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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e1062, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288110

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Considering the persistent positivity on RT-qPCR tests, the results of SARS-CoV-2 were monitored to evaluate the viral RNA shedding period. METHODS: Between March and June 2020, the sequential results of 29 healthcare workers' were monitored using RT-qPCR. RESULTS: More than 50% of the individuals remained RT-qPCR positive after 14 days. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe positive RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2 in a healthcare worker with mild symptoms 95 days after the first positive test. CONCLUSIONS: Sequential RT-qPCR results were heterogeneous, and the viral RNA shedding period is unique for each person.

2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 914-918, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974286

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The global emergence of carbapenemases led to the need of developing new methods for their rapid detection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the rapid tests for carbapenemase-producing and non-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae from a surveillance study submitted to a multiplex real time PCR for carbapenemase detection were included in this study. The isolates were subjected to the rapid phenotypic tests Carba NP, Blue-Carba and Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM). A total of 83 carbapenemase-producing (43) and non-producing (40) isolates were included in the study. The sensitivity/specificity were 62.7%/97.5%, 95.3%/100%, and 74.4%/97.5% for Carba NP, Blue-Carba and CIM, respectively. Both Carba NP and Blue-Carba presented their final results after 75 min of incubation; the final results for CIM were obtained only after 8 h. Failure to detect OXA-370 carbapenemase was the main problem for Carba NP and CIM assays. As the Blue-Carba presented the highest sensitivity, it can be considered the best screening test. Conversely, CIM might be the easiest to perform, as it does not require special reagents. The early detection of carbapenemases aids to establish infection control measures and prevent carbapenemases to spread reducing the risk of healthcare associated infections and therapeutic failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , beta-Lactamases/analysis , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enzyme Assays/methods , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , Brazil , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
J. bras. pneumol ; 44(2): 106-111, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893906

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The incidence of lung disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. In Brazil, there are few studies about nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTMLD), and its prevalence is yet to be known. Our objective was to determine the specific etiology of the disease in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, as well as the frequency and diversity of NTM species in our sample of patients. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients diagnosed with NTMLD treated in a referral center located in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, between 2003 and 2013. Results: Our sample comprised 100 patients. The most prevalent NTM species were Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), in 35% of the cases; M. kansasii, in 17%; and M. abscessus, in 12%. A total of 85 patients had received previous treatment for tuberculosis. Associated conditions included structural abnormalities in the lungs, such as bronchiectasis, in 23% of the cases; COPD, in 17%; and immunosuppressive conditions, such as AIDS, in 24%. Conclusions: MAC and M. kansasii were the most prevalent species involved in NTMLD in the state, similarly to what occurs in other regions of Brazil. Data on regional epidemiology of NTMLD, its specific etiology, and associated conditions are essential to establish appropriate treatment, since each species requires specific regimens. Most patients with NTMLD had received previous tuberculosis treatment, which might lead to development of resistance and late diagnosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: A incidência de doença pulmonar causada por micobactérias não tuberculosas (MNT) tem aumentado em todo o mundo. No Brasil, há poucos estudos sobre doença pulmonar por MNT, e sua prevalência ainda não é conhecida. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a etiologia específica da doença no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, bem como a frequência e a diversidade das espécies de MNT em nossa amostra de pacientes. Métodos: Análise retrospectiva dos prontuários de pacientes diagnosticados com doença pulmonar por MNT atendidos em um centro de referência localizado na cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, entre 2003 e 2013. Resultados: Nossa amostra foi composta por 100 pacientes. As espécies de MNT mais prevalentes foram Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC, complexo M. avium), em 35% dos casos; M. kansasii, em 17%; e M. abscessus, em 12%. Um total de 85 pacientes havia feito tratamento anterior para tuberculose. Condições associadas incluíram anormalidades estruturais nos pulmões, como bronquiectasias, em 23% dos casos; DPOC, em 17%; e condições imunossupressoras, como AIDS, em 24%. Conclusões: MAC e M. kansasii foram as espécies mais prevalentes envolvidas na doença pulmonar por MNT no estado, à semelhança do que ocorre em outras regiões do Brasil. Dados sobre a epidemiologia regional da doença pulmonar por MNT, sua etiologia específica e condições associadas são fundamentais para se estabelecer um tratamento adequado, já que cada espécie requer um esquema específico. A maioria dos pacientes com doença pulmonar por MNT havia feito tratamento anterior para tuberculose, o que pode levar a desenvolvimento de resistência e diagnóstico tardio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Lung Diseases/microbiology , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/epidemiology , Time Factors , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(1): 59-65, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893823

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: BK virus (BKV) infection in renal transplant patients may cause kidney allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Accurate determination of BKV viral load is critical to prevent BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) but the cut-off that best predicts BKVAN remains controversial. Objective: To evaluate the performance of a commercial and an in-house qPCR test for quantitative detection of BK virus in kidney transplant recipients. Methods: This was a prospective study with kidney transplant recipients from two large university hospitals in Brazil. Patients were screened for BKV infection every 3 months in the first year post-transplant with a commercial and an in-house real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test. BKVAN was confirmed based on histopathology. The area under the curve for plasma qPCR was determined from receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: A total of 200 patients were enrolled. Fifty-eight percent were male, 19.5% had diabetes mellitus, and 82% had the kidney transplanted from a deceased donor. BKV viremia was detected in 32.5% and BKVAN was diagnosed in 8 patients (4%). BKVAN was associated with viremia of 4.1 log copies/mL, using a commercial kit. The cut-off for the in-house assay was 6.1 log copies/mL. The linearity between the commercial kit and the in-house assay was R2=0.83. Conclusion: Our study shows that marked variability occurs in BKV viral load when different qPCR methodologies are used. The in-house qPCR assay proved clinically useful, a cheaper option in comparison to commercial qPCR kits. There is an urgent need to make BKV standards available to the international community.


Resumo Introdução: A infecção pelo vírus BK (BKV) em pacientes de transplante renal pode levar a disfunção do aloenxerto renal e perda do enxerto. A determinação precisa da carga viral do BKV é fundamental para prevenir a nefropatia associada ao BKV (BKVAN), mas o ponto de corte de melhor valor preditivo para BKVAN ainda é foco de debates. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho de um teste de qPCR comercial e outro desenvolvido internamente para detecção quantitativa de vírus BK em receptores de transplante renal. Métodos: O presente estudo prospectivo incluiu receptores de transplante renal de dois grandes hospitais universitários no Brasil. Os pacientes foram testados para infecção por BKV a cada três meses no primeiro ano pós-transplante com um teste comercial de reação em cadeia de polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qPCR) e outro desenvolvido internamente. A presença de BKVAN foi confirmada com base na histopatologia. A área sob a curva para o qPCR plasmático foi determinada a partir da análise da característica de operação do receptor. Resultados: Um total de 200 pacientes foram incluídos. Cinquenta e oito por cento eram do sexo masculino, 19,5% tinham diabetes mellitus e 82% tiveram seus rins transplantados de doadores falecidos. Viremia de BKV foi detectada em 32,5% dos pacientes e oito (4%) foram diagnosticados com BKVAN. BKVAN foi associada a viremia de 4,1 log cópias/mL usando o kit comercial. O corte para o ensaio interno foi de 6,1 log cópias/mL. A linearidade entre o kit comercial e o ensaio interno foi R2 = 0,83. Conclusão: Nosso estudo demonstrou uma acentuada variabilidade na carga viral de BKV quando diferentes metodologias de qPCR foram utilizadas. O ensaio interno de qPCR mostrou-se clinicamente útil, além de ser uma opção menos onerosa em relação aos kits comerciais de qPCR. Há uma necessidade urgente de se definir padrões de BKV para a comunidade internacional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Postoperative Complications/virology , Tumor Virus Infections/virology , Kidney Transplantation , BK Virus/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Polyomavirus Infections/virology , Postoperative Complications/blood , Tumor Virus Infections/blood , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies , Polyomavirus Infections/blood
6.
J. Bras. Patol. Med. Lab. (Online) ; 53(6): 358-361, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-893587

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ABC) complex includes five species, and the A. baumannii is the most important of them because it carries mechanisms of carbapenems resistance, especially the oxacillinases. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify the species of the ABC complex, to evaluate the susceptibility profile and to investigate the presence of oxacillinases in carbapenems-resistant isolates from four Brazilian States. Methods: In the study period, 92 isolates from Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Paraná (PR) and São Paulo (SP) were collected. The isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of fight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and sequencing of gyrB gene. Evaluation of susceptibility was performed by disk diffusion and broth microdilution. The presence of oxacillinases was performed by in-house multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Ninety-one (99%) isolates were identified as A. baumannii by MALDI-TOF and sequencing. The majority of isolates (56; 61%) showed resistance to the six antimicrobial agents tested. Three isolates were resistant to polymyxin B [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 4 µg/ml). Eighty (87%) isolates were positive to OXA-23-like, and twelve (13%) isolates to OXA-24-like. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the knowledge about the dissemination of the blaOXA-23 gene in Brazil and suggest the recent emergence and spread of blaOXA-24 gene, since it was identified in three of the four sampled states.


RESUMO Introdução: O complexo Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ABC) inclui cinco espécies, sendo A. baumannii a mais importante clinicamente por carrear muitos mecanismos de resistência aos carbapenêmicos, sobretudo as oxacilinases. Objetivos: Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar as espécies do complexo ABC, avaliar o perfil de suscetibilidade e investigar a presença de oxacilinases em isolados resistentes aos carbapenêmicos provenientes de quatro estados brasileiros. Métodos: No período do estudo, foram coletados 92 isolados do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), do Rio de Janeiro (RJ), do Paraná (PR) e de São Paulo (SP). Os isolados foram identificados por matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of fight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) e sequenciamento do gene gyrB. A avaliação da suscetibilidade foi realizada por disco-difusão e microdiluição de caldo. A presença de oxacilinases foi realizada por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR) multiplex in house. Resultados: Noventa e um (99%) isolados foram identificados como A. baumannii por MALDI-TOF e pelo sequenciamento. A maioria dos isolados (56; 61%) apresentou resistência aos seis agentes antimicrobianos testados. Três isolados foram resistentes à polimixina B [concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) ≥ 4 µg/ml). Oitenta (87%) isolados foram positivos para OXA-23 e 12, (13%) para OXA-24. Conclusão: Nossos resultados confirmam a disseminação do gene blaOXA-23 no Brasil e sugerem a recente emergência e disseminação do gene blaOXA-24, uma vez que ele foi identificado em três dos quatro estados amostrados.

7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(11): 775-778, Nov. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) includes species with high resistance rates among mycobacterial pathogens. In fact, MABC infections may not respond to clarithromycin treatment, which has historically been very effective against MABC infection. Molecular markers have been proposed to detect both acquired (rrl polymorphisms) and inducible (erm(41) polymorphisms) clarithromycin resistance in MABC isolates. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility profile and molecular markers of clarithromycin resistance in MABC. METHODS The clarithromycin susceptibility profile was determined by broth microdilution with reads on days 3, 5, 7 and 14. Mutations in the rrl and erm(41) genes were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers, followed by sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 14 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates and 28 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates were evaluated, and clarithromycin resistance was observed in all isolates for up to three days of incubation. None of the 42 isolates exhibited a point mutation in the rrl gene, while all the isolates had a T28 polymorphism in the erm(41) gene. Moreover, all 28 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates had a deletion in the erm(41) gene. MAIN CONCLUSIONS While all the MABC isolates exhibited acquired clarithromycin resistance, no isolates exhibited a point mutation in the rrl gene in this study. The M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates demonstrated clarithromycin resistance, which is an uncommon phenotype. The molecular data for the rrl and erm(41) genes were not consistent with the phenotypic test results of clarithromycin susceptibility, indicating a lack of correlation between molecular clarithromycin resistance markers for both acquired and inducible resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium/drug effects , Mycobacterium/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Genes, Bacterial
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(2): 191-192, April.-June 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Serratia marcescens is a Gram-negative rod intrinsically resistant to polymyxins and usually associated with wound, respiratory and urinary tract infections. The whole genome of the first GES-5-producing S. marcescens isolated from a Brazilian patient was sequenced using Ion Torrent PGM System. Besides blaGES-5, we were able to identify genes encoding for other β-lactamases, for aminoglycoside modifying enzymes and for an efflux pump to tetracyclines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Serratia marcescens/enzymology , Serratia marcescens/genetics , beta-Lactamases/metabolism , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , Genome, Bacterial , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Serratia marcescens/isolation & purification , Transferases/metabolism , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 179-183, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842837

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a source of neonatal infection, colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of pregnant women. Routine screening for maternal GBS in late pregnancy and consequent intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis have reduced the incidence of early-onset GBS neonatal infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR, compared to culture (gold standard), in GBS colonization screening of pregnant women, and to establish the prevalence of GBS colonization among this population. METHODS: Vaginal introitus and perianal samples were collected from 204 pregnant women, between the 35th and 37th weeks of pregnancy, at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the University of Caxias do Sul General Hospital between June 2008 and September 2009. All samples were cultured after enrichment in a selective medium and then assayed by culture and PCR methods. RESULTS: The culture and PCR methods yielded detection rates of vaginal/perianal GBS colonization of 22.5% and 26%, respectively (sensitivity 100%; specificity 95.6%; positive and negative predictive values 86.8% and 100%, respectively). A higher prevalence of GBS colonization was detected in the combined vaginal and perianal samples by both culture and PCR assay analyses. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a faster and more efficient method for GBS screening, allowing for optimal identification of women who should receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent newborn infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anal Canal/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Vagina/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 785-792, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828193

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is widely recognized as an important pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. The treatment of these infections is often difficult due to the acquisition of resistance genes. A. baumannii presents a high genetic plasticity which allows the accumulation of these resistance determinants leading to multidrug resistance. It is highlighted the importance of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes, through mobile genetic elements and its relationship with increased incidence of multidrug resistant A. baumannii in hospitals. Considering that resistance to carbapenems is very important from the clinical and epidemiological point of view, the aim of this article is to present an overview of the current knowledge about genetic elements related to carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii such as integrons, transposons, resistance islands and insertion sequences.


Subject(s)
DNA, Bacterial , DNA Transposable Elements , Carbapenems/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Integrons , Genomic Islands
11.
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(1): 18-22, 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788747

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) persists as a severe global public health issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of an in-house TB PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in sputum. Methods: DNA from sputum specimens were submitted to a nested-PCR protocol for the IS6110 region detection. PCR results were compared to those of the traditional methods for TB diagnosis, i.e., acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and culture. We analyzed sputum samples obtained from 133 patients. Results: A total of 48 (36%) cultures yielded indeterminate results due to contamination. This high contamination rate may be explained by the fact that samples from fibrocystic patients were included in this study. Additionally, other five samples were positive for nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Therefore, it was possible to compare 80 patients for M. tuberculosis detection. We found 14 positive samples: five presented positive results in the three methods (5/14; 35.7%), two were positive in culture and PCR (2/14; 14.3%), one was positive in AFB and PCR (1/14; 7.1%), five were positive only in PCR (5/14; 35.7%) and 1 was positive only in culture (1/14; 7.1%). Thus, positivity rates for each technique were: 7.5% for AFB (6/80), 10% for culture (8/80) and 16.25% for PCR (13/80). Among the 48 patients who had indeterminate results in sputum culture, two samples were positive in PCR. Conclusion: Considering the limitations of the traditional methods, the use of PCR as a molecular technique could be advantageous for TB diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary
12.
Clin. biomed. res ; 35(3): 134-140, 2015. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-778811

ABSTRACT

Nos últimos anos, a incidência mundial de enterobactérias resistentes a carbapenêmicos (ERC) tem aumentado. A disseminação de ERC é preocupante considerando as limitações terapêuticas e a alta mortalidade de infecções causadas por essas bactérias. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a incidência de infecções por ERC em pacientes previamente colonizados. Métodos: Estudo de coorte, retrospectivo, realizado em hospital universitário de Porto Alegre, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 2014. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes com coleta de swab retal para pesquisa de ERC. Foram considerados infectados pacientes com isolado de ERC em amostra clínica que apresentaram swab retal prévio positivo para a mesma espécie. A mortalidade bruta foi analisada em 30 dias após o isolamento de ERC. Resultados: Foram coletados 2.733 swabs retais, sendo 78 (2,85%) destes positivos para ERC (pacientes colonizados). Um total de 33% (26/78) dos pacientes colonizados também apresentaram ERC em amostra clínica. O tempo médio entre o isolamento de ERC em swab (colonização) e em material clínico (infecção) foi de 14,9 dias (± 13,6). A maior parte das amostras clínicas positivas para ERC foi em urina (46,1%; 12/26). A mortalidade foi de 61% (16/26) nos pacientes colonizados e com infecção versus 46% (24/52) nos pacientes colonizados que não desenvolveram infecção. Conclusão: Nossos dados demonstram que 1/3 de pacientes colonizados desenvolveram infecção por ERC. Foi possível observar uma mortalidade maior em pacientes infectados em relação a pacientes apenas colonizados por ERC...


Introduction: In the last years, the global incidence of carbapenems resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has increased. The spread of CRE is worrying, considering the therapeutic limitations and the high mortality of CRE infections. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of these infections in previously colonized patients. Methods: Retrospective cohort study conducted in a university hospital of Porto Alegre. The study evaluated medical records of patients hospitalized from January to December 2014 who had rectal swabs collected for investigation of CRE at some point during their stay. They were considered infected patients with CRE isolated from clinical sample who had previous positive rectal swab for the same species. Crude mortality was analyzed 30 days after isolation of CRE. Results: A total of 2,733 swabs were collected, 78 (2.85%) of which were positive for CRE (colonized patients). A total of 33% (26/78) of colonized patients were also positive for CRE in clinical samples. The average time between the isolation of CRE from swabs (colonization) and from clinical samples (infection) was 14.9 days (± 13.6). Most clinical isolates were positive in urine (46.1%; 12/26). Mortality was 61% (16/26) in patients colonized with infection vs. 46% (24/52) in colonized patients who did not develop infection. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that 1/3 of colonized patients developed CRE infection. Mortality rates were found to be higher in infected patients than in patients only colonized with CRE...


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbapenems , Enterobacteriaceae Infections
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 835-839, July-Sept. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727010

ABSTRACT

Double disks synergy test (DDST) and combined disks test (CD) were evaluated to predict the presence of metallo-β-lactamase in 70 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates recovered from cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis patients. DDST CAZ-EDTA 1 cm and CD IMP-EDTA tests showed the best accuracy (94.3%). Furthermore, for other combinations, accuracy unsatisfactory was obtained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , beta-Lactamases , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Phenotype , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification
14.
Clin. biomed. res ; 34(2): 64-68, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-997748

ABSTRACT

Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health issue. The bloodborne nature of HCV transmission poses a substantial risk to healthcare workers, due to occupational exposure to needlestick injuries and blood and other body fluids containing the virus. Undiagnosed HCV infection, including in healthcare workers, represents a growing problem worldwide as the infected population ages, and HCV-related mortality and morbidity is expected to rise substantially over the coming decades. Consequently, diagnostic tests for HCV play an important role in this scenario. The aim of this study was to standardize a one-step RT-PCR assay for detection of HCV. The test demonstrated reproducibility, sensibility (100%), and the limit of detection was set at 100IU/mL. Our study indicates that this assay can be used as a diagnostic tool to follow up healthcare workers after occupational exposure


Subject(s)
Humans , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepacivirus/isolation & purification , Untranslated Regions/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Hepatitis C/virology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Viral Load/methods
15.
Clin. biomed. res ; 34(4): 397-402, 2014. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-834477

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp (VRE) has been a worldwide problem since mid 1980’s and, in Brazil, since 1996. This study was conducted to evaluate the experience with VRE in our institution. Methods: A prospective cohort study from 2000 to 2009 was conducted at Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS. All hospitalized patients with VRE positive culture were included and followed from their diagnosis until they were negative for VRE or their discharge. Only the first admission for each VRE positive patient was included. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine how VRE had spread. Results: A total of 315 cases of VRE were identified, 224 of which were isolated from rectal swabs. Vancomycin-resistant/ampicilin susceptible Enterococcus faecalis were identified in 312 isolates. PFGE was performed in 47 VRE isolates that presented an indistinguishable migratory profile. The median length of hospital stay and length of stay before VRE isolation were 46 days and 21 days, respectively; 52% of the patients were aged 60 and above. The annual distribution of the new VRE cases showed a clear decrease from 2000 to 2009. Discussion: This study shows a substantial VRE colonization (71%) with a homogenous pattern that emphasizes its transversal spread. Predominance of E. faecalis differs from the literature which largely describes a higher prevalence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. The follow up of VRE during 9 years in our institution highlighted the importance of continuous surveillance to prevent outbreaks in our hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Follow-Up Studies , Prospective Studies , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Infection Control
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(6): 725-730, Nov.-Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-611754

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hospitals around the world have presented multiresistant Acinetobacter sp. outbreaks. The spread of these isolates that harbor an increasing variety of resistance genes makes the treatment of these infections and their control within the hospital environment more difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and dissemination of Acinetobacter sp. multiresistant isolates and to identify acquired resistance genes. METHODS: We analyzed 274 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter sp. from five hospitals in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. We evaluated the susceptibility to antimicrobial, acquired resistance genes from Ambler's classes B and D, and performed molecular typing of the isolates using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) technique. RESULTS: A high (68 percent) percentage of multiresistant isolates of Acinetobacter sp. was observed, and 69 percent were resistant to carbapenems. We identified 84 percent of isolates belonging to species A. baumannii because they presented the gene blaOXA-51. The gene blaOXA-23 was detected in 62 percent of the isolates, and among these, 98 percent were resistant to carbapenems. Using the ERIC-PCR technique, we identified clones of Acinetobacter sp. spread among the four hospitals analyzed during the sampling period. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate the dissemination of Acinetobacter sp. isolates among hospitals and their permanence in the hospital after one year.


INTRODUÇÃO: Hospitais no mundo todo têm apresentado surtos de Acinetobacter sp. multirresistentes. A disseminação destes isolados com uma variedade cada vez maior de genes de resistência torna difícil o tratamento destas infecções e seu controle dentro do ambiente hospitalar. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e disseminação de isolados de Acinetobacter sp. multirresistentes e identificar genes de resistência adquirida. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 274 isolados clínicos de Acinetobacter sp. obtidos de cinco hospitais da Cidade de Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Avaliamos o perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos, genes de resistência adquirida das classes B e D de Ambler e realizamos a tipificação molecular dos isolados utilizando a técnica de enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). RESULTADOS: Encontramos uma alta (68 por cento) porcentagem de isolados de Acinetobacter sp. multirresistentes e 69 por cento dos isolados apresentaram resistência aos carbapenêmicos. Foram identificados 84 por cento de isolados pertencentes a espécie A. baumannii, pois apresentaram o gene blaOXA-51. Em 62 por cento dos isolados, foi detectado o gene blaOXA-23, sendo que 98 por cento destes isolados foram resistentes aos carbapenêmicos. Através da tipificação molecular pela técnica de ERIC-PCR identificamos clones de Acinetobacter sp. disseminados entre quatro dos hospitais analisados e nos anos de 2006 e 2007. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados obtidos indicam a disseminação de isolados de Acinetobacter sp. entre hospitais assim como sua permanência no ambiente hospitalar após um ano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acinetobacter/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter/genetics , Acinetobacter/isolation & purification , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Brazil , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 42(3): 1061-1064, July-Sept. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607536

ABSTRACT

We screened 349 isolates of P. aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis (CF+) and non-cystic fibrosis (CF-) patients for the auxotrophy. Fourteen (4.0 percent) were auxotrophic and among them only one was recovered from CF-patient showing that this characteristic is strongly associated with cystic fibrosis. In total, a requirement for 5 different compounds (or combination) was verified and, of these, methionine was the most common single amino acid required. Only one auxotrophic isolate was no able to produce biofilm in vitro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Airway Obstruction , Cystic Fibrosis , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Pseudomonas Infections , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Biofilms , Methods , Methods
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 53(4): 197-199, July.-Aug. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-598599

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a pathogen in individuals without traditional risk factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MRSA nasal carriage was assessed in individuals consulting at a Primary Health Unit in Brazil. RESULTS: A total of 336 individuals were included: 136 were tested only for MRSA and 200 for any S. aureus. No MRSA was found among the 336 individuals and 23 (11.5 percent) of 200 were colonized by S. aureus. DISCUSSION: Low prevalence rates have been found in non-hospitalized individuals, but MRSA surveillance should be encouraged to monitor clinical and molecular epidemiology of CA- MRSA.


INTRODUÇÃO: Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina associados à comunidade (CA-MRSA) têm emergido como patógeno em indivíduos sem os tradicionais fatores de risco. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Carreamento nasal de MRSA foi avaliado em indivíduos atendidos em unidade básica de saúde. RESULTADOS: 336 indivíduos foram incluídos: 136 foram testados somente para MRSA e 200 para qualquer S. aureus. Nenhum MRSA foi encontrado nos 336 indivíduos e 23 (11.5 por cento) de 200 eram colonizados por S. aureus. DISCUSSÃO: Baixas taxas de prevalência têm sido encontradas em indivíduos não-hospitalizados, entretanto a vigilância de MRSA é encorajada para o monitoramento da epidemiologia clínica e molecular do CA- MRSA.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carrier State/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Carrier State/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Nasal Cavity/microbiology , Prevalence
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(4): 301-304, July-Aug. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595669

ABSTRACT

Biofilm production is an important mechanism for bacterial survival and its occurrence together with antimicrobial resistance represents a challenge for clinical management. Here, we evaluated the ability for biofilm production among P. aeruginosa isolates from patients with or without cystic fibrosis (CF) using two distinct media, besides determining the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of these isolates for eight antimicrobial agents. The ability for biofilm production when TSB medium was used was higher than when used CF sputum media (p = 0.0198). However, P. aeruginosa isolates from CF have demonstrated similar performance for biofilm production, independently of the medium used. Besides, among the biofilm-producing isolates, those recovered from CF were more resistant to the carbapenems (meropenem and imipenem) agents than those isolates from non-CF isolates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms/growth & development , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Culture Media , Cystic Fibrosis/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , Sputum/microbiology
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