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1.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2020239, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153181

ABSTRACT

The gluteal region contains important neurovascular and muscular structures with diverse clinical and surgical implications. This paper aims to describe and discuss the clinical importance of a unique variation involving not only the piriformis, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, obturator internus, and superior gemellus muscles, but also the superior gluteal neurovascular bundle, and sciatic nerve. A routine dissection of a right hemipelvis and its gluteal region of a male cadaver fixed in 10% formalin was performed. During dissection, it was observed a rare presentation of the absence of the piriformis muscle, associated with a tendon fusion between gluteus and obturator internus, and a fusion between gluteus minimus and superior gemellus muscles, along with an unusual topography with the sciatic nerve, which passed through these group of fused muscles. This rare variation stands out with clinical manifestations that are not fully established. Knowing this anatomy is essential to avoid surgical iatrogeny.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Buttocks/pathology , Piriformis Muscle Syndrome/complications , Anatomic Variation , Sciatic Nerve , Tendons , Dissection , Muscles/abnormalities
2.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(2): e2020151, Apr.-June 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131818

ABSTRACT

The authors describe a rare unilateral muscle variation in the thoracic wall combining the pectoralis quartus and chondro-epitrochlearis muscles. A routine dissection was performed in the upper right limb of a male adult cadaver with approximately 35-50 years of age, embalmed in formalin 10%. An accessory muscle, the pectoralis quartus, was identified and was associated with a tendon that was inserted in the medial humeral epicondyle, characteristic of the chondro-epitrochlearis muscle tendon. Such variations have significant clinical relevance to orthopedics, mastology, neural and vascular surgery, and other specialties, for surgical approaches in both the axillary and brachial regions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Thoracic Wall/anatomy & histology , Muscles/anatomy & histology , Muscles/abnormalities , Autopsy , Tendons , Dissection , Anatomic Variation
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 10(4): e2020209, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131865

ABSTRACT

The median artery is usually a transient vessel during the embryonic period. However, this artery can persist in adult life as the persistent median artery. This paper aims to describe this relevant anatomical variation for surgeons, review the literature and discuss its clinical implications. A routine dissection was performed in the upper left limb of a male adult cadaver of approximately 50-60 years of age, embalmed in formalin 10%. The persistent median artery was identified emerging as a terminal branch of the common interosseous artery with a path along the ulnar side of the median nerve. In the wrist, the persistent median artery passed through the carpal tunnel, deep in the transverse carpal ligament. The dissection in the palmar region revealed no anastomosis with the ulnar artery forming the superficial palmar arch. The common digital arteries emerged from the ulnar artery and the persistent median artery. Such variation has clinical and surgical relevance in approaching carpal tunnel syndrome and other clinical disorders in the wrist.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome , Upper Extremity/anatomy & histology , Dissection , Biological Variation, Individual , Nerve Compression Syndromes
4.
Acta ortop. bras ; 25(2): 89-92, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-837744

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the incidence and characterize morphologically the anterolateral ligament of the knee (ALL) in cadaveric samples of the collection of the Laboratory of Anatomy of the Department of Morphology of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Methods: Dissections and cross sections were performed for mesoscopic analysis of the anterolateral region of 15 knees preserved in 4% formalin solution in order to identify the ALL. Results: After dissection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the knee anterolateral region, it was possible to identify the iliotibial tract (ITT), the patellar ligament and the femoral biceps tendon. The ITT was removed from the Gerdy tubercle and the following structures were visualized: knee joint capsule, fibular collateral ligament and popliteal tendon. However, the ALL was not identified in any of the samples. Conclusions: The ALL could not be identified in any of the specimens studied, either through dissection or mesoscopic analysis. Level of Evidence III, Diagnosis Studies - Investigation of an Exam for Diagnosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a incidência e possivelmente caracterizar morfologicamente o ligamento anterolateral do joelho (LAL) em amostras cadavéricas do acervo do Laboratório de Anatomia do Departamento de Morfologia da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. Métodos: Foram realizadas dissecações e secções transversais para análise mesoscópica da região anterolateral de 15 joelhos conservados em solução de formalina a 4% a fim de identificar o LAL. Resultados: Após a dissecação da pele e da tela subcutânea da região anterolateral dos joelhos foi possível identificar o trato iliotibial (TIT), o ligamento patelar e o tendão do músculo bíceps femoral. Após a desinserção do TIT no tubérculo de Gerdy as seguintes estruturas foram visualizadas: cápsula articular do joelho, o ligamento colateral fibular e o tendão do músculo poplíteo. Entretanto, o LAL não foi identificado em nenhuma das amostras. Conclusões: O LAL não pôde ser identificado em nenhum dos espécimes estudados, seja através da dissecação ou da análise mesoscópica. Nível de Evidência III, Estudos Diagnósticos - Investigação de um Exame para Diagnóstico.

5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 31(5): 1561-1569, sept./oct. 2015.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-965019

ABSTRACT

Malnutrition remains an important public health condition by affecting mostly children. The present study aimed to examine the effects of prenatal protein undernourishment and postnatal renourishment on the metabolism of pre-adult animals. Forty-five male Wistar rats originating from different litters were used. The Nourished (N, n=15) and Undernourished (U, n=30) groups were maintained on proteic and hypoproteic diets (20% and 5% casein, respectively) from the intrauterine phase until the end of the experiment. The Renourished group (R) contained 15 animals, randomly chosen from U group, that consumed the N diet beginning on day 21 (weaning). All groups were maintained until day 60. The experimental data was acquired daily for body weight, feed and water intake, feces and urine excretion. Data analysis was made with the total results and the ratio between them. The U group animals developed uniformly sparse hair late and experienced intense sweating, features that were not observed during the experiment in the R and N animals groups. The R group had the largest weight gain and feed and water intake ratio/weight at experimental period, followed by the N group animals. The final body weight and food intake decreased gradually in the order N-R-U, but none of the other parameters showed a statistical difference between the N and R animals. Compared to groups N and R, the U group animals consumed 90% and 81% more food and water, respectively. Protein undernourishment induced metabolic dysfunction in the U group animals. The similarity in the experimental parameters of the N and R groups suggests that an early feeding correction was effective in reestablishing the organic functions of the R group animals.


A subnutrição ainda é uma condição importante na saúde pública por afetar principalmente crianças. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da subnutrição pré-natal e renutrição pós-natal no metabolismo de ratos jovens. Quarenta e cinco ratos Wistar machos originados de diferentes ninhadas foram utilizados. O grupo Nutrido (N, n=15) e Subnutrido (U, n=30) foram mantidos sob dieta protéica e hipoprotéica (20% e 5% de caseína, respectivamente) desde a fase intrauterina até o final do experimento. O grupo Renutrido (R) conteve 15 animais aleatoriamente selecionados do grupo U para consumir a dieta protéica a partir do dia 21 pós-natal (desmame). Todos os grupos foram mantidos até o dia 60. Os animais do grupo U desenvolveram pelos tardiamente, uniformemente escassos e sudorese intensa, fato não visto ao longo do experimento nos animais R e N. Os animais R obtiveram o maior ganho de peso, fração ingestão por peso e consumo de água por peso no período experimental, seguido pelo grupo N. O peso corporal final e a ingestão final de alimento ficaram decrescentes na ordem N-R-U, enquanto que para todos os outros parâmetros não houve diferença estatística entre o animal N e R. Comparativamente ao grupo N e R, o grupo U consumiu 90% e 81% a mais de alimento e água, respectivamente. A subnutrição proteica induziu disfunção metabólica nos animais U. A semelhança nos parâmetros experimentais entre o grupo N e R sugere que a correção precoce da alimentação foi eficaz no retorno das funções orgânicas dos animais R.


Subject(s)
Protein Deficiency , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Malnutrition , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Metabolism
6.
Coluna/Columna ; 14(2): 144-148, Apr.-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755837

ABSTRACT

Currently there is a growing interest in the study of intervertebral discs due to loss of manpower brought to society by low back and neck pains. These papers seek to delineate the difference between normal aging and disc degeneration, trying to understand what factor would be determining for the second condition. Thus, the morphology field was expanded and knowledge on the structure of intervertebral discs currently uses the research field of cell and molecular biology, and genetics. The results indicate that regardless of age or condition, the intervertebral disc undergoes long and extensive remodeling of its constituents, which are influenced by several factors: environmental, soluble, cell growth and extracellular matrix. In this literature review we describe the biological characteristics of the cervical and lumbar intervertebral disc with a focus on basic science of aging and degeneration, selecting the latest findings and discussions of the area, which influence future research and clinical thoughts.


Atualmente ocorre um crescente interesse no estudo dos discos intervertebrais em virtude da perda da força de trabalho que a lombalgia e a cervicalgia trazem à sociedade. Esses trabalhos buscam delinear a diferença entre envelhecimento normal e degeneração discal, tentando entender qual fator seria determinante para a segunda condição. Assim, o campo da morfologia foi ampliado e o conhecimento sobre a estrutura dos discos intervertebrais hoje utiliza investigações no campo da biologia celular, molecular e da genética. Os resultados apontam que, independentemente da idade ou condição de enfermidade, o disco intervertebral sofre extenso e longo remodelamento de seus constituintes, os quais sofrem influências de diversos fatores: ambientais, solúveis e de crescimento das células e da matriz extracelular. Nesta revisão da literatura, descrevem-se as características biológicas do disco intervertebral cervical e lombar, com foco na ciência básica do envelhecimento e degeneração, selecionando as mais recentes descobertas e discussões da área, as quais influenciam futuras pesquisas e pensamentos clínicos.


Actualmente existe un creciente interés en el estudio de los discos intervertebrales debido a la pérdida de mano de obra que el dolor del cuello y lumbar aportan a la sociedad. Estas obras tratan de delimitar la diferencia entre el envejecimiento normal y la degeneración del disco, tratando de entender qué factor sería decisivo para la segunda condición. Así, el campo de la morfología se amplió y los conocimientos sobre la estructura de los discos intervertebrales utiliza actualmente la investigación en el campo de la biología celular y molecular, además de la genética. Los resultados indican que, independientemente de su edad o estado de la enfermedad, el disco intervertebral sufre una remodelación extensa y larga de sus componentes, que son influenciados por varios factores: el ambiente, solubles y de crecimiento celular y de la matriz extracelular. En esta revisión de la literatura se describen las características biológicas del disco intervertebral cervical y lumbar, con un enfoque en la ciencia básica del envejecimiento y la degeneración, seleccionando los últimos descubrimientos y discusiones del área, que influyen en la futura investigación y pensamientos clínicos.


Subject(s)
Intervertebral Disc/anatomy & histology , Aging , Low Back Pain , Neck Pain
7.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 88(2): 80-86, abr.-jun. 2009. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-539093

ABSTRACT

O suporte parcial de peso (SPP) foi utilizado pela primeira vez em âmbitos clínicos nos anos 80. Acredita-se que essa terapia promova melhora da marcha em pacientes com seqüela de Acidente Vascular Encefálico (AVE). Investigamos a importância do treino de marcha na esteira elétrica com SPP nesses pacientes. Sete pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de hemiparesia ou hemiplegia foram submetidos aleatoriamente a um protocolo de treinamento em esteira elétrica em SPP (Experimental, n = 4), ou ao tratamento tradicional sem SPP (Controle, n = 3) por 20 sessões, para avaliar o equilíbrio. Observou-se melhora estatisticamente significante no equilíbrio avaliado pela escala de BERG no Grupo Experimental (p = 0,003). Mais estudos são necessários para elucidar os resultados obtidos...


The Body Weight Support (BWS) was used for the first time in clinical studies by the 80s. It is believed that this therapy promotes improvement of gait in patients with Stroke sequel. We investigated the importance of gait training in treadmill with BWS in those patients. Seven patient with clinical diagnosis of hemiparesis or hemiplegia were randomly submitted toa treadmill training protocol with BWS, (Experimental, n=4), or to traditional approach without BWS (Control, n=3) for 20 sessions to balance evaluation. The balance evaluation by BERG scale showed significant improves on experimental group (p = 0,003). Further investigations should be conducted in order to elucidate those data obtained...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stroke/rehabilitation , Gait , Paresis , Postural Balance , Weight-Bearing
8.
Rev. med. (Säo Paulo) ; 87(2): 142-147, 2008. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-506459

ABSTRACT

O enrijecimento arterial é um fator de risco independente para doença cardiovascular, podendo se agravar com a idade e sendo atenuado pelo exercício físico principalmente em idosos. O objetivo deste estudo foi correlacionar à capacidade física de indivíduos idososcom a Velocidade de Onda de Pulso (VOP). Para tanto, foi avaliada a complacência dos grandes vasos de pacientes do sexo masculino obtido através da medida da VOP com o aparelho COMPLIOR II. O nível de capacidade física foi obtido com o teste de esforço submáximo (teste de caminhada de 6 minutos). Nossos dados sugerem que a rigidez arterial aumenta com a idade, que esta rigidez esta intimamente ligada ao nível de aptidão cardiorrespiratória e que este pode sugestivamente influenciar na prevenção do enrijecimento arterial.


The arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor of aging, whichcould be measure by the Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV). The aim of this study was correlate the physical capacity of aging men to the PWV. In order to measure arterial compliance of greatvessels in aging males we used a COMPLIOR II equipment to determine PWV. Physical capacity levels were obtained by 6 minutes walking test. Our data suggest that arterial stiffnessincrease by the age, and it is intimately close to the level of cardiorespiratory fitness. The results also indicate that effects of physical capacity has some influence on the prevention of arterial stiffness.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aging , Compliance , Motor Activity , Vascular Capacitance
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