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1.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210056, 2022. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360567

ABSTRACT

The association of scaffolds to repair extensive bone defects can contribute to their evolution and morphophysiological recomposition. The incorporation of particulate biomaterials into three-dimensional fibrin bioproducts together with photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) has potential and can improve regenerative medicine procedures. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of PBM therapy on critical size defects filled with xenogenic bone substitute associated with fibrin biopolymer. Methods: A critical defect of 8 mm was performed in 36 Wistar male adult rats that were divided into four groups. Groups BC and BC-PBM were defined as controls with defects filled by a clot (without or with PBM, respectively) and groups XS and XS-PBM that comprised those filled with biocomplex Bio-OssTM in association with fibrin biopolymer. PBM was applied immediately after the surgery and three times a week every other day, with the parameters: wavelength of 830 nm, energy density 6.2 J/cm2, output power 30 mW, beam area of 0.116 cm2, irradiance 0.258,62 W/cm2, energy/point 0.72 J, total energy 2.88 J. Fourteen and 42 days after the surgery, animals were euthanatized and subjected to microtomography, qualitative and quantitative histological analysis. Results: The BC-PBM and XS-PBM groups had a similar evolution in the tissue repair process, with a higher density of the volume of new formed bone in relation to the groups without PBM (p = 0.04086; p = 0.07093, respectively). Intense vascular proliferation and bone deposition around the biomaterial particles were observed in the animals of the groups in which biocomplex was applied (XS and XS-PBM). Conclusion: PBM therapy allowed an improvement in the formation of new bone, with a more organized deposition of collagen fibers in the defect area. Biocomplex favored the insertion and permanence of the particulate material in bone defects, creating a favorable microenvironment for accelerate repair process.(AU)


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Biopolymers , Collagen , Low-Level Light Therapy
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(4): e360407, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248542

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of fibrin biopolymer sealant (FS) associated or not to aquatic exercise (AE) on the calcaneal tendon repair. Methods Forty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups: Lesion control (L), Lesion and FS (LS), Lesion and AE (LE) and Lesion and FS associated to AE (LSE). The edema volume (EV), collagen ratio, and histopathological analysis were evaluated after 7, 14, and 21 days of partial tendon transection. Results The EV was statistically reduced for all treatment groups after 7 and 21 days when compared to L group. The LS and LSE had the highest EV reduction after 21 days of treatment. The FS group didn't induce tissue necrosis or infections on the histopathological analysis. It was observed tenocytes proliferation, granulation tissue and collagen formation in the tendon partial transection area in the FS group. The LSE demonstrated higher amount of granulation tissue and increased the collagen deposition at the injury site. Conclusions Our data suggests that the therapeutic potential of the association of heterologous fibrin biopolymer sealant with aquatic exercise program should be further explored as it may stimulate the regeneration phase and optimize calcaneal tendon recovery.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Achilles Tendon/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive , Collagen , Rats, Wistar
3.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190093, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135141

ABSTRACT

Ventral root avulsion (VRA) is an experimental approach in which there is an abrupt separation of the motor roots from the surface of the spinal cord. As a result, most of the axotomized motoneurons degenerate by the second week after injury, and the significant loss of synapses and increased glial reaction triggers a chronic inflammatory state. Pharmacological treatment associated with root reimplantation is thought to overcome the degenerative effects of VRA. Therefore, treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a drug with neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects, in combination with a heterologous fibrin sealant/biopolymer (FS), a biological glue, may improve the regenerative response. Methods: Adult female Lewis rats were subjected to VRA of L4-L6 roots followed by reimplantation and daily treatment with DMF for four weeks. Survival times were evaluated 1, 4 or 12 weeks after surgery. Neuronal survival assessed by Nissl staining, glial reactivity (anti-GFAP for astrocytes and anti-Iba-1 for microglia) and synapse preservation (anti-VGLUT1 for glutamatergic inputs and anti-GAD65 for GABAergic inputs) evaluated by immunofluorescence, gene expression (pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules) and motor function recovery were measured. Results: Treatment with DMF at a dose of 15 mg/kg was found to be neuroprotective and immunomodulatory because it preserved motoneurons and synapses and decreased astrogliosis and microglial reactions, as well as downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory gene transcripts. Conclusion: The pharmacological benefit was further enhanced when associated with root reimplantation with FS, in which animals recovered at least 50% of motor function, showing the efficacy of employing multiple regenerative approaches following spinal cord root injury.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Biological Products , Biopolymers , Fibrin , Immunomodulation , Dimethyl Fumarate , Neuroprotection , Gene Expression
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 26: e20190101, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135131

ABSTRACT

Venous ulcers are the main causes of chronic lower-limb ulcers. The healing difficulties encourage the research and development of new products in order to achieve better therapeutic results. Fibrin sealant is one of these alternatives. Besides being a validated scaffold and drug delivery system, it possesses excellent healing properties. This review covered the last 25 years of the literature and showed that the fibrin sealant is used in various clinical situations to promote the healing of different types of ulcers, especially chronic ones. These are mostly venous in origin and usually does not respond to conventional treatment. Commercially, only the homologous fibrin sealants obtained from human blood are available, which are highly efficient but very expensive. The heterologous fibrin sealant is a non-commercial experimental low-cost product and easily produced due to the abundance of raw material. The phase I/II clinical trial is already completed and showed that the product is safe and promisingly efficacious for the treatment of chronic venous ulcers. In addition, clinical proteomic strategies to assess disease prognosis have been increasingly used. By analyzing liquid samples from the wounds through proteomic strategies, it is possible to predict before treatment which ulcers will evolve favorably and which ones will be difficult to heal. This prognosis is only possible by evaluating the expression of isolated proteins in exudates and analysis using label-free strategies for shotgun. Multicentric clinical trials will be required to evaluate the efficacy of fibrin sealant to treat chronic ulcers, as well as to validate the proteomic strategies to assess prognosis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ulcer , Varicose Ulcer/diagnosis , Fibrin , Proteomics , Biopolymers/analysis
5.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e148718, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1002499

ABSTRACT

Ruminant feed containing animal byproduct proteins (ABPs) is prohibited in many countries due to its risk of transmitting prion diseases (PD). In most cases the entire herd is sacrificed, which causes great harm to the producer countries by preventing their exportation of ruminant derived-products. Methods: We used stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) to trace the animal protein in the blood of 15 buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) divided into three experimental groups: 1 - received only vegetable protein (VP) during 117 days; 2 - received animal and vegetable protein (AVP); and 3 - received animal and vegetable protein with animal protein subsequently removed (AVPR). Groups 2 and 3 received diets containing 13.7% bovine meat and bone meal (MBM) added to a vegetable diet (from days 21-117 in the AVP group and until day 47 in the AVPR group, when MBM was removed). Results: On the 36th day, differences were detectable in the feeding profile (p <0.01) among the three experimental groups, which remained for a further 49 days (85th day). The AVPR group showed isotopic rate reversibility on the 110th day by presenting values similar to those in the control group (VP) (p> 0.05), indicating that it took 63 days to eliminate MBM in this group. Total atoms exchange (> 95%) of 13C and 15N was observed through incorporation of the diet into the AVP and AVPR groups. Conclusions: IRMS is an accurate and sensitive technique for tracing the feeding profile of ruminants through blood analysis, thus enabling investigation of ABP use. enabling investigation of ABP use.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Mass Spectrometry , Ruminants , Multivariate Analysis , Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform , Prion Diseases , Plant Proteins, Dietary
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180418, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041510

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the epidemiological and clinical profile of reported cases of bee sting incidents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included all reported cases of bee sting incidents among the population of Santa Catarina from 2007 to 2017. RESULTS: In total, 8,912 cases were reported, corresponding to an overall rate of 12.3/100,000 population. The mean age was 29,8 years with 60.2% men. The lethality rate was 0.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Santa Catarina has a high incidence rate of bee stings, which is higher than the national average. The data presented in this study may be underestimated.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Bee Venoms/poisoning , Bees , Insect Bites and Stings/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Disease Notification , Spatial Analysis , Middle Aged
7.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e20190027, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040382

ABSTRACT

Bone tissue repair remains a challenge in tissue engineering. Currently, new materials are being applied and often integrated with live cells and biological scaffolds. The fibrin biopolymer (FBP) proposed in this study has hemostatic, sealant, adhesive, scaffolding and drug-delivery properties. The regenerative potential of an association of FBP, biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was evaluated in defects of rat femurs. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to a 5-mm defect in the femur. This was filled with the following materials and/or associations: BPC; FBP and BCP; FBP and MSCs; and BCP, FBP and MSCs. Bone defect without filling was defined as the control group. Thirty and sixty days after the procedure, animals were euthanatized and subjected to computed tomography, scanning electron microscopy and qualitative and quantitative histological analysis. Results: It was shown that FBP is a suitable scaffold for bone defects due to the formation of a stable clot that facilitates the handling and optimizes the surgical procedures, allowing also cell adhesion and proliferation. The association between the materials was biocompatible. Progressive deposition of bone matrix was higher in the group treated with FBP and MSCs. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteogenic lineage was not necessary to stimulate bone formation. Conclusions: FBP proved to be an excellent scaffold candidate for bone repair therapies due to application ease and biocompatibility with synthetic calcium-based materials. The satisfactory results obtained by the association of FBP with MSCs may provide a more effective and less costly new approach for bone tissue engineering.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Biopolymers , Bone Matrix , Fibrin , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Biological Products
8.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 25: e20190038, 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040381

ABSTRACT

Fibrin biopolymers, previously referred as "fibrin glue" or "fibrin sealants", are natural biomaterials with diverse applications on health. They have hemostatic, adhesive, sealant, scaffold and drug delivery properties and have become widely used in medical and dental procedures. Historically, these biomaterials are produced from human fibrinogen and human or animal thrombin, and the possibility of transmission of infectious diseases by human blood is not ruled out. In the 1990s, to overcome this problem, a new heterologous biomaterial composed of a thrombin-like enzyme purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and a cryoprecipitate rich in fibrinogen extracted from buffaloes Bubalus bubalis blood has been proposed. Therefore, a systematic review of studies on exclusively heterologous fibrin sealants published between 1989 and 2018 was carried out using the following databases: PubMed, SciELO and Google Scholar. The keyword used was "heterologous fibrin sealant". The search resulted in 35 scientific papers in PubMed, four in SciELO and 674 in Google Scholar. After applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria and complete reading of the articles, 30 studies were selected, which formed the basis of this systematic review. It has been observed that the only completely heterologous sealant is the one produced by CEVAP/UNESP. This heterologous biopolymer is proven effective by several studies published in refereed scientific journals. In addition, clinical trials phase I/II for the treatment of chronic venous ulcers authorized by the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA) were completed. Preliminary results have indicated a safe and promising effective product. Phase III clinical trials will be proposed and required to validate these preliminary findings.(AU)


Subject(s)
Biopolymers , Fibrin , Hemostatics , Thrombin
9.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 24: 11, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894174

ABSTRACT

Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem, and the preferred surgical method for treating it is the end-to-end neurorrhaphy. When it is not possible due to a large nerve gap, autologous nerve grafting is used. However, these surgical techniques result in nerve regeneration at highly variable degrees. It is thus very important to seek complementary techniques to improve motor and sensory recovery. One promising approach could be cell therapy. Transplantation therapy with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is appealing because these cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into specialized cell types and have self-renewal ability. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to find conditions under which functional recovery is improved after sciatic nerve neurorrhaphy. We assumed that hESC, either alone or in combination with heterologous fibrin sealant scaffold, could be used to support regeneration in a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury and repair via autografting with end-to-end neurorrhaphy. Methods Five millimeters of the sciatic nerve of C57BL/6 J mice were transected off and rotated 180 degrees to simulate an injury, and then stumps were sutured. Next, we applied heterologous fibrin sealant and/or human embryonic stem cells genetically altered to overexpress fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) at the site of the injury. The study was designed to include six experimental groups comprising neurorrhaphy (N), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant (N + F), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + doxycycline (N + F + D), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + wild-type hESC (N + F + W), neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + hESC off (N + F +T), and neurorrhaphy + heterologous fibrin sealant + hESC on via doxycycline (N + F + D + T). We evaluated the recovery rate using Catwalk and von Frey functional recovery tests, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis. Results The experiments indicated that sensory function improved when transgenic hESCs were used. The regeneration of sensory fibers indeed led to increased reflexes, upon stimulation of the paw ipsilateral to the lesion, as seen by von-Frey evaluation, which was supported by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Overall, the present data demonstrated that transgenic embryonic stem cells, engineered to overexpress FGF-2 in an inducible fashion, could be employed to support regeneration aiming at the recovery of both motor and sensory functions.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Sciatic Nerve/transplantation , Transplantation, Heterologous/rehabilitation , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive , Embryonic Stem Cells , Nerve Regeneration , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954844

ABSTRACT

Background: Classically, Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt) venom can be described, according to chromatographic criteria, as a simple venom, composed of four major toxins, namely: gyroxin, crotamine, crotoxin and convulxin. Crotoxin is a non-covalent heterodimeric neurotoxin constituted of two subunits: an active phospholipase A2 and a chaperone protein, termed crotapotin. This molecule is composed of three peptide chains connected by seven disulfide bridges. Naturally occurring variants/isoforms of either crotoxin or crotapotin itself have already been reported. Methods: The crude Cdt venom was separated by using RP-HPLC and the toxins were identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Crotapotin was purified, reduced and alkylated in order to separate the peptide chains that were further analyzed by mass spectrometry and de novo peptide sequencing. Results: The RP-HPLC profile of the isolated crotapotin chains already indicated that the α chain would present isoforms, which was corroborated by the MS and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Conclusion: It was possible to observe that the Cdt crotapotin displays a preferred amino acid substitution pattern present in the α chain, at positions 31 and 40. Moreover, substitutions could also be observed in ß and γ chains (one for each). The combinations of these four different peptides, with the already described chains, would produce ten different crotapotins, which is compatible to our previous observations for the Cdt venom.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Mass Spectrometry , Protein Isoforms , Crotalid Venoms , Crotoxin , Phospholipases A2 , Neurotoxins
11.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954838

ABSTRACT

Background Envenomation caused by multiple stings from Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera constitutes a public health problem in the Americas. In 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported 13,597 accidents (incidence of seven cases per 100,000 inhabitants) with 39 deaths (lethality of 0.25%). The toxins present in the venom, which include melittin and phospholipase A2, cause lesions in diverse organs and systems that may be fatal. As there has been no specific treatment to date, management has been symptomatic and supportive only. Methods In order to evaluate the safety and neutralizing capacity of a new apilic antivenom, as well as to confirm its lowest effective dose, a clinical protocol was developed to be applied in a multicenter, non-randomized and open phase I/II clinical trial. Twenty participants with more than five stings, aged more than 18 years, of both sexes, who have not previously received the heterologous serum against bee stings, will be included for 24 months. The proposed dose was based on the antivenom neutralizing capacity and the number of stings. Treatment will be administered only in a hospital environment and the participants will be evaluated for a period up to 30 days after discharge for clinical and laboratory follow-up. Results This protocol, approved by the Brazilian regulatory agencies for ethics (National Commission for Ethics on Research - CONEP) and sanitation (National Health Surveillance Agency - ANVISA), is a guideline constituted by specific, adjuvant, symptomatic and complementary treatments, in addition to basic orientations for conducting a clinical trial involving heterologous sera. Conclusions This is the first clinical trial protocol designed specifically to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and safety of a new antivenom against stings from the Africanized honeybee Apis mellifera. The results will support future studies to confirm a new treatment for massive bee attack that has a large impact on public health in the Americas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Bees , Antivenins , Phospholipases A2 , Environment
12.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 23: 21, 2017. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954833

ABSTRACT

Hemostatic and adhesive agents date back to World War II, when homologous fibrin sealant came onto scene. Considering that infectious diseases can be transmitted via human blood, a new heterologous fibrin sealant was standardized in the 1990s. Its components were a serine protease (a thrombin-like enzyme) extracted from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes and a fibrinogen-rich cryoprecipitate extracted from the blood of Bubalus bubalis buffaloes. This new bioproduct has been used as a coagulant, sealant, adhesive and recently as a candidate scaffold for mesenchymal stem cells and bone and cartilage repair. This review discusses the composition of a new heterologous fibrin sealant, and cites published articles related to its preclinical applications aiming at repairing nervous system traumas and regenerating bone marrow. Finally, we present an innovative safety trial I/II that found the product to be a safe and clinically promising candidate for treating chronic venous ulcers. A multicenter clinical trial, phase II/III, with a larger number of participants will be performed to prove the efficacy of an innovative biopharmaceutical product derived from animal venom.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Snake Venoms , Fibrinogen , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive , Serine Proteases , Crotalid Venoms
13.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 23: 13, 2017. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954819

ABSTRACT

Lesions to the nervous system often produce hemorrhage and tissue loss that are difficult, if not impossible, to repair. Therefore, scar formation, inflammation and cavitation take place, expanding the lesion epicenter. This significantly worsens the patient conditions and impairment, increasing neuronal loss and glial reaction, which in turn further decreases the chances of a positive outcome. The possibility of using hemostatic substances that also function as a scaffold, such as the fibrin sealant, reduces surgical time and improve postoperative recovery. To date, several studies have demonstrated that human blood derived fibrin sealant produces positive effects in different interventions, becoming an efficient alternative to suturing. To provide an alternative to homologous fibrin sealants, the Center for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals (CEVAP, Brazil) has proposed a new bioproduct composed of certified animal components, including a thrombin-like enzyme obtained from snake venom and bubaline fibrinogen. Thus, the present review brings up to date literature assessment on the use of fibrin sealant for nervous system repair and positions the new heterologous bioproduct from CEVAP as an alternative to the commercial counterparts. In this way, clinical and pre-clinical data are discussed in different topics, ranging from central nervous system to peripheral nervous system applications, specifying positive results as well as future enhancements that are necessary for improving the use of fibrin sealant therapy.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Wounds and Injuries , Fibrin , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive , Cicatrix , Nervous System
14.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-773438

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Apis mellifera venom, which has already been recommended as an alternative anti-inflammatory treatment, may be also considered an important source of candidate molecules for biotechnological and biomedical uses, such as the treatment of parasitic diseases. Methods Africanized honeybee venom from Apis mellifera was fractionated by RP-C18-HPLC and the obtained melittin was incubated with promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum. Cytotoxicity to mice peritoneal macrophages was evaluated through mitochondrial oxidative activity. The production of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO and H2O2 by macrophages was determined. Results Promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes were susceptible to melittin (IC50 28.3 μg.mL−1 and 1.4 μg.mL−1, respectively), but also showed mammalian cell cytotoxicity with an IC50 value of 5.7 μg.mL−1. Uninfected macrophages treated with melittin increased the production of IL-10, TNF-α, NO and H2O2. Infected melittin-treated macrophages increased IL-12 production, but decreased the levels of IL-10, TNF-α, NO and H2O2. Conclusions The results showed that melittin acts in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (L.) infantum. Furthermore, they can act indirectly on intracellular amastigotes through a macrophage immunomodulatory effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bee Venoms/isolation & purification , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Melitten/antagonists & inhibitors , Bee Venoms/antagonists & inhibitors , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , In Vitro Techniques
15.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954779

ABSTRACT

During the 6th International Conference on Envenomation by Snakebites and Scorpion Stings in Africa held in Abidjan, from 1 to 5 June 2015, the measures for the management of envenomation were discussed and new recommendations were adopted by the participants. The high incidence and severity of this affliction were confirmed by several studies conducted in African countries. The poor availability of antivenom, particularly because of the cost, was also highlighted. Some experiences have been reported, mainly those regarding the financial support of antivenom in Burkina Faso (more than 90 %) and Togo (up to 60 %) or the mandatory reporting of cases in Cameroon. Key recommendations concerned: improvement of epidemiological information based on case collection; training of health workers in the management of envenomation; policy to promote the use of effective and safe antivenom; and antivenom funding by sharing its costs with stakeholders in order to improve antivenom accessibility for low-income patients.(AU)


Subject(s)
Snake Bites , Antivenins , Policy , Scorpion Stings , Costs and Cost Analysis
16.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 21: 48, 31/03/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954772

ABSTRACT

Background American visceral leishmaniasis is caused by the intracellular parasiteLeishmania (L.) infantum chagasi, and transmitted by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Since treatment is based on classical chemotherapeutics with significant side effects, the search for new drugs remains the greatest global challenge. Thus, this in vitro study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal effect ofCrotalus durissus terrificus venom fractions on promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi. Methods Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) and a pool of peptide fraction (<3 kDa) were purified from Crotalusvenom. Furthermore, promastigotes and peritoneal macrophages of mice infected by amastigotes were exposed to serial dilutions of the PLA 2 and peptides at intervals varying between 1.5625 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL. Both showed activity against promastigotes that varied according to the tested concentration and the time of incubation (24, 48 and 72 h). Results MTT assay for promastigotes showed IC 50 of 52.07 μg/mL for PLA2 and 16.98 μg/mL for the peptide fraction of the venom. The cytotoxicity assessment in peritoneal macrophages showed IC50 of 98 μg/mL and 16.98 μg/mL for PLA 2 and peptide by MTT assay, respectively. In peritoneal macrophages infected by Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi amastigotes, the PLA 2 stimulated growth of parasites, and at higher doses reduced growth by 23 %. The peptide fraction prevented 43 % of the intracellular parasite growth at a dose of 16.98 μg/mL, demonstrating the toxicity of this dose to macrophages. Both fractions stimulated H 2 O 2 production by macrophages but only PLA 2 was able to stimulate NO production. Conclusion We have demonstrated the in vitro leishmanicidal activity of the PLA2 and peptide fraction ofCrotalus venom. The results encourage further studies to describe the metabolic pathways involved in cell death, as well as the prospecting of molecules with antiparasitic activity present in the peptide fraction of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Peptides , Phospholipases , In Vitro Techniques , Crotalus cascavella/toxicity , Leishmania , Metabolic Networks and Pathways
17.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954739

ABSTRACT

The printing-press revolution, one of the most important breakthroughs for humanity, began about 1465 when Johannes Gutenberg invented a moveable mechanical type for printing. In 1665, the first scientific journals appeared in France and England, called respectively the Journal des Sçavans and Philosophical Transactions. Since then, the structure of a scientific work has respected the basic paradigms "introduction, methods, results and discussion" ­ one of humanity's oldest formats. In 1900, 9,000 scientific articles were published per year; by 2000, this number had grown to 900,000. In 2010, PubMed Central, which does not index the majority of the world's journals, received 1,100,000 papers for indexing, i.e., approximately 3,000 per day [5]. These data demonstrate the exponential growth of the world scientific knowledge. The great challenge was: how could this immense amount of knowledge be printed and delivered by mail? In August of 1991, Paul Ginsparg, a physicist at Cornell University (USA), founded the Los Alamos e-print archives (http://arxiv.org/), which was considered the first electronic scientific publication [6]. Its mission was to distribute papers automatically to cover the areas of physics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology and statistics. It was an electronic system of automatic distribution with definitive submission or the possibility of a correction by the author. It was also discussed in the 1990s whether an electronic publication should be considered a scientific journal or not. According to the Vancouver Group, any electronic publication made available on the Internet constitutes a publication [7].(AU)


Subject(s)
Abstracting and Indexing , Electronic Publications
18.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 20: 53, 04/02/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-954711

ABSTRACT

Background Environmental devastation threatens the survival of many species, including venomous snakes such as the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. This observation is based on the decrease of snakes collected and donated to Brazilian research institutes. Nevertheless, some individuals have managed to survive and procreate. The question is how these snakes are adapting in these new environmental conditions.Methods To answer it, the carbon-13 level of rattlesnakes and their feed (either laboratory or wild mice) was evaluated by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Thus, rattle segments from 16 adults and 15 offspring of captive snakes, and of three wild newborn C. d. terrificus were evaluated as well as 17 Mus musculus mice captured in traps, four live feeder mice and the ration offered to mice at animal houses.Results The isotopic exchange time of the captive adult snakes (n = 16) varied between 33 and 37 months and of captive-born animals (n = 15), until reaching a plateau of equilibrium, varied from 18 to 24 months. Regarding the captured Mus musculus (n = 17), 88.23% (n = 15) were from a C4 environment. Of the six rattle rings from offspring of captured C. d. terrificus, five were from a C4environment, whereas of the 170 rattle rings studied, 60% originated from a C3 environment and 40% from a C4. The same carbon-13 values were found in captive snakes.Conclusions Based on the present results, it can be inferred that most C. d. terrificus snakes (60%) fed animals from a C3environment; birds consist of an alimentary alternative for snakes, as well as rodents, small reptiles and amphibians; different venom compositions among snakes from the same region may be related to the food type; the primary rattle of offspring reflects the maternal diet during gestation; and, finally, the different rattle rings indicate the alimentary history of these animals.(AU)


Subject(s)
Crotalus/anatomy & histology , History , Isotopes
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 24(5): 456-461, Sep-Oct/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697643

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the osteogenic capacity of a new fibrin sealant (FS) combined with bone graft and laser irradiation in the bone repair. Defects were created in the skull of 30 rats and filled with autogenous graft and FS derived from snake venom. Immediately after implantation, low-power laser was applied on the surgical site. The animals were divided in: control group with autogenous graft (G1), autogenous graft and laser 5 J/cm2 (G2), autogenous graft and laser 7 J/cm2 (G3), autogenous graft and FS (G4), autogenous graft, FS and laser 5 J/cm2 (G5), autogenous graft, FS and laser 7 J/cm2 (G6). The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after implant. Results showed absence of inflammatory infiltrate in the bone defect. New bone formation occurred in all groups, but it was most intense in G6. Thus, the FS and laser 7 J/cm2 showed osteoconductive capacity and can be an interesting resource to be applied in surgery of bone reconstruction.


Este estudo avaliou a capacidade osteogênica de um novo selante de fibrina (FS) associado com enxerto ósseo e irradiação laser no reparo ósseo. Defeitos foram criados no crânio de 30 ratos e preenchidos com enxerto autógeno e FS derivado do veneno de cobra. Imediatamente após implantação, foi aplicado laser de baixa potência na área cirúrgica. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle com autógeno (G1), autógeno e laser 5 J/cm2 (G2), autógeno e laser 7J/cm2 (G3), autógeno e FS (G4), autógeno, FS e laser 5J/cm2 (G5), autógeno, FS e laser 7J/cm2 (G6). Os animais foram sacrificados 6 semanas após implante. Resultados mostraram ausência de infiltrado inflamatório no defeito ósseo. Neoformação óssea ocorreu em todos os grupos, entretanto, foi mais intenso em G6. Desta maneira, o FS e laser 7J/cm2 mostraram capacidade osteocondutiva e podem ser um interessante recurso a ser aplicado nas cirurgias de reconstrução óssea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Fibrin Tissue Adhesive/pharmacology , Skull/radiation effects , Bone Development/drug effects , Bone Development/radiation effects , Lasers , Rats, Wistar , Skull/drug effects
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