compounds existed in rhizoma were different from those in fibrous root of T. tschonoskii and T. kamtschaticum.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335889

ABSTRACT

In this study, 128 individuals form 14 Epimedium pubescens populations and 1 E. stellulatum population were analyzed by ISSR marker. The data were calculated by POPGENE software and clustered by UPGMA method. Optical microscope was used to observe the main types of the non-glandular hairs and their characteristics in each population. It is found that the following conclusions: Non-glandular hairs can be divided into five morphological categories, long straight pubescent, curly pubescent, appressed curly pubescent, pseudo short appressed hairs and long appressed. Eight primers were screening and a total of 94 bands were detected in ISSR, among which 90 were polymorphic bands. Based on the results of ISSR cluster analysis, 15 populations were divided into 3 clades. E. stellulatum populations should be incorporated into the E. pubescens or as avariety under E. pubescens not be independent and as it has no separate phylogenetic branch for a cluster. The genetic relationship among the populations of E. pubescens was closely related with its geographical distribution and non-glandular hair features. But there were also some inconsistency, which provided a good hint for the further study on the interspecific relationship and natural speciation manner of Epimedium species. Population diversity analysis showed Nm=0.354 4, Nei's=0.585 2. It was showed that E. pubescens has high genetic diversity among populations, for which the main reason was probably the high inbreeding rate and the small range of seed dispersal.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-338235

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen nutrition divided into concentrations and forms for Epimedium pseudowushanense was studied under hydroponic conditions. There were 7 nitrogen concentrations treatments(N0-N6)which nitrogen concentration was 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 13.0 mmol•L⁻¹, respectively, and 5 nitrogen forms and proportions treatments (T1-T5) which NO3-N/NH4-N was 5∶0, 4∶1, 2.5∶2.5, 1∶4, 0∶5 respectively, the total nitrogen applied was 5 mmol•L⁻¹. The results showed that along with the increase of nitrogen concentration, biomass (dry weight) and leaf dry weight increased, which in N5 treatment was 29%, 23% higher than those in N0 and 36%, 23% higher than those in N4 respectively, but not significantly different from N6 treatment. Roots and stem dry weights did not change significantly. Pn and the contents of photosynthetic pigments were higher in N3-N5 treatments. Epimedin A, B, C, icariin and total flavonoids contents were the lowest in N3 treatment, suddenly increase in N4 treatment and only a little change between N4-N6 treatments. N5 treatment with the highest epimedin C content was 131% higher than N3 treatment with the lowest epimedin C content (P<0.05). While in the nitrogen forms and proportions treatments, biomass, leaf and stem dry weights were the highest in T3 treatment and lower in T1 and T5 treatments, without significance between T1 and T5 treatments. These indicators in T3 treatment were more than 30% higher than those in T1 treatment. The impact of nitrogen concentrations was greater than nitrogen forms on flavonoids. epmedin C content was the highest in T1 treatment, only 5%-8% higher than that in T2-T5 treatments (no significance between 4 treatments). Epimedin A, B, icariin and total flavonoids contents were higher in T1 treatment, the lowest in T2 treatment, those in T1 treatment was 41%, 62% and 27% higher than T2 treatment respectively (P<0.05). In a conclusion, E. pseudowushanense is a high nitrogen tolerant plant, 10.0 mmol•L⁻¹ was the boundary point between growing general to well and the optimal nitrogen concentration for it was 10.0-13.0 mmol•L⁻¹. Besides, it prefers to grow in NO-3 plus NH+4 and the optimal proportion was 2.5∶2.5.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275473

ABSTRACT

This experiment researched on three kinds of Perilla frutescens including the widespread PK, PA and rare PL chemotype. The Perilla samples were the mature leaves collected in nutrition, flowering and frutescence three different phenological periods, and at 7 am, 12 pm and 6 pm three day time. The volatile oil was extracted by steam distillationand analyzed by GC-MS, as a result, the three chemotype samples'volatile oil yield was between 0.08% and 0.96%; volatile oil yield of different growth period was as follow: nutrition>flowering>fructescence, and the volatile oil yield of nutrition period: PA type>PK type>PL type. Each chemotype was not affected by the growth and development, indicating that the chemotype is determined by genetic factors. Characteristic and main components of PA and PK type are relatively stable, and the characteristic components of PL type are significantly decreased with the growth. There are still a large number of upstream metabolism components, and the chemical type may have their primitiveness and changeability. The relative content of perillaldehyde, characteristic components of PA type, is basically decreased from morning to night, in all the period. The relative content of perillaketone, characteristic components of PK type, in nutrition and flowering period, when samples were collected at 12 noon is relatively higher than that at 7 am and 6 pm, and contrary to samples collected in frutescence period. The relative content of perillene, characteristic components of PL type, in nutrition and frutescence period are highest at 12 noon, while in flowering period is highest at 6 pm. According to the volatile oil yield and relative content of maincomponents, the best harvest time of PA type is in the morning of the nutrition period; the best harvest time of PK type is in the morning of all the period; and the best harvest time of PL type is at dusk of the nutrition period.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275161

ABSTRACT

HPLC-MS/MS was applied to the determination of residual amount of plant growth retardant such as paclobutrazol, daminozide, chlormequat and mepiquat chloride in dried root and rhizome herbs. The sample was extracted twice with acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. The separation was performed on a Waters Atlantis HILIC column with an elution system consisting of acetonitrile-5 mmol•L⁻¹ ammonium acetate solution with 0.1% formic acid, methanol and acetonitrile. The MS spectrum was acquired in positive mode with multiple reactions monitoring (MRM). The linear range was 6-1 500 μg•kg⁻¹, and the optimized method offered a good linear correlation (r>0.997 8), excellent precision (RSD<11%) and acceptable recovery (from 79.3% to 103.3%). Four kinds of plant growth retardant have detected in some ofhenise herbs like Ophiopogonis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizama and Notoginseng Radix et Rhizama, is among the more severe cases, dwarf lilyturf, multi-effect azole detection quantity is 63.4~1 351.66 μg•kg⁻¹, and Daminozide was detected in Ophiopogonis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizama, Alismatis Rhizoma.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320869

ABSTRACT

Twelve compounds were obtained by phytochemical investigation of 70% EtOH ( containing 0.5%NH3•H2O )extract of the roots of Bupleurum marginatum var. stenophyllum. Based on comparison of their spectral data, including HR-ESI-MS, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR data, with those of the literature, their structures were elucidated as saikosaponin b2 (1), saikosaponin a(2), saikosaponin b1(3), saikosaponin d (4), hydroxysaikosaponin a (5), saikosaponin b3 (6), saikosaponin c(7),saikosaponin i (8), saikosaponin f (9), chikusaikosides Ⅱ(10), saikosaponin s (11), and saikosaponin I(12). All compounds belong to olean-type triterpenoid saponin and compounds 1, 3, 5, 8-9,11, and 12 were isolated from this plant for the first time. At a concentration of 20 μmol•L⁻¹, compounds 2, 4, 6, 8, 11 and 12 showed strong inhibition activity against influenza virus WSN33 with the inhibition rate of 91.3%,88.6%,53.4%,61.3%,77.3% and 57.4%,respectively.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272756

ABSTRACT

As an important secondary metabolites of medicinal plant, flavonoids plays a very important role on itself including light protection and antioxidant. Light is one of the important environmental factors which impacts the secondary metabolites of plant and has a significant impact on biological synthesis of flavonoids. This paper reviews the recent progress of the effects of light on flavonoids on the plants focusing from light intensity and light quality, and summarizes briefly functions of the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) in plant secondary metabolism and the upstream key enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS) in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250482

ABSTRACT

This study, based on the findings for Perilla resources, aimed to describe the species, distribution, importance, features, utilization and status of quantitative Perilla resources in China. This not only helps people to know well about the existing resources and researching development, but also indicates the overall distribution, selection and rational use of Perilla resource in the future. According to the output types, Perilla resources are divided into two categories: wild resources and cultivated resources; and based on its common uses, the cultivated resources are further divided into medicine resources, seed-used resources and export resources. The distribution areas of wild resources include Henan, Sichuan, Anhui, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. The distribution areas of medicine resources are concentrated in Hebei, Anhui, Chongqing, Guangxi and Guangdong. Seed-used resources are mainly distributed in Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Chongqing and Yunnan. Export resource areas are mainly concentrated in coastal cities, such as Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang. For the further study, the essential oil of leaf samples from different areas were extracted by the steam distillation method and analyzed by GC-MS. The differences in essential oil chemotypes among different Perilla leaves were compared by analyzing their chemical constituents. The main 31 constituents of all samples included: perillaketone (0.93%-96.55%), perillaldehyde (0.10%-61.24%), perillene (52.15%), caryophyllene (3.22%-26.67%), and α-farnesene (2.10%-21.54%). These samples can be classified into following five chemotypes based on the synthesis pathways: PK-type, PA-type, PL-type, PP-type and EK-type. The chemotypes of wild resources included PK-type and PA-type, with PK-type as the majority. All of the five chemotypes are included in cultivated resources, with PA-type as the majority. Seed-used resources are all PK-type, and export resources are all PA-type. The P. frutescens var. frutescens include five chemotypes, with PK-type as the majority. The PK-type leaves of P. frutescens var. acuta are green, while the PA-type leaves are reddish purple. The P. fruteseens var. crispa was mainly PA type with reddish purple leaves. The differences of the main chemotypes provide a scientific basis for distinguishing between Zisu and Baisu in previous literatures. Based on the lung toxicity of PK and the traditional use of Perilla, the testing standard of essential oil and Perilla herb shall be built, and PA type is recommended to be used in traditional Chinese medicine.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250425

ABSTRACT

Epimedium is a widely used medicinal plants. Due to excessive use of wild resources and resource constraints, artificial cultivation is the only way to achieve sustainable use of resources. E. pseudowushannense is intended to achieve the first cultivated species, but plant production technology is not yet fully mature.The diurnal variation of photosynthetic and eco-physiological characteristics of E. pseudowushannense in different growing age was studied by the CI-340 Portable Photosynthesis System under natural conditions. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (C), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), relative humidity (RH), air temperature (Ta), apparent mesophyll conductance (ALMC), transpiration rate (E), leaf temperature (Tl), water use efficiency (WUE) and other photosynthetic physiological factors and environmental factors were measured. The obtained data was analyzed by correlation analysis, path analysis and stepwise multiple-regression analysis to explore the relationship between net photosynthetic rate and physiological and ecological factors. The results show that: ①The daily variation of the Pn, E, ALMC, C of E. pseudowushannense in different growing age took on"two peak type", the Pn was with an obvious midday depression phenomenon at noon.②The Pn, ALMC and C of annuals' were significantly higher than biennial or three-year; but the Ci was basically a three-year > biennial> annual.③The correlation analysis, path analysis and stepwise regression analysis showed that ALMC, Ci, Ta might played important role in the Pn and ranked as ALMC>Ci>Ta.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330262

ABSTRACT

Plant growth retardant as one of plant growth regulator can inhibit the cell division, elongation and growth rate in shoot apical meristem (SAM), which can be reversed by gibberellin regulate the product of photosynthesis transfer to the root and rhizome part. As commonly used plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride and daminozide are used to promote the growth of root and rhizome, call as "zhuanggenling", "pengdasu", "pengdaji" etc. Single or recombination of plant growth regulator is registered as pesticide, and called as pesticide "zhuanggenling" in this paper. Growth regulator which registered as a foliar fertilizer or fertilization was called agricultural fertilizer "zhuanggenling" in this paper. The author investigate the usage of "zhuanggenling" in the root and rhizome of medicinal plants cultivation from 2012 to 2014 in Sichuan province, Huangyuan town, Mianyang (Ophiopogonis Radix); Pengzhou Aoping town (Chuanxiong Rhizoma); Pengshan Xiejia town (Alismatis Rhizoma); Jiangyou Taiping town and Zhangming town (Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata); Yunnan Wenshan (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma); Henan province, Wuzhidafeng Town (Rehmanniae Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Dioscoreae Rhizoma); Gansu Min county (Codonopsis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix); Gansu Li county (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma). The result showed that "zhuanggenling" were applied in the most medicinal plant cultivation except Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It has been applied widespreadly in Ophiopogonis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix; Rehmanniae Radix, commonly in Angelicae Sinensis Radix application, and occasionally in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. In 53 collected sample from plantation areas, fifteen (28%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling", thirty-eight (72%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling". UPLC analysis results showed that 38 farmers fertilizer "zhuanggenling" content of 6 kinds of plant growth retardant. It is regarded that fertilizer "zhuanggenling" was dominant in medicinal plant cultivation, and that the plant growth retardant is added widespreadly in farm fertilizer "zhuanggenling". All evidence proves conclusively that "zhuanggenling" have been used in the proper way, whereas some others have been misused or even abused in the use regarding to type, number, use frequency. The root or rhizoma are increased to 20%-200%. But there is lack of evaluation to appraise the quality of medicinal materials from the aspects of research or industry. "zhuanggenling" has become a important Chemical control material besides fertilizer, insecticidal sterilization of pesticide


Subject(s)
China , Fertilizers , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Growth Regulators , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal
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