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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 352-360, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1248941


In this study, the toxic effects of melittin on Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cells (MDBK) were analyzed with respect to mitochondrial functionality by reduction of MTT and flow cytometry, apoptosis potential, necrosis, oxygen reactive species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and DNA fragmentation using flow cytometry and cell membrane destabilization by confocal microscopy. The toxicity presented dose-dependent characteristics and mitochondrial activity was inhibited by up to 78.24 ±3.59% (P<0.01, n = 6) in MDBK cells exposed to melittin (10µg/mL). Flow cytometry analysis revealed that melittin at 2µg/mL had the highest necrosis rate (P<0.05) for the cells. The lipoperoxidation of the membranes was also higher at 2µg/mL of melittin (P<0.05), which was further confirmed by the microphotographs obtained by confocal microscopy. The highest ROS production occurred when the cells were exposed to 2.5µg/mL melittin (P<0.05), and this concentration also increased DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). There was a significative and positive correlation between the lipoperoxidation of membranes with ROS (R=0.4158), mitochondrial functionality (R=0.4149), and apoptosis (R=0.4978). Thus, the oxidative stress generated by melittin culminates in the elevation of intracellular ROS that initiates a cascade of toxic events in MDBK cells.(AU)

Neste estudo, os efeitos tóxicos da melitina em células Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) foram analisados quanto à funcionalidade mitocondrial, por redução de MTT e citometria de fluxo, potencial de apoptose, necrose, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS), peroxidação lipídica e fragmentação de DNA, utilizando-se citometria de fluxo e desestabilização da membrana celular, por microscopia confocal. A toxicidade apresentou características dose-dependentes e a atividade mitocondrial foi inibida até 78,24±3,59% (P<0,01, n = 6) em células MDBK expostas à melitina (10µg/mL). Análises por citometria de fluxo revelaram que a melitina a 2µg/mL apresentou o maior índice necrótico celular (P<0,05). A maior lipoperoxidação de membranas também foi na concentração de 2µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), o que foi posteriormente confirmado por microscopia confocal. A maior produção de ROS aconteceu quando as células foram expostas a 2,5µg/mL de melitina (P<0,05), e essa concentração também aumentou a fragmentação de DNA (P<0,05). Houve uma significativa correlação positiva entre a lipoperoxidação de membranas e a produção de ROS (R=0,4158), funcionalidade mitocondrial (R=0,4149) e apoptose (R=0,4978). Portanto, o estresse oxidativo gerado pela melitina culminou na elevação de ROS intracelular, que inicia uma cascata de eventos tóxicos nas células MDBK.(AU)

Reactive Oxygen Species/adverse effects , Apoptosis , Cytotoxins/analysis , Melitten/analysis , Bee Venoms/analysis , Microscopy, Confocal , Flow Cytometry
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2193-2200, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142305


Among the immune system cells, macrophages have an important role. Apamin, a bee venom constituent, is important in the defense of these insects. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the metabolism of J774 1.6 macrophage cell line when exposed to isolated and purified apamin, using cytotoxicity tests by MTT reduction and analysis by flow cytometry (apoptosis / necrosis, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), membranous lipoperoxidation (LPO), electrical potential of the mitochondrial membrane (mMP) and DNA fragmentation). None of the tested concentrations (10 to 100µg/mL) were cytotoxic according to MTT reductions. Apoptosis rates decreased at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0µg/mL (P<0.05), while necrosis rates increased (P<0.05). However, rates of healthy cells at the highest tested concentration (10µg/mL) did not differ from control (P>0.05). Apamin did not alter ROS, LPO, or DNA fragmentation. Therefore, all analyzed concentrations (1.25 to 10µg/mL) decreased mMP. Such decrease in apoptosis might be due to a suppression of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic messengers, as this peptide causes no oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Highly sensitive techniques are majorly important for proper interpretation of cellular toxicity mechanisms, combined with routine laboratory methods.(AU)

Das células do sistema imunológico, macrófagos desempenham um papel fundamental. Apamina, constituinte do veneno de abelhas, é importante na defesa destas. Objetivou-se avaliar o metabolismo da linhagem de macrófagos J774 1.6 expostos à apamina isolada e purificada, avaliando-se citotoxicidade por redução de MTT e análise por citometria de fluxo (apoptose / necrose, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EROs), lipoperoxidação membranosa (LPO), potencial elétrico da membrana mitocondrial (MMP) e fragmentação do DNA). Nenhuma concentração testada (10 a 100µg / mL) foi citotóxica. As taxas de apoptose diminuíram nas concentrações 2,5, 5,0 e 10,0µg / mL (P<0,05), enquanto as de necrose aumentaram (P<0,05). Entretanto, as taxas de células saudáveis na maior concentração testada (10µg / mL) não diferiram do controle (P>0,05). A apamina não alterou as ERO, a LPO nem a fragmentação do DNA. Portanto, todas as concentrações analisadas (1,25 a 10µg / mL) diminuíram a mMP. Tal diminuição na apoptose pode ser por uma supressão de mensageiros pró-apoptóticos mitocondriais, já que este peptídeo não causa estresse oxidativo, peroxidação lipídica nem dano ao DNA. Técnicas altamente sensíveis são importantes para adequada interpretação dos mecanismos de citotoxicidade.(AU)

Apamin/toxicity , Cytotoxins/antagonists & inhibitors , Macrophages/metabolism , Mitochondria , Reactive Oxygen Species , Flow Cytometry
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(3): 391-399, Mar. 2007. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-441761


Chagas' disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of cardiovascular disability in countries where it is endemic. Damage to the heart microvasculature has been proposed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of heart dysfunction. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor and exerts its effects via specific ET A and ET B receptors. A few studies have suggested a role for ET-1 and its receptors in the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease. We investigated the effects of treatment with bosentan, an ET A/ET B receptor antagonist, on the course of T. cruzi infection (Y strain) in C57Bl/6 mice. Treatment with bosentan (100 mg kg-1 day-1) was given per os starting day 0 after infection until sacrifice. Bosentan significantly increased myocardial inflammation, with no effects on parasitemia. Although the total number of nests was similar, a lower number of intact amastigote nests was found in the heart of bosentan-treated animals. Bosentan failed to affect the infection-associated increase in the cardiac levels of the cytokines IFN-g and TNF-a and the chemokines CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1a and CCL5/RANTES. In vitro, pre-incubation with ET-1 (0.1 æM) 4 h before infection enhanced the uptake of the parasites by peritoneal macrophages, and this effect was abrogated when macrophages were pre-treated with bosentan (1 æM) 15 min before incubation with ET-1. However, ET-1 did not alter killing of intracellular parasites after 48 h of in vitro infection. Our data suggest that bosentan-treated mice have a delay in controlling parasitism which is compensated for exacerbated inflammation. Infection is eventually controlled in these animals and lethality is unchanged, demonstrating that ET-1 plays a minor role in the protection against acute murine T. cruzi infection.

Animals , Male , Mice , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/metabolism , Endothelin-1/physiology , Parasitemia/metabolism , Receptors, Endothelin/antagonists & inhibitors , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Acute Disease , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/parasitology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/pathology , Cytokines/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Parasitemia/immunology , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolation & purification