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Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(1): 67-73, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365666


Abstract Objective To evaluate the underestimation rate in breast surgical biopsy after the diagnosis of radial scar/complex sclerosing lesion through percutaneous biopsy. Data Sources A systematic review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. The PubMed, SciELO, Cochrane, and Embase databases were consulted, with searches conducted through November 2020, using specific keywords (radial scar OR complex sclerosing lesion, breast cancer, anatomopathological percutaneous biopsy AND/OR surgical biopsy). Data collection Study selection was conducted by two researchers experienced in preparing systematic reviews. The eight selected articles were fully read, and a comparative analysis was performed. Study selection A total of 584 studies was extracted, 8 of which were selected. One of them included women who had undergone a percutaneous biopsy with a histological diagnosis of radial scar/complex sclerosing lesion and subsequently underwent surgical excision; the results were used to assess the underestimation rate of atypical and malignant lesions. Data synthesis The overall underestimation rate in the 8 studies ranged from 1.3 to 40% and the invasive lesion underestimation rate varied from 0 to 10.5%. Conclusion The histopathological diagnosis of a radial scar/complex sclerosing lesion on the breast is not definitive, and it may underestimate atypical andmalignant lesions, which require a different treatment, making surgical excision an important step in diagnostic evaluation.

Resumo Objetivo Avaliar o grau de discordância entre biópsia percutânea e cirúrgica da mama em pacientes com diagnóstico de cicatriz radiada/lesão esclerosante complexa (CR/LEC) por meio de uma revisão sistemática. Fontes dos dados Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática segundo as recomendações do Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA, na sigla em inglês). As bases de dados primárias consultadas foram PubMed, SciELO, Cochrane e Embase, combuscas conduzidas até novembro de 2020, utilizando palavras chaves específicas (cicatriz radiada OU lesão esclerosante complexa, câncer de mama, anatomopatológico de biópsia percutânea E/OU biópsia cirúrgica). Seleção dos estudos A busca dos artigos resultou em um total de 584 estudos, sendo 8 selecionados, os quais incluíam mulheres submetidas a biópsia com diagnóstico histológico de CR/LEC e posteriormente submetidas a exérese cirúrgica para avaliar como desfecho o grau de subestimação de lesões atípicas e malignas. Coleta de dados A seleção dos estudos foi conduzida por dois pesquisadores, com experiência na elaboração de revisão sistemática. Os oito artigos selecionados foram lidos na íntegra e submetidos a uma análise comparativa. Síntese dos dados Cicatrizes radiadas/lesões esclerosante complexas foram associadas com lesões atípicas e malignas após a exérese cirúrgica. O grau de subestimação geral foi calculado pela porcentagem de lesões atípicas e malignas no anatomopatológico após a exérese cirúrgica dentre o total de CR/LEC diagnosticadas, enquanto o grau de subestimação de lesões invasoras foi calculado considerando-se apenas os carcinomas invasivos. O grau de subestimação geral dos estudos selecionados variou de 1,3 a 40%, e o de lesões invasoras de 0 a 10,5%. Conclusão O diagnóstico histopatológico de CR/LEC na mama não é definitivo, podendo subestimar lesões atípicas e malignas, cujo tratamento é distinto, tornando a exérese cirúrgica etapa fundamental na investigação diagnóstica.

Femina ; 49(9): 520-524, 20211030.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1342318


A síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP) é frequentemente acompanhada de distúrbio metabólico, principalmente dos carboidratos e dos lipídeos, aumentando o risco de síndrome metabólica. Por essa razão, alguns investigadores ainda denominam a SOP de síndrome metabólica-reprodutiva. O objetivo deste capítulo é descrever as principais repercussões metabólicas, bem como como investigá-las e saber como suas consequências podem ser deletérias para a saúde da mulher. Esta é uma revisão narrativa mostrando a implicação do metabolismo dos carboidratos e dos lipídeos nas dislipidemias, bem como da síndrome metabólica sobre o sistema reprodutor, e o risco cardiovascular da mulher com SOP. Conclui-se que o manejo adequado dos distúrbios metabólicos na SOP é benéfico a curto e a longo prazo tanto para o sistema reprodutor quanto para o cardiovascular.(AU)

Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/metabolism , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Metabolic Syndrome/physiopathology , Insulin Resistance , Risk Factors , Glucose Intolerance/diagnosis , Glucose Metabolism Disorders/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/physiopathology , Lipid Metabolism Disorders/physiopathology
Clinics ; 76: e2324, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153955


OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to contribute to the catalog of genetic mutations involved in the carcinogenic processes of uterine sarcomas (USs) and carcinosarcomas (UCSs), which may assist in the accurate diagnosis of, and selection of treatment regimens for, these conditions. METHODS: We performed gene-targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 409 cancer-related genes in 15 US (7 uterine leiomyosarcoma [ULMS], 7 endometrial stromal sarcoma [ESS], 1 adenosarcoma [ADS]), 5 UCS, and 3 uterine leiomyoma (ULM) samples. Quality, frequency, and functional filters were applied to select putative somatic variants. RESULTS: Among the 23 samples evaluated in this study, 42 loss-of-function (LOF) mutations and 111 missense mutations were detected, with a total of 153 mutations. Among them, 66 mutations were observed in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. TP53 (48%), ATM (22%), and PIK3CA (17%) were the most frequently mutated genes. With respect to specific tumor subtypes, ESS showed mutations in the PDE4DIP, IGTA10, and DST genes, UCS exhibited mutations in ERBB4, and ULMS showed exclusive alterations in NOTCH2 and HER2. Mutations in the KMT2A gene were observed exclusively in ULM and ULMS. In silico pathway analyses demonstrated that many genes mutated in ULMS and ESS have functions associated with the cellular response to hypoxia and cellular response to peptide hormone stimulus. In UCS and ADS, genes with most alterations have functions associated with phosphatidylinositol kinase activity and glycerophospholipid metabolic process. CONCLUSION: This preliminary study observed pathogenic mutations in US and UCS samples. Further studies with a larger cohort and functional analyses will foster the development of a precision medicine-based approach for the treatment of US and UCS.

Humans , Female , Sarcoma/genetics , Uterine Neoplasms/genetics , Carcinosarcoma/genetics , Brazil , Mutation
Clinics ; 76: e2567, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153942


OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical response to and the histomorphometric effects of microablative fractional radiofrequency (MFR) in women with symptomatic vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS). METHODS: This was a pilot study on the use of MFR for the treatment of VLS. Upon recruitment and at each treatment session, all participants were examined and each of their symptoms were rated on a visual analog scale. After the procedure, the participants completed a satisfaction questionnaire. We compared the morphometric findings of vulvar biopsies performed at enrollment and after the last treatment session. The participants were divided into three groups according to previous treatment with corticosteroids: G1, no previous treatment; G2, treated for up to 5 years; and G3, treated for >5 years. RESULTS: This study included 26 women. After two to three sessions, most participants in all groups became either "asymptomatic" or "much better" than before treatment and were "very satisfied" or "satisfied" with the intervention. Pruritus and burning sensation were the most frequently reported symptoms. Nearly 40% of the participants in all groups reported complete remission of symptoms. The improvement was rated as moderate or higher by 80%, 76%, and 66% of the women in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The improvement of symptoms persisted for 11 months (range, 7-16 months), on average, after the treatment. Type III collagen concentration significantly increased and was associated with important symptom improvement. Tissue trophism and vascularization also increased but did not reach statistical significance, probably because of the small number of cases. CONCLUSIONS: MFR may be an effective and safe treatment for symptomatic VLS.

Humans , Female , Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus , Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus/therapy , Pilot Projects
Clinics ; 76: e2806, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286083


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and imaging predictive factors for the diagnosis of phyllodes tumors in patients with inconclusive results from core needle biopsy (fibroepithelial lesions). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of patients who underwent surgical excision of breast lesions previously diagnosed as fibroepithelial lesions. Numeric variables were analyzed using the Shapiro-Wilk and t-tests, and categorical variables were analyzed using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios and detect predictive factors for the diagnosis of PT. RESULTS: A total of 89 biopsy samples were obtained from 77 patients, of which 43 were confirmed as fibroadenomas, 43 as phyllodes tumors, and 3 as other benign, non-fibroepithelial breast lesions. The mean tumor size was 3.61 cm (range, 0.8-10 cm) for phyllodes tumors and 2.4 cm (range, 0.8-7.9 cm) for fibroadenomas. The predictive factor for phyllodes tumor diagnosis was lesion size >3 cm (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that fibroepithelial lesions of the breast larger than 3 cm are more likely to be phyllodes tumors.

Clinics ; 76: e3039, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286090


OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of tibial nerve transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for an overactive bladder, considering the sites of application and frequency of attendance. METHODS: This multi-arm randomized controlled trial enrolled 137 adult women (61.0±9.0 years) with overactive bladder from a university hospital. They underwent 12 sessions of 30-min TENS application and were assigned to five groups: one leg, once a week (n=26); one leg, twice a week (n=27); two legs, once a week (n=26); two legs, twice a week (n=28); and placebo (n=30). Symptoms of overactive bladder and its impact on quality of life were evaluated before and after 6 or 12 weeks of treatment using the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire-V8 and voiding diary. NCT01912885. RESULTS: The use of one leg, once a week TENS application reduced the frequency of urgency episodes compared with the placebo (1.0±1.6 vs. 1.4±1.9; p=0.046) and frequency of incontinence episodes compared with the placebo (0.7±1.4 vs.1.4±2.2; p<0.0001). The one-leg, twice a week protocol decreased the urinary frequency compared with the two legs, once a week protocol (8.2±3.5 vs. 9.0±5.1; p=0.026) and placebo (8.2±3.5 vs. 7.9±2.7; p=0.02). Nocturia improved using the two legs, once a week protocol (1.5±1.8) when compared with the one leg, twice a week protocol (1.9±2.0) and placebo (1.7±1.6) (p=0.005 and p=0.027, respectively). Nocturia also improved using the two legs, twice a week protocol when compared with the one leg, twice a week protocol (1.3±1.2 vs.1.9±2.0; p=0.011). CONCLUSION: One-leg stimulation improved the daily urinary frequency, urgency, and incontinence, and the two-leg stimulation once and twice weekly improved nocturia.

Clinics ; 76: e2981, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286092


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) findings with adenomyosis symptoms. METHODS: This prospective study conducted between January and December 2018 enrolled 78 women aged 18 to 40 years with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), infertility, and/or pelvic pain. All patients underwent 2D and 3D TVUS. Signs of adenomyosis on TVUS were identified according to the consensus of the Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment group. RESULTS: The prevalence of adenomyosis on TVUS was 55.12%. Patients with adenomyosis were older (p=0.002) and had more dysmenorrhea, AUB, and endometriosis than those without adenomyosis. When comparing the presence of symptoms with each adenomyosis feature, on 2D TVUS, severe dyspareunia was significantly associated with the presence of a poorly defined junctional zone (JZ) (p=0.023) and on 3D TVUS, patients with AUB had a more irregular (p=0.003), poorly defined (p=0.028), and interrupted JZ (p=0.011). After logistic regression analysis, signs of adenomyosis on TVUS remained significantly associated only with age over 30 years (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0-1.2) and AUB (OR: 7.65; 95% CI: 2-29). Patients with diffuse adenomyosis were older and presented with more infertility and AUB than patients with focal or no adenomyosis. CONCLUSION: The findings of adenomyosis by 2D and 3D TVUS showed association with age and AUB. 3D TVUS alterations in the JZ were associated with AUB and dyspareunia. Diffuse adenomyosis was associated with older age, a greater prevalence of infertility, and AUB.

Clinics ; 76: e2863, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339707


Melatonin, a hormone released by the pineal gland, demonstrates several effects on the cardiovascular system. Herein, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to verify the effects of melatonin in an experimental model of myocardial infarction. We performed a systematic review according to PRISMA recommendations and reviewed MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Only articles in English were considered. A systematic review of the literature published between November 2008 and June 2019 was performed. The meta-analysis was conducted using the RevMan 5.3 program provided by the Cochrane Collaboration. In total, 858 articles were identified, of which 13 were included in this review. The main results of this study revealed that melatonin benefits the cardiovascular system by reducing infarct size, improving cardiac function according to echocardiographic and hemodynamic analyses, affords antioxidant effects, improves the rate of apoptosis, decreases lactate dehydrogenase activity, enhances biometric analyses, and improves protein levels, as analyzed by western blotting and quantitative PCR. In the meta-analysis, we observed a statistically significant decrease in infarct size (mean difference [MD], -20.37 [-23.56, -17.18]), no statistical difference in systolic pressure (MD, -1.75 [-5.47, 1.97]), a statistically significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase in animals in the melatonin group (MD, -4.61 [-6.83, -2.40]), and a statistically significant improvement in the cardiac ejection fraction (MD, -8.12 [-9.56, -6.69]). On analyzing potential bias, we observed that most studies presented a low risk of bias; two parameters were not included in the analysis, and one parameter had a high risk of bias. Melatonin exerts several effects on the cardiovascular system and could be a useful therapeutic target to combat various cardiovascular diseases.

Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 42(12): 829-833, Dec. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156060


Abstract Thyroid diseases are relatively common in women in the reproductive period. It is currently understood that clinically-evident thyroid disorders may impair ovulation and, consequently, fertility. However, to date it has not been proven that high serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and/or positivity for antithyroid antibodies are associated to a reduction in fertility, mainly in the absence of altered thyroxine levels. The present comprehensive review aims to present current data on the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and/or thyroid autoimmunity and reproductive outcomes.

Resumo As doenças da tireoide são relativamente comuns em mulheres no período reprodutivo. Atualmente, entende-se que distúrbios da tireoide clinicamente evidentes podem prejudicar a ovulação e, consequentemente, a fertilidade. No entanto, não se provou até o presente que níveis séricos altos do hormônio estimulador da tireoide e/ou positividade para anticorpos antitireoidianos estão associados a uma redução na fertilidade, sobretudo na ausência de níveis alterados de tiroxina. Esta revisão narrativa tem como objetivo apresentar dados atuais sobre a associação entre hipotireoidismo subclínico e/ou autoimunidade tireoidiana e resultados reprodutivos.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Hypothyroidism/blood , Prenatal Care , Pregnancy Outcome , Abortion, Spontaneous , Asymptomatic Diseases
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1589-1594, Nov. 2020. graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143649


SUMMARY Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease characterized by muscle weakness, atrophy, fasciculations, and decreased reflexes due to upper and lower motor neurons death. It can be present in both sexes (55-65 years), but with predominance in males. However, in female patients, ALS presents its first symptoms when they are already postmenopausal, when then the incidence ratio of the disease is practically equal between the sexes, which leads to a probable involvement of sex hormones in the development and protection against ALS. The aim of this systematic review, which used the PRISMA consensus and NOS (New Castle-Ottawa Scale) score, was to evaluate the evidence of the action of hormone therapy in women with ALS. The Medline and Cochrane databases were accessed from March 2019 to June 2019, and only full-text articles in Spanish, English, and Portuguese were included. Only four articles matched our inclusion criteria. Postmenopausal women who used exogenous estrogen did not have the same protective factor as women still under the action of endogenous estrogen in the same age group. There was also no increase in the survival of these women.

Humans , Male , Female , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/drug therapy
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(8): 1036-1042, Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136348


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The association between gynecological diagnoses and their distribution across healthcare sectors benefits health promotion and the identification of topics for continued education of gynecological care. This study aimed to identify healthcare diagnoses and referral flow in climacteric women. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the Women's Health Clinic of the University Hospital, University of São Paulo, with a reference to gynecology and training for Residents of Family and Community Medicine, between 2017 and 2018. The medical records of 242 women whose sociodemographic and clinical information, gynecological diagnoses, and distribution of healthcare services (primary, secondary, and tertiary) had been processed were collected. Statistical analysis included the chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS Smoking (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.05-4.89; p = 0.035) was associated with the referral of climacteric women to higher complexity services. Considering the distribution of non-oncological diagnoses in climacteric patients, the chance of women being referred to medium- and high-complexity health services presented a 2-fold increase in cases of breast diseases, a 2.35-fold increase in cases of noninflammatory disorders of the female genital tract, and a 3-fold increase in cases of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs. CONCLUSION Climacteric women aged over 55 years, postmenopausal women, and smoking women were most frequently referred to medium- and high-complexity outpatient surgery.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO A associação entre diagnósticos ginecológicos e sua distribuição nos setores de saúde proporciona benefícios no campo da promoção de saúde e na identificação de temas para educação continuada na assistência. OBJETIVO Identificar os diagnósticos em saúde e o fluxo de encaminhamento de mulheres no climatério. MÉTODO Trata-se de estudo transversal realizado no Ambulatório de Saúde da Mulher do Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo, de referência em ginecologia e de treinamento para residentes de Medicina de Família e Comunidade, entre 2017-2018. A casuística foi realizada a partir de 274 prontuários de mulheres atendidas e foram processados informações sociodemográficas e clínicas, diagnósticos ginecológicos e distribuição dos serviços de saúde (primário, secundário e terciário). O teste qui-quadrado e razão de chance foram utilizados para estatística. RESULTADOS O tabagismo (OR=2,27, IC95% 1,05;4,89, p=0,035) foi associado ao encaminhamento de mulheres no climatério para a maior complexidade. Em relação aos tipos de diagnóstico, a chance de serem encaminhadas para a média e alta complexidade foi de 135% (OR=1,69, IC95% 0,93;3,08) nos transtornos não inflamatórios do trato genital feminino, 200% (OR=0,98, IC95% 0,23;4,02) nas doenças da mama, 300% (OR=1,51, IC95% 0,47;4,83) nos transtornos inflamatórios do trato genital feminino, sem predomínio entre os diagnósticos. CONCLUSÃO As mulheres climatéricas e na pós-menopausa acima de 50 anos e tabagistas com diagnósticos de transtornos não inflamatórios do trato genital feminino e inflamatórios, bem como doenças da mama, foram as mais direcionadas para ambulatório cirúrgico na média e alta complexidade.

Humans , Female , Climacteric , Referral and Consultation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Women's Health
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(3): 353-358, Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136204


SUMMARY Melatonin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties that can influence tissue growth and apoptosis. This aspect may influence the success of organ transplantation. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between melatonin and organ transplantation. METHODS A systematic review was performed in PubMed databases using the search terms: "melatonin physiology" or "melatonin therapy" and "transplant pharmacology" or "transplant physiology" or "transplant therapy" or "Transplant therapy". Experiments on the organs of the reproductive system were not included. After analysis, five articles were selected after reading the title and abstract of 50 manuscripts. The works were divided into two aspects: a) analysis of the influence of the organ transplantation procedure on melatonin production; b) action of melatonin on organ transplantation. RESULTS The cardiac transplantation surgical procedure, immunosuppression, and graft did not influence melatonin secretion in rodents, but there was a significant reduction of melatonin in the renal transplantation procedure in patients with renal insufficiency. Melatonin administration in experimental models decreased rejection and improved transplant success. CONCLUSION Studies show that melatonin can reduce organ and species dependence, and the use of melatonin decreases graft rejection.

RESUMO A melatonina tem propriedades anti-inflamatórias e antioxidantes que podem influenciar o crescimento e a apoptose dos tecidos. Esse aspecto pode influenciar o sucesso do transplante de órgãos. OBJETIVO Avaliar a relação entre a melatonina e o transplante de órgãos. MÉTODO A revisão sistemática foi realizada nas bases de dados do PubMed, usando os termos de pesquisa: "fisiologia da melatonina" ou "terapêutica da melatonina" e "farmacologia do transplante" ou "fisiologia do transplante" ou "terapêutica do transplante" ou "terapia do transplante". Não foram incluídos os experimentos sobre os órgãos do sistema reprodutivo. Após análise, cinco artigos foram selecionados após a leitura do título e do resumo de 50 manuscritos. Os trabalhos foram divididos em duas vertentes: a) análise da influência do procedimento de transplante de órgão na produção de melatonina; b) ação da melatonina sobre o transplante de órgãos. RESULTADOS O procedimento cirúrgico do transplante cardíaco, a imunossupressão e o enxerto não influenciaram a secreção de melatonina em roedores, mas houve redução significante da melatonina nos casos do procedimento de transplante renal em pacientes com insuficiência renal. A ministração de melatonina em modelos experimentais diminuiu a rejeição e melhorou o sucesso de transplante. CONCLUSÃO Os estudos mostram que a melatonina pode reduzir a dependência da espécie e do órgão e que o emprego da melatonina diminui a rejeição do órgão.

Humans , Animals , Rats , Organ Transplantation , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Heart Transplantation , Immunosuppression , Kidney Transplantation , Graft Survival/drug effects , Melatonin/physiology
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 174-179, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136174


SUMMARY INTRODUCTION Although estrogen therapy is widely used against post-menopausal symptoms, it can present adverse effects, including endometrial cancer. Soy isoflavones are considered a possible alternative to estrogen therapy. However, there are still concerns whether isoflavones exert trophic effects on the uterine cervix. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in the uterine cervix of ovariectomized rats treated with soy isoflavones (Iso). METHODS Fifteen adult Wistar rats were ovariectomized (Ovx) and divided into three groups: Group I (Ovx), administered with vehicle solution; Group II (OVX-Iso), administered with concentrated extract of Iso (150 mg/kg) by gavage; and Group III (OVX-E2), treated with 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg), subcutaneously. After 30 days of treatments, the uterine cervix was fixed in 10% formaldehyde and processed for paraffin-embedding. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and eosin for morphological and morphometric studies or subjected to immunohistochemistry for detections of Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). RESULTS We noted an atrophic uterine cervix in GI, whereas it was more voluminous in GII and even more voluminous in GIII. The thickness of the cervical mucosa was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to GI and GII. The cell proliferation (Ki-67) was significantly elevated in the estradiol and isoflavones treated groups, whereas Vegf-A immunoexpression was significantly higher in GIII, as compared to groups GII and GI. CONCLUSIONS Soy isoflavones cause less trophic and proliferative effects in the uterine cervix of rats as compared to estrogen.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO Embora a terapia estrogênica seja amplamente utilizada contra sintomas pós-menopausais, ela pode apresentar efeitos adversos, incluindo câncer de mama e endometrial. Assim, as isoflavonas da soja são consideradas uma alternativa possível à terapia estrogênica. No entanto, ainda há controvérsias se estes compostos exercem efeitos tróficos significativos no colo do útero. OBJETIVOS Avaliar as alterações histomorfométricas e imuno-histoquímicas no colo do útero de ratas ovariectomizadas tratadas com isoflavonas da soja (iso). MÉTODOS Quinze ratas Wistar adultas foram ovariectomizadas bilateralmente (Ovx) e separadas em três grupos: Grupo I (Ovx) - veículo (propilenoglicol); Grupo II (Ovx-Iso) - receberam extrato concentrado de Iso (150 mg/kg) e Grupo III (Ovx-E2) - tratado com 17β-estradiol (10 µg/kg); as soluções foram administradas via gavagem por 30 dias consecutivos. Posteriormente, os colos uterinos foram retirados, fixados em formaldeído a 10% tamponado e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes (4 µm) foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina para estudo morfológico e morfométricos, enquanto outros foram submetidos à imuno-histoquímica para detecção de Ki-67 e do fator de crescimento endotelial vascular-A (Vegf-A). Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística (p≤0,05). RESULTADOS Observamos a presença de colo uterino atrófico no GI (Ovx), sendo este mais volumoso no GII (Ovx+Iso) e ainda mais volumoso no GIII (Ovx+E2). A espessura da mucosa cervical foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GI (Ovx) e ao GII (Ovx-Iso). A proliferação celular (Ki-67) foi significativamente mais elevada nos grupos tratados com estradiol e isoflavonas, enquanto a imunoexpressão de Vegf-A foi significativamente maior no GIII (Ovx-E2), em comparação ao GII (Ovx-Iso) e ao GI (Ovx-E2). CONCLUSÕES As isoflavonas da soja causam menos efeitos tróficos e proliferativos no colo do útero de ratas em comparação ao estrogênio.

Humans , Animals , Cervix Uteri/drug effects , Phytoestrogens/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Ovariectomy , Random Allocation , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Epithelium/drug effects , Mucous Membrane/drug effects
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(2): 201-209, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136173


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of electrosurgery fulguration as a treatment for Bartholin's gland cysts. DESIGN Retrospective study with a comparative control group performed on Hospital Brigadeiro and in the Disciplina de Ginecologia do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo from February 2005 to March 2009. Patients: Patients with Bartholin's gland cyst were divided into three treatment groups: group 1 electrosurgery (n=169 cases); group 2 - gland excision with the conventional technique using a cold scalpel (n = 51 cases); group 3 - marsupialization (n=11 cases). We reviewed the clinical and surgical history, physical examination, description of the surgical technique, postoperative results (success and complications), and follow-up data. RESULTS There is no difference between groups in relation to intraoperative bleeding, hematoma, and complete healing in a single treatment session. However, electrosurgery shows the lower percentage of recurrences 18 (10,7%) compared to the Marsupialization technique (group 3, p=.031). Recurrences occurred in 18 (10,7%), 3 (5,9%), and 4 (36,4%) cases. After retreatment by the same technique, there was a complete cure rate of 90% (152/169) for group 1, and 98% (50/51) for group 2. The cost of group 1 was lower than that of other groups. CONCLUSION The fulguration with electrosurgery of the capsule of Bartholin's cyst is an effective method of treatment, andthe cost of this technique is lower than the conventional technique and marsupialization.

RESUMO OBJETIVO Avaliar a eficácia da fulguração da eletrocirurgia como tratamento para os cistos da glândula de Bartholin. MÉTODOS Estudo retrospectivo, grupo controle comparativo realizado no Hospital Brigadeiro e disciplina de Ginecologia do Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, de fevereiro de 2005 a março de 2009. Pacientes com cisto de glândula de Bartholin foram divididos em três grupos de tratamento: grupo 1 - eletrocirurgia (n = 169 casos); grupo 2 - excisão da glândula com técnica convencional utilizando bisturi frio (n = 51 casos); grupo 3 - marsupialização (n = 11 casos). Revisamos a história clínica e cirúrgica, o exame físico, a descrição da técnica cirúrgica, os resultados pós-operatórios (sucesso e complicações) e os dados de acompanhamento. RESULTADOS Não há diferença entre os grupos em relação ao sangramento intraoperatório, hematoma e cicatrização completa em uma única sessão de tratamento. No entanto, a eletrocirurgia mostrou o percentual mínimo de recidivas, 18 (10,7%), em relação à técnica de marsupialização (grupo 3, p = 0,031). Recorrências ocorreram em 18 (10,7%), três (5,9%) e quatro (36,4%) casos. Após o retratamento pela mesma técnica, houve taxa de cura completa: 90% (152/169) para o grupo 1 e 98% (50/51) para o grupo 2. O custo do grupo 1 foi menor do que os dos outros grupos. CONCLUSÃO A fulguração com eletrocirurgia da cápsula do cisto de Bartholin é um método efetivo de tratamento, mas o custo dessa técnica é menor do que a técnica de convenção e a marsupialização.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bartholin's Glands/surgery , Cysts/surgery , Electrosurgery/methods , Postoperative Complications , Recurrence , Time Factors , Bartholin's Glands/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cysts/pathology , Electrosurgery/adverse effects , Intraoperative Complications , Middle Aged
Clinics ; 75: e1768, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133466


OBJECTIVES: Menopause marks the end of women's reproductive period and can lead to sarcopenia and osteoporosis (OP), increasing the risk of falls and fractures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of normal and low bone mineral density (BMD) on muscular activity, observed through inflammatory edema when mapping using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the quadriceps muscle of postmenopausal women. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 16 older women, who were divided into two groups: osteoporosis group (OG), older women with OP, and control group (CG), older women without OP. The groups were evaluated in terms of nuclear MRI exam before and after carrying out fatigue protocol exercises using an isokinetic dynamometer and squatting exercises. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed that in intragroup comparisons, for both groups, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in the T2 signal of the nuclear MRI in the quadriceps muscle after carrying out exercises using both thighs. In the intergroup comparison, no statistically significant difference was observed between the OG and CG, pre- (p=0.343) and postexercise (p=0.874). CONCLUSION: The acute muscular activation of the quadriceps evaluated by T2 mapping on nuclear MRI equipment is equal in women with and without OP in the postmenopausal phase. BMD did not interfere with muscle response to exercise when muscle fatigue was reached.

Humans , Female , Aged , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Postmenopause , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Absorptiometry, Photon , Bone Density , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Quadriceps Muscle/physiopathology