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Int. braz. j. urol ; 48(2): 294-302, March-Apr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364942


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare enhancement patterns of typical adrenal adenomas, lipid-poor adenomas, and non-adenomas on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Evaluation of adrenal nodules larger than 1.0 cm, with at least 2-year follow-up, evaluated on MRI in January 2007 and December 2016. Two different protocols were included - upper abdomen MRI (delayed phase after 3 minutes) and abdomen and pelvis MRI (delayed phase after 7 minutes) - and nodules were divided in typical adenomas (characterized on out-of-phase MRI sequence), lipid-poor adenomas (based on follow-up imaging stability) and non-adenomas (based on pathological finding or follow-up imaging). T2-weighted and enhancement features were analyzed (absolute and relative washout and enhancement curve pattern), similarly to classic computed tomography equations. Results: Final cohort was composed of 123 nodules in 116 patients (mean diameter of 1.8 cm and mean follow up time of 4 years and 3 months). Of them, 98 (79%) nodules had features of typical adenomas by quantitative chemical shift imaging, and demonstrated type 3 curve pattern in 77%, mean absolute and relative washout of 29% and 16%, respectively. Size, oncologic history and T2-weighted features showed statistically significant differences among groups. Also, a threshold greater than 11.75% for absolute washout on MRI achieved sensitivity of 71.4% and specificity of 70.0%, in differentiating typical adenomas from non-adenomas. Conclusion: Calculating absolute washout of adrenal nodules on MRI may help identifying proportion of non-adenomas.

Humans , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/pathology , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6599, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375335


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the predictive value of positron emission computed tomography or magnetic resonance (PET-CT and PET-MRI) using gallium-68-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (68Ga-PSMA) in lymph node involvement in prostate cancer. Methods A retrospective study comprising 91 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2016 to 2020, who underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT or PET-MRI for staging before prostatectomy. The patients were divided into Group 1, with 65 patients with satisfactory pathological lymph node analysis, and Group 2, with 91 patients representing the sum of patients with pathological lymph node analysis and those with postoperative prostate-specific antigen within 60 days after surgery. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to assess accuracy of predictive capacity of imaging exams for lymph node involvement. Results Regarding local clinical staging, the groups showed similar results, and 50% were classified as staging T2a. The accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT for prostate cancer lymph node staging was 86.5% (95%CI 0.74-0.94; p=0.06), with a sensitivity of 58.3% and specificity of 95%. The accuracy of 68Ga-PSMA PET-MRI was 84.6% (95%CI 0.69-0.94; p=0.09), with a sensitivity of 40% and specificity of 100%. Considering both 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT and PET-MRI, the accuracy was 85.7% (95%CI 0.76-0.92; p=0.015), with sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 97%. Conclusion The imaging tests 68Ga-PSMA PET-CT and PET-MRI were highly accurate to detect preoperative lymph node involvement, and could be useful tools to indicate the need for extended lymph node dissection during radical prostatectomy.

Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eAO6851, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1375346


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate whether the presence of a hypointense signal at T2-weighted imaging in a solid ovarian lesion on magnetic resonance imaging is a predictor of stability and benignity. Methods This is a single center study, prospectively read with retrospective acquired data. The database was searched for patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging between January 2008 and October 2019 and whose reports mentioned solid ovarian lesions with low signal on T2-weighted imaging. A total of 47 nodules were included. A radiologist who was blinded to the clinical indication for magnetic resonance imaging and original reports evaluated the cases. Objective and subjective criteria of ovarian lesions in magnetic resonance imaging were evaluated. Results Thirty-five nodules were considered benign/stable and 12 were considered non-stable. The analysis showed that the non-stable lesions showed statistically more hyperintensity at T1-weighted imaging compared to the stable lesions. Conclusion T2-weighted imaging hypointensity can be considered a predictor of stability in solid ovarian lesions when associated with iso/hypointensity in T1-weighted imaging.

Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6069, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286308


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the ability of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla to measure tissue oxygen bioavailability based on R2* values, and to differentiate between acute tubular necrosis and acute rejection compared to renal biopsy (gold standard). Methods A prospective, single-center study, with patients submitted to renal transplantation between 2013 and 2014, who developed graft dysfunction less than 4 weeks after transplantation. All patients were submitted to abdominal magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla using the same protocol, followed by two BOLD sequences and kidney biopsy. Results Twelve male (68.75%) and three female (31.25%) patients were included. A total of 19 percutaneous renal biopsies were performed (four patients required a second biopsy due to changes in clinical findings). Pathological findings revealed ten cases of acute tubular necrosis, four cases of acute rejection, and five cases with other (miscellaneous) diagnoses. Comparison between the four groups of interest failed to reveal significant differences (p=0.177) in cortical R2* values, whereas medullary R2* values differed significantly (p=0.033), with lower values in the miscellaneous diagnoses and the acute tubular necrosis group. Conclusion BOLD magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla is a feasible technique that uses indirect tissue oxygen level measurements to differentiate between acute rejection and acute tubular necrosis in renal grafts.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a sequência de ressonância magnética blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) realizada em um equipamento 3 Tesla para medir a biodisponibilidade do oxigênio do tecido pelo valor de R2* na diferenciação de necrose tubular aguda e rejeição aguda, comparando à biópsia renal (padrão-ouro). Métodos Estudo unicêntrico, prospectivo, com pacientes submetidos a transplante renal de 2013 a 2014, que desenvolveram disfunção do enxerto menos de 4 semanas após o transplante. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos à ressonância magnética abdominal 3 Tesla com o mesmo protocolo, seguida de duas sequências BOLD e biópsia renal. Resultados Foram incluídos 12 homens (68,75%) e três mulheres (31,25%). Foram realizadas 19 biópsias renais percutâneas (quatro pacientes necessitaram de segunda biópsia devido à alteração nos achados clínicos). Os resultados histopatológicos incluíram dez casos de necrose tubular aguda, quatro de rejeição aguda e cinco casos de outros diagnósticos (miscelânea). A comparação entre os quatro grupos de interesse não mostrou diferenças significativas em relação ao R2* no córtex (p=0,177). Quanto ao R2* da medula, observaram-se diferenças significativas (p=0,033), com miscelânea e necrose tubular aguda apresentando valores mais baixos quando comparados aos demais. Conclusão A ressonância magnética BOLD 3 Tesla é uma técnica viável que indiretamente utiliza a concentração de oxigênio no tecido em enxertos renais e pode ser usada para a diferenciação entre rejeição aguda e necrose tubular aguda.

Humans , Male , Female , Kidney Transplantation , Oxygen , Biopsy , Prospective Studies , Allografts
Radiol. bras ; 53(4): 216-222, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1136092


Abstract Objective: To assess the practical aspects of the use of various gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) by radiologists. Materials and Methods: Ten experienced radiologists from different regions of Brazil participated in a Delphi panel querying their use of various GBCAs, including linear and macrocyclic classes (1.0 and 0.5 M), in terms of the choice of agent, volume and dosage of the agents, and associated safety concerns. Results: The response rate was 100% for all questions. GBCAs are safe in terms of acute adverse reactions, and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is rare. The deposition of gadolinium in the brain and other tissues is a concern among the experts. Macrocyclic agents are preferable to linear agents; an injection volume below 0.1 mL/kg of a 1.0 M agent could result in good-quality images with additional long-term safety, but there is no published evidence to support this recommendation. The majority of experts preferred not to administer GBCAs to pregnant patients. Conclusion: When choosing a GBCA, it is important to consider the characteristics of the gadolinium deposition in patient tissues and minimize potential risks. Furthermore, medical education programs are needed to increase the awareness of the potential risks of gadolinium deposition and thus avoid instances of overexposure to the contrast agent.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar aspectos práticos do uso de agentes de contraste à base de gadolínio (gadolinium-based contrast agents - GBCAs) por médicos especialistas em radiologia. Materiais e Métodos: Dez radiologistas de diferentes regiões do Brasil foram convidados a participar de um painel Delphi com perguntas sobre o uso de GBCAs lineares e macrocíclicos (1,0 e 0,5 M), em termos de dosagem, volume injetado e preocupações relacionadas à segurança. Resultados: A taxa de resposta foi de 100% para todas as perguntas. GBCAs são seguros em relação a reações adversas agudas, e os casos de fibrose nefrogênica sistêmica são raros. O depósito de gadolínio no cérebro e em outros tecidos é uma preocupação de todo o painel. Agentes macrocíclicos são preferíveis aos lineares. Um volume menor que 0,1 mL/kg injetado de contraste macrocíclico 1,0 M poderia oferecer imagem com boa qualidade e benefício adicional em longo prazo, entretanto, não há evidências publicadas que apóiem tal recomendação. A maioria prefere não administrar GBCA em gestantes. Conclusão: É importante considerar as características de deposição e minimizar potenciais riscos ao se escolher um GBCA. Ações de educação médica são necessárias para a conscientização dos potenciais riscos da presença de gadolínio em longo prazo e evitar a sobre-exposição ao agente de contraste.

Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO5576, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133778


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate anatomic factors and radiologist's experience in the detection of solid renal masses on ultrasonography. Methods: We searched for solid renal masses diagnosed on cross-sectional imaging from 2007 to 2017 that also had previous ultrasonography from the past 6 months. The following features were evaluated: nodule size, laterality, location and growth pattern, patient body mass index and radiologist's experience in ultrasound. In surgically resected cases, pathologic reports were evaluated. Unpaired t test and χ2 test were used to evaluate differences among subgroups, using R-statistics. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The initial search of renal nodules on cross-sectional imaging resulted in 428 lesions and 266 lesions were excluded. Final cohort included 162 lesions and, of those, 108 (67%) were correctly detected on ultrasonography (Group 1) and 54 (33%) were missed (Group 2). Comparison of Groups 1 and 2 were as follows, respectively: body mass index (27.7 versus 27.1; p=0.496), size (2.58cm versus 1.74cm; p=0.003), laterality (54% versus 59% right sided; p=0.832), location (27% versus 22% upper pole; p=0.869), growth pattern (25% versus 28% endophytic; p=0.131) and radiologist's experience (p=0.300). From surgically resected cases, histology available for Group 1 was clear cell (n=11), papillary (n=15), chromophobe (n=2) renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma (n=1), and, for Group 2, clear cell (n=7), papillary (n=5) renal cell carcinoma, oncocytoma (n=2), angiomyolipoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and interstitial pyelonephritis (n=1, each). Conclusion: Size was the only significant parameter related to renal nodule detection on ultrasound.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar os fatores anatômicos e a experiência do radiologista na detecção de massas renais sólidas na ultrassonografia. Métodos: Buscamos massas renais sólidas diagnosticadas em imagens seccionais, de 2007 a 2017, que também tivessem ultrassonografia prévia nos últimos 6 meses. As seguintes características foram avaliadas: tamanho do nódulo, lateralidade, localização e padrão de crescimento, índice de massa corporal do paciente e experiência do radiologista em ultrassonografia. Nos casos com ressecção cirúrgica, os laudos de patologia foram analisados. O teste t não pareado e o teste χ2 foram utilizados para avaliar as diferenças entre os subgrupos, usando R-statistics. A significância estatística foi estabelecida em p<0,05. Resultados: A pesquisa inicial de nódulos renais achados em imagens seccionais resultou em 428 lesões, com 266 exclusões. A coorte final incluiu 162 lesões e, destas, 108 (67%) foram detectadas corretamente na ultrassonografia (Grupo 1), e 54 (33%) não foram identificadas (Grupo 2). A comparação dos Grupos 1 e 2 mostrou índice de massa corporal (27,7 versus 27,1; p=0,496), tamanho (2,58cm versus 1,74cm; p=0,003), lateralidade (54% versus 59% no lado direito; p=0,832), localização (27% versus 22% no polo superior; p=0,869), padrão de crescimento (25% versus 28% endofítico; p=0,131) e experiência do radiologista (p=0,300). A histologia disponível para o Grupo 1 foi carcinoma renal de células claras (n=11), papilar (n=15), cromófobo (n=2), oncocitoma (n=1), e, para o Grupo 2, carcinoma renal de células claras (n=7), papilar (n=5), oncocitoma (n=2), angiomiolipoma, cromófobo e pielonefrite intersticial (n=1, cada). Conclusão: O tamanho foi o único parâmetro significativo relacionado à detecção de nódulos renais no ultrassom.

Humans , Carcinoma, Renal Cell/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Radiologists , Kidney/pathology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5831, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133760


ABSTRACT The COVID-19 became a pandemic in early 2020. It was found, at first, that the main manifestations of this new virus occur through respiratory and constitutional symptoms. Therefore, chest tomography was elected as the best imaging test to assess the extent of pulmonary involvement and as a good prognostic predictor for the disease. However, as new studies were produced, the gastrointestinal involvement of COVID-19 becomes more evident, with reports from patients who manifested mainly or only gastrointestinal symptoms in the course of the disease. Thus, in some cases, the initial investigation is carried out at the emergency department with an abdominal computed tomography. We report a case series of ten patients who came to the emergency department of our institution with a chief gastrointestinal complaint, and were initially submitted to an abdominal computed tomography as the first investigation. Although most of the patients did not have significant changes in the abdominal images, most reported patients had pulmonary findings visualized at the lung bases, which were later designated as typical COVID-19 pulmonary findings on chest computed tomography. Only one patient had atypical COVID-19 lung changes on chest computed tomography. All patients had a positive real-time polymerase chain reaction for COVID-19. It is imperative to alert radiologists, especially abdominal radiologists, with the possibility of COVID-19 isolated gastrointestinal symptoms. Besides, it must become a habit to radiologists to assess the pulmonary basis on abdominal scans, a site commonly affected by the new coronavirus.

RESUMO A COVID-19 foi declarada uma pandemia no início de 2020. Constatou-se, inicialmente, que as principais manifestações desse novo vírus ocorrem por meio de sintomas respiratórios e constitucionais. A tomografia do tórax foi eleita o exame de imagem para avaliar a extensão do comprometimento pulmonar e como um fator preditivo do prognóstico para a doença. No entanto, à medida que novos estudos são produzidos, o envolvimento gastrointestinal da COVID-19 torna-se mais evidente, com relatos de pacientes que manifestaram principalmente ou apenas sintomas gastrointestinais no decorrer da doença. Em alguns casos, a investigação inicial é realizada no pronto-socorro, com tomografia computadorizada do abdome. Relatamos uma série de casos de dez pacientes que compareceram ao serviço de emergência da instituição com uma queixa principal gastrointestinal e foram submetidos inicialmente a uma tomografia computadorizada de abdome como primeira investigação. Embora a maioria dos pacientes não tenha apresentado alterações significativas nas imagens abdominais, eles apresentaram achados pulmonares visualizados nas bases pulmonares, que depois foram caracterizadas como achados pulmonares típicos de COVID-19 nas tomografias de tórax subsequentes. Apenas um paciente apresentou achados atípicos para COVID-19 na tomografia. Todos os pacientes tiveram reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real positiva para o novo coronavírus. É muito importante alertar os radiologistas, principalmente os radiologistas abdominais, da possibilidade de sintomas gastrointestinais isolados no contexto da COVID-19. Além disso, deve ser um hábito para todos os radiologistas avaliar as bases pulmonares nas tomografias de abdome, local comumente afetado pela COVID-19.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Abdominal Pain/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Pandemics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 Testing , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4662, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056076


ABSTRACT Objective To assess accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance of the prostate to estimate gland volume, comparing the results with transrectal ultrasound and surgical specimen. Methods A retrospective study of 85 patients who underwent multiparametric magnetic resonance and transrectal ultrasound (for fusion image-guided biopsy) before radical prostatectomy. Prostate measurements were obtained from magnetic resonance axial and sagittal T2-weighted images and ultrasound; the prostate volume was determined using the ellipsoid formula. The results were compared with the surgical specimen weight. Maximum interval between multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatectomy was 6 months. Results The prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 18-157cm3 (mean of 49.9cm3) and by transrectal ultrasound, 22-165cm3 (mean of 54.9cm3); the surgical specimen weight was 20-154g (mean of 48.6g), with no statistical differences. Based on the values obtained from imaging examinations, the prostate volume obtained was very close to the real prostatic weight, and the measures by multiparametric magnetic resonance were slightly more precise. Conclusion Prostate volume measured by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and transrectal ultrasound showed similar values, and excellent agreement with real prostate weight of the surgical specimens. Prostate volume measured by magnetic resonance has been increasingly used in the clinical practice, and its value enables appropriate therapeutic planning and control of patients.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a acurácia da ressonância magnética multiparamétrica da próstata para estimativa do volume da glândula, comparando seus resultados com a ultrassonografia transretal e correlacionando com o volume obtido da peça cirúrgica. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo incluindo 85 pacientes submetidos à ressonância magnética e, posteriormente, à ultrassonografia transretal (para orientação de biópsia com fusão de imagens) e, a seguir, à prostatectomia radical. As dimensões prostáticas foram obtidas na ressonância a partir das imagens nos planos axial e sagital em sequências ponderadas em T2 e, assim como na ultrassonografia, o volume foi calculado a partir do método da elipsoide. Os valores foram comparados com o peso prostático pós-cirúrgico. O intervalo máximo entre a ressonância e ultrassonografia e prostatectomia foi de 6 meses. Resultados O volume prostático obtido por ressonância magnética foi de 18 a 157cm3(média de 49,9cm3); pela ultrassonografia transretal, foi de 22 a 165cm3(média de 54,9cm3); e o peso da peça cirúrgica foi de 20 a 154g (média de 48,6g), sem diferenças estatísticas. A partir do valor obtido por esses métodos de imagem, provou-se que o volume prostático obtido aproximou-se bastante do peso real da próstata, com discreta maior precisão das medidas obtidas por ressonância magnética multiparamétrica. Conclusão As medidas do volume prostático adquiridas pela ressonância magnética e pela ultrassonografia transretal são semelhantes entre si, com excelente concordância com os pesos reais das próstatas obtidos das peças cirúrgicas. A avaliação desse dado, a partir da ressonância, método cada vez mais utilizado na prática clínica, permite o adequado planejamento terapêutico e o controle dos pacientes.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostate/anatomy & histology , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Organ Size , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Dimensional Measurement Accuracy , Middle Aged
Radiol. bras ; 52(4): 254-261, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020313


Abstract More than half of patients over 50 years of age have had at least one focal renal lesion detected as an incidental finding during an ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging examination. Although the majority of such lesions can be easily detected and correctly characterized, misdiagnoses may occur and are often related to methodological limitations, inappropriate imaging protocols, or misinterpretation. This pictorial essay provides recommendations on how to recognize benign and malignant renal processes that can be potentially missed or mischaracterized in imaging studies.

Resumo Mais da metade dos pacientes com mais de 50 anos de idade pode ter pelo menos uma lesão renal focal detectada de modo incidental em estudos de imagem, como ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada ou ressonância magnética. Embora a maioria dessas lesões possa ser facilmente caracterizada, erros de diagnóstico podem ocorrer e geralmente estão relacionados a limitações de métodos, protocolos de imagem inadequados e interpretação incorreta. Este ensaio iconográfico aborda recomendações sobre como reconhecer e interpretar lesões focais renais em estudos de imagem.

Radiol. bras ; 52(4): 217-221, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020321


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the correlation of morphological criteria of the cecal appendix using computed tomography (CT) and the possible risk of developing acute appendicitis. Materials and Methods: Cases were defined as patients with surgically confirmed acute appendicitis who had undergone CT at least twice: at diagnosis and at least one month prior. Controls were defined as emergency patients with abdominal pain who had undergone abdominal CT that excluded acute appendicitis and had also undergone CT at least one month before. Results: 100 cases and 100 controls were selected for inclusion in the final analysis. Comparisons between the cases and controls revealed the following: mean transverse diameter of 0.6 cm (range, 0.4-1.0 cm) versus 0.6 cm (range, 0.6-0.8 cm; p = 0.37); mean length of 6.6 cm (range, 3.5-9.7 cm) versus 6.6 cm (range, 4.5-8.3 cm; p = 0.87); mean angle of 100° (range, 23-178°) versus 86° (range, 43-160°; p = 0.01); vertical descending orientation in 56% versus 45% (p = 0.2); absence of gas in 69% versus 77% (p = 0.34); and presence of an appendicolith in 17% versus 8% (p = 0.08). Conclusion: Hypothetical risk factors for obstruction of the vermiform appendix detected on CT were not associated with acute appendicitis. That suggests that factors other than those related to mechanical obstruction are implicated in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a correlação de critérios morfológicos do apêndice cecal por tomografia computadorizada (TC) e o risco de apendicite aguda. Materiais e Métodos: Casos foram definidos como apendicite aguda confirmada cirurgicamente que tiveram pelo menos dois exames de TC: um no diagnóstico de apendicite aguda e outro no mínimo um mês antes. O grupo controle foi definido como pacientes emergenciais com dor abdominal com TC de abdome excluindo apendicite aguda e com TC prévia pelo menos um mês antes. Resultados: 100 casos e 100 controles foram selecionados. A comparação das variáveis dos casos e controles revelou: diâmetro transverso médio de 0,6 cm (faixa: 0,4-1,0 cm) versus 0,6 (faixa: 0,6-0,8 cm) (p = 0,37); comprimento médio de 6,6 cm (faixa: 3,5-9,7 cm) versus 6,6 cm (faixa: 4,5-8,3 cm) (p = 0,87); ângulo médio de 100° (faixa: 23-178°) versus 86° (faixa: 43-160°) (p = 0,01); orientação descendente em 56% versus 45% (p = 0,2); ausência de gás em 69% versus 77% (p = 0,34) e presença de apendicólito em 17% versus 8% (p = 0,08). Conclusão: Fatores obstrutivos hipotéticos do apêndice cecal na TC não foram associados a apendicite aguda. Isso sugere que outros fatores diferentes de obstrução mecânica podem estar implicados na gênese da apendicite aguda.

Radiol. bras ; 52(3): 155-160, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012924


Abstract Objective: To evaluate progression rate of Bosniak category IIF complex renal cysts and the malignancy rate among surgically resected cysts. Materials and Methods: We performed a database search for complex renal cysts classified as Bosniak category IIF on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging between January 2008 and April 2016. Follow-up examinations (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) were used in order to evaluate progression (Bosniak category reclassification) and stability, the latter being defined as remaining stable for a minimum of six months. Pathology reports were used as the reference to assess the malignancy rate of surgically resected cysts. Results: A total of 152 cysts in 143 patients were included in the final analysis. Seven cysts (4.6%) were reclassified on follow-up studies, and mean time to progression was 20 months (range, 1 month to 4 years). Three cysts were surgically resected. All three were diagnosed as low-grade malignant renal cell carcinomas (RCCs): one clear cell RCC and two papillary RCCs. The remaining 145 cysts remained unchanged after a mean follow-up period of 28 months (range, 6 to 118 months). Conclusion: The progression rate in Bosniak category IIF cysts was low. Even lesions that were upgraded on follow-up remained stable, indicating an indolent behavior. Our data support the idea of conservative management of Bosniak IIF renal cyst.

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a taxa de progressão das lesões císticas renais complexas Bosniak II-F e a taxa de neoplasia maligna nas lesões ressecadas cirurgicamente. Materiais e Métodos: Realizamos uma pesquisa no banco de dados da nossa instituição reunindo lesões císticas renais complexas classificadas como Bosniak II-F em exames de tomografia computadorizada ou ressonância magnética, de janeiro de 2008 a abril de 2016. Foram utilizados exames de acompanhamento (tomografia computadorizada ou ressonância magnética) para avaliar a progressão na categoria Bosniak, com um mínimo de seis meses de estabilidade. Os relatórios de patologia foram utilizados como referência para avaliar a taxa de neoplasia maligna de lesões ressecadas cirurgicamente. Resultados: Um total de 152 lesões em 143 pacientes foi incluído na análise final. Sete lesões foram reclassificadas em estudos de acompanhamento (4,6%) e o tempo médio de progressão foi de 20 meses (1 mês a 4 anos). Três pacientes tiveram cistos ressecados cirurgicamente, todos diagnosticados como carcinoma de células renais: um do subtipo células claras e dois papilíferos, todos de baixo grau. As 145 lesões restantes permaneceram inalteradas, com seguimento médio de 28 meses (6 a 118 meses). Conclusão: A taxa de progressão nos cistos categoria Bosniak II-F foi baixa. Mesmo as lesões que tiveram upgrade da categoria de Bosniak no seguimento permaneceram estáveis, indicando um comportamento indolente. Nossos dados apoiam a ideia de tratamento conservador do cisto renal Bosniak II-F.

Radiol. bras ; 52(2): 123-127, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002990


Abstract Acute penile conditions, which typically have a traumatic, vascular, or infectious etiology, are rather uncommon and often require prompt medical evaluation. Penile emergencies can be treated conservatively or surgically, and their management often relies on the results of imaging examinations. Because of its high spatial resolution and wide availability, as well as the fact that it does not involve the use of ionizing radiation, ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice in the initial evaluation of penile emergencies. Inconclusive cases can be further evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. The main purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the main penile emergencies, by presenting illustrative cases, focusing on radiologic findings, and discussing the roles played by the various imaging methods.

Resumo As condições agudas do pênis são raras, geralmente relacionadas a causas traumáticas, vasculares ou infecciosas, e muitas vezes requerem avaliação médica imediata. As emergências penianas podem ter tratamento conservador ou cirúrgico e muitas vezes dependem dos exames de imagem. A ultrassonografia é a modalidade de imagem de escolha na avaliação inicial das emergências penianas, em virtude da alta resolução espacial, ampla disponibilidade e ausência de radiação ionizante desse método. A ressonância magnética deve ser considerada em casos inconclusivos, oferecendo maior campo de visão e detalhes precisos sobre o local e extensão das lesões. O principal objetivo deste ensaio iconográfico é revisar as principais emergências do pênis por meio de casos ilustrativos, com foco nos achados radiológicos e no papel dos métodos de imagem.

Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4615, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011995


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare qualitatively and quantitatively, in terms of image quality, a new biexponential diffusion sequence protocol with the standard monoexponential diffusion protocol on multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: This study had a prospective data collection and cross-sectional analysis. Between August and November 2017, a total of 70 patients who underwent multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging due to clinical suspicion of prostatic neoplasia were recruited. The images obtained were evaluated by two independent readers regarding subjective/qualitative criteria (six criteria) and objective/quantitative criteria (three criteria), always comparing the monoexponential to biexponential acquisition protocols. The results were compared by statistical analysis (interobserver agreement − Gwet coefficient; analysis of the qualitative variables − Stuart-Maxwell test; and analysis of the quantitative variables − Wilcoxon test). Results: After exclusion of four patients, the final sample consisted of 66 patients. A good/excellent inter observer agreement was stablished for subjective criteria (except in one criteria). For the qualitative analysis the amount of good or excellent evaluations was higher for the monoexponential protocol (except in one category), with evidence of significant differences for three criteria (diffusion weighted imaging global quality; diffusion weighted imaging signal-to-noise ratio; and apparent diffusion coefficient signal-to-noise ratio). For the quantitative data analysis, the monoexponential protocol showed less variability of the anteroposterior diameters, meaning less distortion of the images, and better estimated signal-to-noise ratio. Conclusion: In our data, the quality of the images of the monoexponential standard diffusion sequence was qualitatively and quantitatively superior to those of the biexponential diffusion weighted imaging sequence.

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar qualitativa e quantitativamente, em termos de qualidade de imagem, um novo protocolo de sequência de difusão biexponencial com o protocolo de difusão monoexponencial padrão, em ressonância magnética multiparamétrica da próstata. Métodos: Estudo com coleta prospectiva e análise transversal. Entre agosto e novembro de 2017, foram recrutados 70 pacientes que realizaram ressonância magnética multiparamétrica da próstata, por suspeita de neoplasia prostática. As imagens obtidas por ambas as sequências foram avaliadas por dois leitores independentes, quanto a critérios de avaliação subjetiva/qualitativa (seis critérios) e objetiva/quantitativa (três critérios), sempre comparando os protocolos de aquisição monoexponencial e biexponencial. Os resultados foram comparados por análise estatística (concordância interobservador − coeficiente de Gwet; análise das variáveis qualitativas − teste de Stuart-Maxwell; e análise das variáveis quantitativas − testes de Wilcoxon). Resultados: Após exclusão de quatro pacientes, a amostra final foi composta por 66 pacientes. Uma boa/excelente concordância interobservador foi estabelecida para critérios subjetivos (exceto em um critério). Para a análise qualitativa, a quantidade de avaliações boas ou excelentes foi maior para o protocolo monoexponencial (exceto em uma categoria), com evidências de diferenças significativas para três critérios (qualidade global da imagem ponderada em difusão, relação sinal-ruído na imagem ponderada em difusão e relação sinal-ruído ADC). Para a análise quantitativa dos dados, o protocolo monoexponencial apresentou menor variabilidade dos diâmetros anteroposteriores, o que significou menos distorção das imagens, e melhor relação sinal-ruído estimada. Conclusão: Em nossos dados, a qualidade das imagens da sequência de difusão padrão monoexponencial foi qualitativa e quantitativamente superior àquelas da sequência teste biexponencial.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/standards , Reference Standards , Observer Variation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1106-1113, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975665


ABSTRACT Purpose: Ultrasound-magnetic resonance imaging (US-MRI) fusion biopsy (FB) improves the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCa). We aimed to compare the Gleason upgrading (GU) rates and the concordance of the Gleason scores in the biopsy versus final pathology after surgery in patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) systematic random biopsies (SRB) versus US-MRI FB for PCa. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of data that were collected prospectively from January 2011 to June 2016 from patients who underwent prostate biopsy and subsequent radical prostatectomy. The study cohort was divided into two groups: US-MRI FB (Group A) and TRUS SRB (Group B). US-MRI FB was performed in patients with a previous MRI with a focal lesion with a Likert score ≥3; otherwise, a TRUS SRB was performed. Results: In total, 73 men underwent US-MRI FB, and 89 underwent TRUS SRB. The GU rate was higher in Group B (31.5% vs. 16.4%; p=0.027). According to the Gleason grade pattern, GU was higher in Group B than in Group A (40.4% vs. 23.3%; p=0.020). Analyses of the Gleason grading patterns showed that Gleason scores 3+4 presented less GU in Group A (24.1% vs. 52.6%; p=0.043). The Bland-Altman plot analysis showed a higher bias in Group B than in Group A (-0.27 [-1.40 to 0.86] vs. −0.01 [-1.42 to 1.39]). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, the only independent predictor of GU was the use of TRUS SRB (2.64 [1.11 - 6.28]; p=0.024). Conclusions: US-MRI FB appears to be related to a decrease in GU rate and an increase in concordance between biopsy and final pathology compared to TRUS SRB, suggesting that performing US-MRI FB leads to greater accuracy of diagnosis and better treatment decisions.

Humans , Male , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Prostatectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(6): 1129-1138, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975650


ABSTRACT Background: Dynamic-contrast enhanced (DCE) sequence is used to increase detection of small lesions, based on increased vascularization. However, literature is controversy about the real incremental value of DCE in detection of clinically significant (CS) prostate cancer (PCa), since absence of enhancement does not exclude cancer, and enhancement alone is not definitive for tumor. Purpose: To test the hypothesis that DCE images do not increase CS PCa detection on MRI prior to biopsy, comparing exams without and with contrast sequences. Material and Materials and Methods: All men who come to our institution to perform MRI on a 3T scanner without a prior diagnosis of CS PCa were invited to participate in this study. Reference standard was transrectal prostate US with systematic biopsy and MRI/US fusion biopsy of suspicious areas. Radiologists read the MRI images prospectively and independently (first only sequences without contrast, and subsequently the entire exam) and graded them on 5-points scale of cancer suspicion. Results: 102 patients were included. Overall detection on biopsy showed CS cancer in 43 patients (42.2%), clinically non-significant cancer in 11 (10.8%) and negative results in 48 patients (47%). Positivities for CS PCa ranged from 8.9% to 9.8% for low suspicion and 75.0% to 88.9% for very high suspicion. There was no statistical difference regarding detection of CS PCa (no statistical difference was found when compared accuracies, sensitivities, specificities, PPV and NPV in both types of exams). Inter-reader agreement was 0.59. Conclusion: Exams with and without contrast-enhanced sequences were similar for detection of CS PCa on MRI.

Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Middle Aged
Radiol. bras ; 51(5): 287-292, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-976733


Abstract Objective: To identify, in patients with clinical suspicion of ureterolithiasis, epidemiological and imaging features that affect calculus detection on ultrasound, as well as to compare ultrasound with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and Methods: We searched our database for patients who underwent ultrasound, followed by MDCT (if the ultrasound was negative), for suspected ureterolithiasis in an emergency setting. Patients were divided into three groups: positive ultrasound (US+); negative ultrasound/positive MDCT (US−/MDCT+); and negative ultrasound/negative MDCT (US−/MDCT−). We evaluated age, gender, ureterolithiasis laterality, location of the calculus within the ureter, body mass index, calculus diameter, and calculus attenuation on MDCT. Results: Of a total of 292 cases of suspected ureterolithiasis, 155 (53.1%) were in the US+ group, 46 (15.7%) were in the US−/MDCT+ group, and 91 (31.2%) were in the US−/MDCT− group. There were no significant differences among the groups in terms of age, gender, ureterolithiasis laterality, and mean MDCT attenuation values. Distal ureterolithiasis was most common in the US+ group, and calculi at other ureteral locations were more common in the US−/MDCT+ group. The mean body mass index was significantly higher in the US−/MDCT+ group than in the US+ group, and the mean calculus diameter was significantly greater in the US+ group than in the US−/MDCT+ group. Conclusion: A high body mass index, large calculus diameter, and calculus location in the distal third of the ureter are the major factors favoring ureterolithiasis detection on ultrasound.

Resumo Objetivo: Identificar achados epidemiológicos e de imagem em pacientes com suspeita clínica de ureterolitíase que afetam a detecção do cálculo no ultrassom (US), comparado com a tomografia computadorizada multidetectores (TCMD). Materiais e Métodos: Procuramos, em nosso banco de dados, por pacientes que realizaram US no serviço de emergência, seguido por TCMD (se US negativo), por suspeita de ureterolitíase. Os pacientes foram divididos em: 1) US positivo; 2) US negativo e TCMD positiva; 3) US e TCMD negativos. Avaliamos idade, sexo, lateralidade, localização ureteral, índice de massa corporal, diâmetro e densidade do cálculo. Resultados: Foram incluídos no estudo 292 pacientes. Constatamos que 53,1% das ureterolitíases foram detectadas por US (grupo 1), 15,7% apenas por TCMD (grupo 2), e em 31,2% ambos os métodos foram negativos (grupo 3). Idade, sexo, lateralidade e densidade do cálculo pela TCMD não tiveram diferença significativa entre os grupos. No grupo 1, ureterolitíase foi detectada, preferencialmente, em localização distal, e fora do ureter distal no grupo 2. O índice de massa corporal foi significativamente maior em pacientes do grupo 2, comparado ao grupo 1. O diâmetro do cálculo detectado no grupo 1 foi significativamente maior do que no grupo 2. Conclusão: Índice de massa corporal, diâmetro e localização do cálculo no terço distal do ureter foram os principais fatores que contribuíram para a detecção do cálculo pelo US.