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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906416

ABSTRACT

As a typical representative of heat-clearing and detoxifying prescriptions, Huanglian Jiedutang (HJT) has various pharmacological activities and is widely used in clinical practice. The articles concerning the effect and clinical application of HJT published in recent years were retrieved from such databases as China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and PubMed to figure out HJT efficacy, especially in anti-inflammation, the corresponding action pathways, and its clinical application. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effect mainly resulted from HJT regulation of multiple pathways including interleukin-17 (IL-17) signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway, and neutrophil chemotaxis. The inflammatory cytokines in the serum were reduced via these pathways and thus the inflammation was inhibited. Because of its unique anti-inflammatory advantage, HJT has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, digestive system diseases, skin inflammation, sepsis, and other infectious diseases. In view of this, the paper reviewed the anti-inflammatory effect and clinical application of HJT, aiming to provide a reference for further research.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905892

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect and mechanism of Chaihu Jia Longgu Mulitang (CJLM) on hippocampal NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3)inflammasome pathway in rats with depression. Method:Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into a normal group,a model group, a MCC950 (1 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group, and high- (13 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), medium- (6.5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>), and low-dose (3.25 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) Chaihu Jia Longgu Mulitang groups, with 10 rats in each group.The depression model was induced by isolation combined with chronic unpredictable mild stimulation(CUMS) in rats except for those in the normal group. Rats were treated correspondingly for 21 days by intraperitoneal injection in the MCC950 group and gavage in other groups. The normal group and the model group received an equal volume of normal saline. The depression-like behaviors of rats were observed by sucrose preference test (SPT) and novelty-suppressed feeding test. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine the levels of interleukin-1<italic>β </italic>(IL-1<italic>β</italic>) and IL-18 in the hippocampus of depressed rats. Western blot was used to detect the protein levels of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and Caspase-1. Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group showed decreased sucrose preference rate (<italic>P</italic><0.01), prolonged novelty-suppressed feeding time (<italic>P</italic><0.01), enhanced protein expression of NLRP3,ASC, and caspase-1<italic> </italic>(<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and elevated expression of IL-1<italic>β</italic> and IL-18 (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:CJLM can alleviate depression-like behaviors in CUMS-induced model rats, and the underlying mechanism is related to the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872695

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of modified Xiao Chaihutang on the expressions of excitatory amino acid transporters(EAATs) and vesicle glutamate transporters(VGLUTs)in hippocampus of rats with chronic depression, in order to explore the anti-depressant mechanism of modified Xiao Chaihutang based on glutamate transport. Method:A total of 120 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, and low, middle and high-dose modified Xiaochaihutang groups (6.5, 13, 26 g·kg-1) and riluzole group, with 20 rats in each group.Except normal group, the depression model of rats was prepared through Chronic restraint stress(CRS). The normal group and the model group were intragastrically (ig) given normal saline. The modified Xiao Chaihutang groups were intragastrically given corresponding herbal drugs (6.5, 13, 26 g·kg-1), and the Riluzole group was given Riluzole 20 mg·kg-1 through intraoeritoneal injection for 21 days, once a day. Then the depressive behaviors of rats were observed by forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). The level of glutamic acid (Glu) in rats hippocampus was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mRNA expressions of EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3 in hippocampus were detected by Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR)method. Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in rat hippocampus tissue. Nissl staining was used to observe the morphology of hippocampal neurons in rats. Immunohistochemical(IHC)S-P method were used to detect the location expressions of EAAT1, EAAT2 and NeuN proteins in rat hippocampal CA1 region tissue. Result:The immobility times in FST and TST were increased significantly(P<0.01), the mRNA and protein expressions of EAAT1,EAAT2,EAAT3 were decreased significantly (P<0.01), and as well as the expressions of VGLUT1 and NeuN were decreased significantly(P<0.01), while the level of Glutamate and the expression of VGLUT2 were increased significantly(P<0.01) in model group, compared with normal group. Compared with model group,the immobility times in FST and TST were decreased significantly(P<0.05, P<0.01), mRNA and protein expressions of EAAT1,EAAT2,EAAT3 were increased significantly(P<0.01), and expressions of VGLUT1 and NeuN were increased significantly(P<0.01). However, the level of Glutamate and the expression of VGLUT2 were decreased significantly(P<0.01), and the damage of hippocampal neurons in rats was mild in middle and high-dose modified Xiao Chaihutang groups. Conclusion:Modified Xiao Chaihutang has an anti-depressive effect. Its mechanism may be related to its up-regulation of expressions of EAAT1, EAAT2, EAAT3 genes and VGLUT1 protein in the hippocampus of depression model rats.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872694

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of modified Suanzaoren Tang on the expression of excitatory amino acids receptor(EAARs) in hippocampus of rats with chronic depression, and to explore the anti-depressant mechanism of modified Suanzaoren Tang based on excitatory amino acids receptor. Method:Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into normal group,model group,and low,middle and high-dose modified Suanzaoren Tang groups,and ketamine group,with 10 rats in each group.Except normal group,the depression model of rats was prepared by using chronic restraint stress(CRS).The normal group and model group were intragastrically(ig) given normal saline.the modified Suanzaoren Tang groups were intragastrically given corresponding herbal drugs 6,12,24 g·kg-1, ketamine group group were given ketamine 0.015 g·kg-1 through intraoeritoneal injection,for 21 days,once a day.Then the depressive behaviors of rats were observed by Morris water maze and novelty feeding experiment.Western blot was used to detect the levels of DAR1,NMDAR2A,NMDAR2B,GluR1,mGluR1,CaMKⅡα and CaMKⅡβ protein expression in rat hippocampus tissue. Result:Compared with normal group,the time of novel ingestion and escape latencywere prolonged significantly(P<0.01), and the time of space exploration was shortened significantly(P<0.01).The levels of NMDAR1,NMDAR2A,NMDAR2B,mGluR1 and CaMKⅡβ expression were increased significantly(P<0.01),while the levels of GluR1 and CaMKⅡα expression were decreased significantly(P<0.01)in model group. Compared with model group,the time of novel ingestion and escape latency were shortened significantly (P<0.01), and the time of space exploration was prolonged significantly(P<0.01).The levels of NMDAR1,NMDAR2A,NMDAR2B,mGluR1 and CaMKⅡβ protein expression were decreased significantly(P<0.01),but the levels of GluR1 and CaMKⅡα expression were increased decreased significantly(P<0.01)in middle and high-dose modified Suanzaoren Tang groups. Conclusion:Modified Suanzaoren Tang can improve the behavior of chronic depression rats effectly. Its mechanism may be related with reduction the expression of NMDAR1,NMDAR2A,NMDAR2B,mGluR1 and CaMKⅡβ protein ,increase the expression of GluR1and CaMKⅡα protein.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872693

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of Chaihu Jia Longgu Mulitang on phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)/β-catenin signaling pathway of hippocampus in rats with depression. Method:A total of 120 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group,model group, and low, middle and high-dose Chaihu Jia Longgu Mulitang groups(3.25,6.5,13 g·kg-1), and fluoxetine group, with 20 rats in each group. Except normal group, the depression model was prepared through chronic unpredictable mild stimulation(CUMS). The normal group and the model group were given normal saline with 6.5 g·kg-1 by gavage. Chaihu Jia Longgu Mulitang groups were intragastrically given corresponding herbal drugs 3.75,6.5,13 g·kg-1, while fluoxetine group was intragastrically given fluoxetine 10 mg·kg-1 for 21 days, once a day. Then the depressive behaviors of rats were observed by sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swimming test (FST). Western blot was used to detect the protein expressions of PI3K,Akt,GSK3β and phosphorylation level. Result:Compared with normal group,the sucrose preference index was decreased significantly,while the immobility time in FST was increased significantly(P<0.01), the protein expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K p110, p-PI3K p85 were decreased significantly (P<0.01), and expressions of Akt, p-Akt Thr308,p-Akt Ser473, p-GSK3β Ser9 and β-catenin were decreased significantly(P<0.01), while the level of GSK3β, p-GSK3β Tyr216 were increased significantly in model group(P<0.05,P<0.01). Compared with model group,Chaihu Jia Longgu Mulitang could increase sucrose preference index and decrease the immobility time in FST(P<0.01), the protein expressions of PI3K p110 and PI3K p85 was increased significantly (P<0.01), levels of Akt Thr308,Akt Ser473, p-GSK3β Ser9, β-catenin were increased significantly (P<0.01), whereas levels of GSK3β, and GSK3β Tyr216 were decreased significantly. Conclusion:Chaihu Jia Longgu Mulitang could increase protein expression and activity of PI3K in rat hippocampus, activate Akt, inhibit GSK3β kinase activity and prevent β-catenin from degradation, so as to increase PI3K/Akt pathway activity in rat hippocampus, and protect hippocampal neurons.

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