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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10465, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153508

ABSTRACT

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is related to a higher risk of neonatal mortality, minor cognitive deficit, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In previous studies, genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) genes have been associated with metabolic disease, body mass index, and obesity among other outcomes. We studied the association of selected FTO (rs1421085, rs55682395, rs17817449, rs8043757, rs9926289, and rs9939609) and PPARγ (rs10865710, rs17036263, rs35206526, rs1801282, rs28763894, rs41516544, rs62243567, rs3856806, and rs1805151) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with IUGR, through a case-control study in a cohort of live births that occurred from June 1978 to May 1979 in a Brazilian city. We selected 280 IUGR cases and 256 controls for analysis. Logistic regression was used to jointly analyze the SNPs as well as factors such as maternal smoking, age, and schooling. We found that the PPARγ rs41516544 increased the risk of IUGR for male offspring (OR 27.83, 95%CI 3.65-212.32) as well as for female offspring (OR=8.94, 95%CI: 1.96-40.88). The FTO rs9939609 TA genotype resulted in a reduced susceptibility to IUGR for male offspring only (OR=0.47, 95%CI: 0.26-0.86). In conclusion, we demonstrated that PPARγ SNP had a positive effect and FTO SNP had a negative effect on IUGR occurrence, and these effects were gender-specific.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , PPAR gamma/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Fetal Growth Retardation/genetics , Genotype
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10120, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153505

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate and compare racial inequality in low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in two Brazilian birth cohorts. This was a cross-sectional study nested within two birth cohorts in Ribeirão Preto (RP) and São Luís (SL), whose mothers were interviewed from January to December 2010. In all, 7430 (RP) and 4995 (SL) mothers were interviewed. The maternal skin color was the exposure variable. Associations were adjusted for socioeconomic and biological covariates: maternal education, per capita family income, family economic classification, household head occupation, maternal age, parity, marital status, prenatal care, type of delivery, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, hypertension, hypertension during pregnancy, and smoking during pregnancy collected from questionnaires applied at birth. Statistical analysis was done with the chi-squared test and logistic regression. In RP, newborns from mothers with black skin color had a higher risk of LBW and IUGR, even after adjusting for socioeconomic and biological variables (P<0.001). In SL, skin color was not a risk factor for LBW (P=0.859), PTB (P=0.220), and IUGR (P=0.062), before or after adjustment for socioeconomic and biological variables. The detection of racial inequality in these perinatal outcomes only in the RP cohort after adjustment for socioeconomic and biological factors may be reflecting the existence of racial discrimination in the RP society. In contrast, the greater miscegenation present in São Luís may be reflecting less racial discrimination of black and brown women in this city.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Socioeconomic Factors , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Continental Population Groups , Premature Birth/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Brazil/epidemiology , Cesarean Section , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10162, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153504

ABSTRACT

It is still unknown whether excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be linked to gestational hypertensive disorders, other than preeclampsia. This study investigated the association between soft drink consumption and hypertension during pregnancy, analyzing the relationship from the perspective of counterfactual causal theory. Data from pregnant women of the BRISA cohort were analyzed (1,380 in São Luis and 1,370 in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil). The explanatory variable was the frequency of soft drink consumption during pregnancy obtained in a prenatal interview. The outcome was gestational hypertension based on medical diagnosis, at the time of delivery. A theoretical model of the association between soft drink consumption and gestational hypertension was constructed using a directed acyclic graph. Marginal structural models (MSM) weighted by the inverse of the probability of soft drink consumption were also employed. Using Poisson regression analysis, high soft drink consumption (≥7 times/week) was associated with gestational hypertension in São Luís (RR=1.48; 95%CI: 1.03-2.10), in Ribeirão Preto (RR=1.51; 95%CI: 1.13-2.01), and in the two cohorts combined (RR=1.45; 95%CI: 1.16-1.82) compared to lower exposure (<7 times/week). In the MSM, the association between high soft drink consumption and gestational hypertension was observed in Ribeirão Preto (RR=1.63; 95%CI: 1.21-2.19) and in the two cohorts combined (RR=1.51; 95%CI: 1.15-1.97), but not in São Luís (RR=1.26; 95%CI: 0.79-2.00). High soft drink consumption seems to be a risk factor for gestational hypertension, suggesting that it should be discouraged during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/etiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10235, 2021. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142572

ABSTRACT

A prospective cohort study was conducted on a convenience sample of 1370 pregnant women with a gestational age of 20 to 25 weeks in the city of Ribeirão Preto. Data on obstetrical history, maternal age, parity, smoking habit, and a history of preterm delivery was collected with the application of a sociodemographic questionnaire. Cervical length was determined by endovaginal ultrasound, and urine and vaginal content samples were obtained to determine urinary tract infection (UTI) and bacterial vaginosis (BV), respectively. The aim of this study was to verify the association of cervical length and genitourinary infections with preterm birth (PTB). Ultrasound showed no association of UTI or BV with short cervical length. PTB rate was 9.63%. Among the women with PTB, 15 showed UTI (RR: 1.55, 95%CI: 0.93-2.58), 19 had BV (RR: 1.22, 95%CI: 0.77-1.94), and one had both UTI and BV (RR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.13-5.62). Nineteen (14.4%) PTB occurred in women with a cervical length ≤2.5 cm (RR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.89-4.43). Among the 75 patients with PTB stratified as spontaneous, 10 showed UTI (RR: 2.02, 95%CI: 1.05-3.86) and 14 had a diagnosis of BV (RR: 1.72, 95%CI: 0.97-3.04). A short cervical length between 20 and 25 weeks of pregnancy was associated with PTB, whereas UTI and BV determined at this age were not associated with short cervical length or with PTB, although UTI, even if asymptomatic, was related to spontaneous PTB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Cervix Uteri/anatomy & histology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Female Urogenital Diseases/microbiology , Vagina/microbiology , Brazil , Cervix Uteri/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Gestational Age
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e9991, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142571

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to evaluate the validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) used in the RPS Birth Cohort Consortium (Ribeirão Preto, Pelotas, and São Luís) to assess dietary intake of adolescents from São Luís, Maranhão. The research was developed with 152 adolescents aged 18 and 19 years. For the validation of the FFQ, the average of three 24-hour recalls (24HRs) was used as the reference method. The mean and standard deviation of energy and nutrient intake extracted from the surveys were estimated. The paired Student's t-test was used to verify the differences between the instruments. Pearson correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), weighted Kappa, and the Bland-Altman plot were calculated in order to measure the agreement. The study adopted a level of significance <5%. Compared with the three 24HRs, the FFQ overestimated the consumption of most nutrients. Energy-adjusted and de-attenuated concordance Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0.06 to 0.43, and correlations were significant for iron, calcium, riboflavin, sodium, saturated fat, niacin, and vitamin C. The energy-adjusted and de-attenuated ICCs ranged from 0.01 to 0.31, and the weighted Kappa ranged from 0.01 to 0.46. The analyses of agreement were significant for vitamin C, fiber, calcium, riboflavin, niacin, sodium, lipids, and iron. In conclusion, the FFQ presented acceptable relative validity for lipids, saturated fatty acids, fiber, calcium, iron, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, and sodium. This instrument will be useful in studies about food consumption of adolescents in São Luís, Maranhão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Energy Intake , Surveys and Questionnaires , Diet , Brazil , Diet Records , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10161, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142567

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to describe the timing of the first dental visit and investigate the association of socioeconomic and behavioral factors with dental visit delay among 10/11-year-old children from two live-birth population cohorts with extremely contrasting socioeconomic profiles. Follow-up data (2004-2005) from cohorts of Ribeirão Preto (RP) (n=790) and São Luís (SL) (n=673) were evaluated. Delay in dental visit was defined as not visiting a dentist before the age of 7. Covariates included family socioeconomic characteristics, mother-related health behavior, and child-related characteristics. Prevalence ratios with robust standard errors were estimated. In both cohorts, less than 5% of children had visited a dentist before the age of two and about 35% of them had not visited a dentist before the age of seven. Lower mother's schooling and lack of private health insurance were associated with the delay in first dental visit for both cohorts. A small number of mother's prenatal care visits and being from a single-father family or a family without parents were only associated in the RP cohort, while having ≥4 siblings and lifetime dental pain were associated in the SL cohort. The association with dental pain probably reveals a preventive care-seeking behavior. Therefore, the percentage of delayed first dental visit of children was very high even among those with the most educated mothers. Further studies are necessary to analyze recent changes and underlying factors related to access to first dental visit after the implementation of the National Oral Health Policy in 2006.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Socioeconomic Factors , Dental Care for Children/trends , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cohort Studies , Educational Status
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10080, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142566

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the association between maternal psychological distress and impairment in mother-child relationship in a sample from a Northeast capital city in Brazil with a low Human Development Index, using directed acyclic graphs (DAG). A total of 3,215 women were evaluated for the presence of psychological distress through the Self Reporting Questionnaire instrument and for the mother-child relationship by the first factor of Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire, considered the most appropriate in the literature. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were used to construct a theoretical model and, after this, multivariate logistic regression was performed using variables suggested by Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG). Psychological distress was present in 22.7% of the women and 12.6% of them presented impaired mother-child relationships. After adjustment, the variable 'maternal mental distress' remained associated with impaired mother-child relationship (RR=3.03), and among the explanatory variables only 'primary school level' (RR=1.48) was associated as a risk factor to this outcome. The results indicated that, in this population, women with psychological distress and lower schooling are more likely to present impaired mother-child relationships.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Psychological Distress , Mother-Child Relations , Object Attachment , Brazil/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): 10252-0, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142565

ABSTRACT

Fetuses exposed to alcohol and/or tobacco are at risk for perinatal adversities. However, little is currently known about the association of the separate or concomitant use of alcohol and tobacco with infant motor and cognitive development. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal consumption of alcohol and/or tobacco during pregnancy and the motor and cognitive development of children starting from the second year of life. The study included 1006 children of a cohort started during the prenatal period (22-25 weeks of pregnancy), evaluated at birth and reevaluated during the second year of life in 2011/2013. The children were divided into four groups according to the alcohol and/or tobacco consumption reported by their mothers at childbirth: no consumption (NC), separate alcohol consumption (AC), separate tobacco consumption (TC), and concomitant use of both (ACTC). The Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition screening tool was used for the assessment of motor and cognitive development. Adjusted Poisson regression models were used to determine the association between groups and delayed development. The results indicated that only the ACTC group showed a higher risk of motor delay, specifically regarding fine motor skills, compared to the NC group (RR=2.81; 95%CI: 1.65; 4.77). Separate alcohol or tobacco consumption was not associated with delayed gross motor or cognitive development. However, the concomitant use of the two substances increased the risk of delayed acquisition of fine motor skills.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Child Development , Tobacco Use , Cohort Studies
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10118, 2021. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132562

ABSTRACT

Gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia are important causes of perinatal morbidity. The objective of the present study was to determine the increase in relative risk for developing hypertensive disorders of pregnancy based on the evaluation of pregnant women between 20 and 25 weeks of gestation, and to correlate the findings at this period with the outcome of pregnancy. We conducted a prospective cohort study, with a convenience sample of 1417 patients evaluated at this gestational age, of which 1306 were contacted at childbirth. We detected an increased relative risk of 2.69 (95%CI: 1.86 to 3.89) associated with pulsatility index of the uterine arteries, a 2.8 increase (95%CI: 1.58 to 5.03) in relative risk attributed to maternal age above 35 years, a 1.68 increase (95%CI: 1.17 to 2.40) attributed to parity greater than or equal to 3, and a 5.35 increase (95%CI: 4.18 to 6.85) attributed to chronic hypertension and obesity, with a progressive increase in relative risk according to the degree of overweight, i.e., grades 1, 2, 3, and morbid obesity (2.58, 3.06, 5.84, and 7.28, respectively).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Pre-Eclampsia/etiology , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Uterus/physiopathology , Vascular Resistance , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/etiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Parity , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Gestational Age
10.
Med. infant ; 26(1): 19-26, Marzo 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-994720

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para predecir una infección en estadios tempranos en niños con cáncer se han evaluado marcadores como ESD, PCR y PCT. Objetivo: evaluar la precisión diagnóstica para bacteriemia de estos marcadores al ingreso en niños con fiebre y leucemia aguda (LA) o linfoma (L) internados entre 2013-2016. Métodos: estudio analítico retrospectivo. Revisión de historias clínicas. Se calcularon sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo y área bajo la curva ROC para cada marcador en MedCalc® V16.8.4. Se obtuvo autorización del Comité de Ética. Resultados:en total se internaron 31 niños con diagnóstico de LA y L, 19 presentaron fiebre y 12 no. Hubo 40 episodios de fiebre clasificados en 4 grupos: bacteriemia 14 (35%), infección documentada microbiológicamente 5 (12.5%), infección documentada clínicamente 2 (5%) y fiebre de origen desconocido 19 (47.5%). Los niveles de PCT fueron mayores en el grupo de bacteriemia registrando un valor promedio de 1,17ng/ mL (p: 0.045). El área bajo la curva ROC entre el grupo con y sin bacteriemia fue de 0.50 para ESD, 0.65 para PCR y 0.83 para PCT con S de 77.78%, E de 66.67%, VPP de 50% y VPN de 92.86%. Discusión: la PCT mostró ser el más eficaz que ESD y PCR para predecir bacteriemia. se deben realizar investigaciones con biomarcadores con el objeto de disminuir el uso inadecuado de antibióticos en pacientes con fiebre secundaria a enfermedad y acortar los tiempos de tratamiento en pacientes con infecciones adecuadamente resueltas mejorando ampliamente la calidad de vida en niños con cáncer (AU)


Introduction: To predict infection in early stages in children with cancer, markers such as ESR, CRP, and PCT have been evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic precision for bacteremia of these markers on admission of children with fever and acute leukemia (AL) or lymphoma (L) admitted between 2013- 2016. Methods: A retrospective analytical study. Review of the clinical records. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the ROC curve were calculated for each marker in MedCalc® V16.8.4. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee. Results: Overall, 31 children with AL and L were admitted, 19 of whom presented with fever and 12 did not. There were 40 episodes of fever classified into 4 groups: bacteremia 14 (35%), microbiologically documented infection 5 (12.5%), clinically documented infection 2 (5%), and fever of unknown etiology 19 (47.5%). PCT levels were higher in the group with bacteremia with a mean value of 1.17ng/mL (p:0.045). The area under the ROC curve between the groups with and without bacteremia was 0.50 for ESR, 0.65 for CRP, and 0.83 for PCT with a sensitivity of 77.78%, specificity of 66.67%, PPV of 50%, and NPV of 92.86%. Discussion: PCT showed a greater efficacy than ESD and CRP to predict bacteremia. Research on biomarkers should be conducted to reduce the inadequate use of antibiotics in patients with fever secondary to disease and to shorten treatment times in patients with adequately resolved infections, thereby improving quality of life in children with cancer (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Blood Sedimentation , Leukemia/complications , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Fever/complications , Lymphoma/complications , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Bacteremia/microbiology
11.
European J Med Plants ; 2014 Oct; 4(10): 1186-1199
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164187

ABSTRACT

Aim: Rubiaceae is one of the largest families of plants and it includes the Jamaican genus Portlandia. This family has been used in several ethnomedicinal practices. Thus, in this study we investigated whether extracts of two species of Portlandia affect In vitro proliferation of breast cancer cells. Study Design: Metastatic (MDA-MB-231 and HeLa) cells were incubated in the absence or in the presence of Portlandia extracts. A human non-metastatic (MCF-10A) and normal (ATCC PCS-600-010) epithelial cell lines were used as control. Methodology: At the end of the study all cell lines were incubated with Portlandia extracts (-and its subfractions-) and then analyzed on proliferation, thymidine incorporation and mitogenic and survival signaling pathways on metastatic and non-metastatic cells. Results: It was found that Portlandia methanol extract inhibited proliferation of MDA-MB- 231 in a dose-dependent manner attenuating the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 without affecting the proliferation of MCF-10A cells. [3H] thymidine incorporation was also decreased by Portlandia methanol extract. This study suggests that Portlandia extracts selectively affected the proliferation of metastatic breast cancer cells through the modulation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 activities that play a critical role during cell survival and proliferation. Conclusion: Portlandia leaf extracts contain active compounds, which strongly repress cancer cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and selectively down-regulate phosphorylation of both Erk1/2 and Akt1 activities.

12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1187-1194, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460892

ABSTRACT

Few studies are available about racial inequalities in perinatal health in Brazil and little is known about whether the existing inequality is due to socioeconomic factors or to racial discrimination per se. Data regarding the Ribeirão Preto birth cohort, Brazil, whose mothers were interviewed from June 1, 1978 to May 31, 1979 were used to answer these questions. The perinatal factors were obtained from the birth questionnaire and the ethnic data were obtained from 2063 participants asked about self-reported skin color at early adulthood (23-25 years of age) in 2002/2004. Mothers of mulatto and black children had higher rates of low schooling (ú4 years, 27.2 and 38.0 percent) and lower family income (ú1 minimum wage, 28.6 and 30.4 percent). Mothers aged less than 20 years old predominated among mulattos (17.0 percent) and blacks (14.0 percent). Higher rates of low birth weight and smoking during pregnancy were observed among mulatto individuals (9.6 and 28.8 percent). Preterm birth rate was higher among mulattos (9.5 percent) and blacks (9.7 percent) than whites (5.5 percent). White individuals had higher rates of cesarean delivery (34.9 percent). Skin color remained as an independent risk factor for low birth weight (P < 0.001), preterm birth (P = 0.01), small for gestational age (P = 0.01), and lack of prenatal care (P = 0.02) after adjustment for family income and maternal schooling, suggesting that the racial inequalities regarding these indicators are explained by the socioeconomic disadvantage experienced by mulattos and blacks but are also influenced by other factors, possibly by racial discrimination and/or genetics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Continental Population Groups , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Social Justice , Birth Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Brazil/ethnology , Cohort Studies , Gestational Age , Interviews as Topic , Parity , Socioeconomic Factors
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1211-1220, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460893

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to investigate factors associated with cesarean sections in two cities located in different regions of Brazil and to determine factors that explain the higher cesarean section rate in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto, compared to the less developed one, São Luís. Data from two cohort studies comprising 2846 women in Ribeirão Preto in 1994, and 2443 women in São Luís in 1997/1998 were used. Adjusted and non-adjusted risk estimates were calculated using a Poisson regression model. The cesarean section rate was 33.7 percent in São Luís and 50.8 percent in Ribeirão Preto. Adjusted analysis in a joint sequential model revealed a 51 percent higher risk of cesarean section in Ribeirão Preto compared to São Luís (prevalence rate ratio (PRR) = 1.51). Adjustment for category of hospital admission reduced the PRR to 1.09, i.e., this variable explained 82 percent of the difference in the cesarean section rate between the two cities. Adjustment for the variable "the same physician for prenatal care and delivery" reduced the PRR to 1.07, with the "physician" factor explaining 86 percent of the difference between rates. When simultaneously adjusted for the two variables, the PRR decreased to 1.05, with these two variables explaining 90 percent of the difference in the cesarean section rate between the two cities, and the difference was no longer significant. The difference in the cesarean section rate between the two Brazilian cities, one more and one less developed, was mainly explained by the physician factor and, to a lesser extent, by the category of hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1237-1243, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460894

ABSTRACT

Obesity is one of the rising public health problems characterized as a risk factor for many chronic diseases in adulthood. Early life events such as intrauterine growth restriction, as well as life style, are associated with an increased prevalence of this disease. The present study was performed to determine if intrauterine growth restriction interacts with overweight at primary school age to affect body mass index (BMI) in young adults. From June 1, 1978 to May 31, 1979, 6827 singleton liveborns from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, corresponding to 98 percent of all births at the 8 maternity hospitals, were examined and their mothers were interviewed. Samples from the initial cohort were examined again at primary school age (8 to 11 years of age) and at the time of military service (18 years of age). There were 519 male individuals with complete measurements taken in the three surveys. Intrauterine growth-restricted individuals had a BMI 0.68 kg/m² lower than that of individuals who were not restricted (95 percentCI = -1.34 to -0.03) and overweight at primary school age showed a positive and strong effect on BMI at 18 years of age (coefficient 5.03, 95 percentCI = 4.27 to 5.79). However, the increase in BMI was much higher - 6.90 kg/m² - when the conscript had been born with intrauterine growth restriction and presented overweight at primary school age (95 percentCI = 4.55 to 9.26). These findings indicate that the effect of intrauterine growth restrictionon BMI at 18 years of age is modified by later weight gain during school age.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Body Mass Index , Fetal Growth Retardation , Overweight/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Overweight/etiology , Risk Factors
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1231-1236, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460895

ABSTRACT

The association between early life factors and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood has been demonstrated in developed countries. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of early life factors (birth weight, gestational age, maternal smoking, and social class) on BMI in young adulthood with adjustment for adult socioeconomic position. A cohort study was carried out in 1978/79 with 6827 mother-child pairs from Ribeirão Preto city, located in the most developed economic area of the country. Biological, economic and social variables and newborn anthropometric measurements were obtained shortly after delivery. In 1996, 1189 males from this cohort, 34.3 percent of the original male population, were submitted to anthropometric measurements and were asked about their current schooling on the occasion of army recruitment. A multiple linear regression model was applied to determine variables associated with BMI. Mean BMI was 22.7 (95 percentCI = 22.5-23.0). After adjustment, BMI was 1.22 kg/m² higher among infants born with high birth weight (³4000 g), 1.21 kg/m² higher among individuals of low social class at birth and 0.69 kg/m² higher among individuals whose mothers smoked during pregnancy (P < 0.05). The association between social class at birth and BMI remained statistically significant (P < 0.05) even after adjustment for adult schooling. These findings suggest that early life social influences on BMI were more important and were not reversed by late socioeconomic position. Therefore, prevention of overweight and obesity should focus not only on changes in adult life styles but also on factors such as high birth weight.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Body Mass Index , Birth Weight , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Gestational Age , Life Style , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Social Class , Smoking/adverse effects
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1203-1210, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460896

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Ribeirão Preto, a rich Brazilian city, was significantly higher (21.4 percent) than in São Luís (5.9 percent), a less developed city. To assess which variables explain the difference in prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, data from two birth cohorts were used, including 2846 puerperae from Ribeirão Preto, in 1994, and 2443 puerperae from São Luís, in 1997/98. In multivariable analysis, risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy was higher in São Luís for mothers living in a household with five or more persons (OR = 1.72, 95 percentCI = 1.12-2.64), aged 35 years or older (OR = 1.98, 95 percentCI = 0.99-3.96), who had five or more children (OR = 2.10, 95 percentCI = 1.16-3.81), and whose companion smoked (OR = 2.20, 95 percentCI = 1.52-3.18). Age of less than 20 years was a protective factor (OR = 0.55, 95 percentCI = 0.33-0.92). In Ribeirão Preto there was association with maternal low educational level (OR = 2.18, 95 percentCI = 1.30-3.65) and with a smoking companion (OR = 3.25, 95 percentCI = 2.52-4.18). Receiving prenatal care was a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95 percentCI = 0.11-0.49). Mothers from Ribeirão Preto who worked outside the home were at a higher risk and those aged 35 years or older or who attended five or more prenatal care visits were at lower risk of smoking during pregnancy as compared to mothers from São Luís. Smoking by the companion reduced the difference between smoking rates in the two cities by 10 percent. The socioeconomic variables in the model did not explain the higher prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in the more developed city.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Smoking/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cities/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1177-1186, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460897

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to estimate and compare social inequality in terms of three indicators, i.e., low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and small for gestational age (SGA) birth, in three birth cohorts. Two cohorts were from the city of Ribeirão Preto, where data were collected for all 6748 live born singletons in 1978/79 and for one third of live born singletons (2846) in 1994. The third cohort consisted of 2443 singletons born in São Luís over a period of one year (1997/98). In Ribeirão Preto, LBW and PTB rates increased in all social strata from 1978/79 to 1994. Social inequalities regarding LBW and PTB disappeared since the increase in these rates was more accelerated in the groups with higher educational level. The percentage of SGA infants increased over the study period. Social inequality regarding SGA birth increased due to a more intense increase in SGA births in the strata with lower schooling. In São Luís, in 1997/98 there was no social inequality in LBW or PTB rates, whereas SGA birth rate was higher in mothers with less schooling. We speculate that the more accelerated increase in medical intervention, especially due to the increase in cesarean sections in the more privileged groups, could be the main factor explaining the unexpected increase in LBW and PTB rates in Ribeirão Preto and the decrease or disappearance of social inequality regarding these perinatal indicators in the two cities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Health Status Indicators , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Educational Status , Risk
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1257-1266, Sept. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460898

ABSTRACT

There is evidence showing a close relationship between diet and the occurrence of non-communicable chronic diseases. The present study assessed food consumption in a 2002/2004 cohort of young adults born in 1978/79 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The composition of the habitual diet consumed by a sample of 2063 individuals aged 23-25 years was analyzed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire based on studies of prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases. The Dietsys software was used for dietary calculations. In terms of WHO/2003 recommendations, there was a high mean daily consumption of energy from fat (consumption: 35.4 percent; recommendation: 15-30 percent), a low mean intake of energy from carbohydrates (47.5 percent; 55-75 percent) and a low mean consumption of total fibers (15.2 g; >25 g). Mean intake of energy from fatty acids (10 percent; <10 percent) and protein (15.6 percent; 10-15 percent) was within recommended limits. When compared to the recommendations of the food pyramid adapted to the Brazilian population, adequate intake was observed only regarding the meat group (consumption: 1.9 portions; recommended: 1-2). There was a low consumption of vegetables (2.9; 4-5), fruits (1.2; 3-5), breads (3.6; 6-9), and dairy products (1.7; 3), with excessive fat and sugar intake (5.7; 1-2). We conclude that the inadequate food consumption observed in this young population may be associated with the development of excess weight and may contribute to the triggering of non-communicable chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Chronic Disease , Diet Surveys , Feeding Behavior , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Energy Intake , Nutrition Policy , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1165-1176, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460900

ABSTRACT

We describe three birth cohort studies, respectively carried out in 1978/79 and 1994 in Ribeirão Preto, a city located in the most developed region of Brazil, and in 1997/98 in São Luís, a city located in a less developed region. The objective of the present report was to describe the methods used in these three studies, presenting their history, methodological design, objectives, developments, and difficulties faced along 28 years of research. The first Ribeirão Preto study, initially perinatal, later encompassed questions regarding the repercussions of intrauterine development on future growth and chronic adult diseases. The subjects were evaluated at birth (N = 6827), at school age (N = 2861), at the time of recruitment for military service (N = 2048), and at 23/25 years of age (N = 2063). The study of the second cohort, which started in 1994 (N = 2846), permitted comparison of aspects of perinatal health between the two groups in the same region, such as birth weight, mortality and health care use. In 1997/98, a new birth cohort study was started in São Luís (N = 2443), capital of the State of Maranhão. The 1994 Ribeirão Preto cohort and the São Luís cohort are in the second phase of joint follow-up. These studies permit comparative temporal analyses in the same place (Ribeirão Preto 1978/79 and 1994) and comparisons of two contrasting populations regarding cultural, economic and sociodemographic conditions (Ribeirão Preto and São Luís).


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Brazil , Cultural Characteristics , Socioeconomic Factors
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1195-1202, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460901

ABSTRACT

Data for two birth cohorts from two Brazilian municipalities, Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and São Luís in 1997/1998, were used to identify and compare factors associated with inadequate utilization of prenatal care and to identify factors capable of explaining the differences observed between the two cities. Prenatal care was defined as adequate or inadequate according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used to compare differences in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization. The percentage of inadequacy was higher in São Luís (34.6 percent) than in Ribeirão Preto (16.9 percent). Practically the same variables were associated with inadequacy in both cities. Puerperae with lower educational level, without a companion or cohabiting, who delivered in public health units, younger than 20 years, multiparae and smokers, with low family income presented higher percentages of inadequate prenatal care utilization. However, the effects of some variables differed between the two cities. The risk for inadequate use of prenatal care was higher for women attended in the public health sector in São Luís and for cohabiting women in Ribeirão Preto. The effect of the remaining factors studied did not differ between cities. The category of admission accounted for 57.0 percent of the difference in the inadequate use of prenatal care between cities and marital status accounted for 45.3 percent of the difference. Even after adjustment for all variables, part of the difference in the inadequacy of prenatal care utilization remained unexplained.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Cohort Studies , Prenatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
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