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1.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 97(6): 651-657, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350982

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: The authors aim to evaluate the ''point-of-care'' transfontanellar ultrasound (TU) as an extension to pediatric physical examination and suggest a TU teaching protocol. Methods: The students were randomly divided into two groups, group A (12 participants) and group B (15 participants). The first group only received theoretical training, while the second group received theoretical and practical training. A third group, group C, included 15 pediatricians and interns who also received theoretical and practical training. All the participants underwent multiple-choice testing before and after a four-hour short course on TU. Six months later, another evaluation was performed to analyze the retained knowledge. Furthermore, a questionnaire based on the Likert scale was administered to evaluate satisfaction. Results: The cognitive evaluation (maximum score = 10 points) before and after training increased in group A from 4,0 ± 1,04 to 7,5 ± 1,2 (p < 0.001) and, 6 months later, to 6,5 ± 1,16 (p < 0.003); in group B from 3,8 ± 1,24 to 8,8 ± 1,01 (p < 0.001) and, 6 months later, to 8,46 ± 0,91 (p < 0.001); and in group C from 6,0 ± 0,75 to 9,0 ± 0,75 (p < 0.001) and, 6 months later, to 8,8 ± 0,77 (p < 0.001). The average satisfaction estimated by the Likert scale was over 80% for all questions. Conclusion: Cognitive assessment before and after classes and training reveals progress in learning, with knowledge retention in 6 months. Theoretical-practical courses are well accepted.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Students, Medical , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Point-of-Care Systems , Curriculum , Educational Measurement , Pediatricians
3.
J. bras. nefrol ; 43(3): 445-449, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340125

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Point-of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS) has been gaining momentum as an extension to physical examination in several specialties. In nephrology, POCUS has generally been used in a restricted way in urinary tract evaluation. We report the case of a patient with nephrotic syndrome secondary to amyloidosis, previously diagnosed by renal biopsy, who was oligosymptomatic when seen the an outpatient clinic, where the POCUS, focused on the heart, lung and abdomen, revealed anasarca, pulmonary congestion and cardiac changes suggestive of cardiac amyloidosis. After evaluation by the cardiology and hematology services, the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with cardiac involvement was confirmed. This case emphasizes the importance of extending the physical examination using POCUS, which, ideally, should not be restricted to the urinary tract.


RESUMO A ultrassonografia Point of Care (POCUS) vem ganhando momentum como uma extensão ao exame físico em várias especialidades. Na nefrologia, a POCUS tem sido geralmente utilizada de forma restrita na avaliação do trato urinário. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com síndrome nefrótica secundária à amiloidose previamente diagnosticada por biópsia renal, que se apresentava oligossintomática quando atendida em ambulatório, onde a POCUS, com foco no coração, pulmão e abdômen, revelou anasarca, congestão pulmonar e alterações cardíacas sugestivas de amiloidose cardíaca. Após avaliação pelos serviços de cardiologia e hematologia, foi confirmado o diagnóstico de amiloidose AL com envolvimento cardíaco. Esse caso enfatiza a importância da extensão do exame físico pela POCUS, que, idealmente, não deve se restringir ao trato urinário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nephrology , Physical Examination , Ultrasonography , Point-of-Care Systems , Lung
4.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(2): 170-178, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154552

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is commonly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These diseases have a significant impact on life expectancy. Individuals with CKD are more likely to die from CVD than to progress to end-stage kidney disease. Objective To assess cardiovascular risk factors of patients with CKD under conservative treatment. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional study. Socioeconomic, anthropometric, biochemical, and physical inactivity data were assessed, and 10-year risk for CVD were estimated using the Framingham Score in patients with CKD under conservative treatment. For statistical analysis, the Student's t-test and Pearson's chi-square test were performed. Results A total of 172 individuals were evaluated, 57% of whom were male, with an average age of 68.85 ± 11.41 years. The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were 87.2% and 53.5%, respectively; 62.2% were physically inactive; 9.9% of men were smokers and 12.8% consumed alcohol. According to BMI, 82.4% of adults <60 years old and 60.6% of those older than 60 years were overweight. High waist circumference and a high waist-hip ratio were highly prevalent in females (91.9% and 83.8%, respectively) and males (64.3% and 39.8%, respectively); 92.4% had a high body fat percentage and 73.3% high uric acid levels. According to the Framingham score, 57% have a medium or high risk of developing CVD in 10 years. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the population studied. The assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with CKD makes it possible to guide the conduct of health professionals to prevent mortality from cardiovascular causes. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Hypertension
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145855

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar as ligas acadêmicas de medicina (LAM) estruturadas e em funcionamento em instituição de ensino superior como estratégias de ensino e aprendizagem, considerando o perfil e verificar se as atividades promovidas pelas LAM estão alinhadas com a medicina baseada em evidências. Métodos: estudo descritivo, do tipo transversal, aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas e da Saúde de Juiz de Fora. Participaram como sujeitos da pesquisa estudantes do último ano de medicina e médicos recém-formados no ano de 2018. Essa amostragem não probabilística teve como finalidade a avaliação da influência das LAM na formação médica. Resultados: oito (5,9%) entrevistados não participaram de qualquer LAM. Observou-se que 31 (24,2%), 49 (38,3%) e 38 (29,7%) participaram de uma, duas ou três LAM, respectivamente. A maioria participou de LAM do terceiro ao oitavo período, porém em todos os períodos houve participação de algum aluno. Para 50 (39,1%) entrevistados, as LAM ajudaram de alguma forma para confirmar a escolha da área da residência, já para 53 (41,4%) deles, elas ajudaram na exclusão da área para a residência. Nota-se, ainda, que 117 (91,4%) dos que participaram de LAM acharam a experiência válida para a formação acadêmica. Conclusões: a maior parte dos alunos atualmente participam de ligas; há enorme interesse em participar de diretoria de LAM e estágios extracurriculares; as LAM contribuem para a escolha da futura especialidade; os estudantes veem neces-sidade na regulamentação das LAM; a avaliação global é de que a experiência é válida para a formação médica. O tema ligas acadêmicas é de enorme relevância atualmente em virtude da extensa participação dos estudantes nessas atividades. A educação em saúde visa compreender a importância dessas entidades para garantir o maior êxito possível no ensino, na pesquisa e na extensão.


Aims: the objective was to analyze the structured and functioning of academic medical leagues (AML) in higher education institution as teaching and learning strategies, considering the profile and to verify if the activities promoted by the AML are aligned with the evidence-based medicine. Methods: descriptive, cross-sectional study, approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences of Juiz de Fora. Medical students and newly graduated physicians participated in the research in 2018. This non-probabilistic sampling aimed to evaluate the influence of AML on medical education. Results: eight respondents did not participate in AML (5.9% of the sample). 31 (24.2%), 49 (38.3%) and 38 (29.7%) participated in one, two or three AML, respectively. Most participated in AML from the third to the eighth period, but in all periods, there was participation. For 50 (39.1%) of respondents, the AML helped in some way to confirm the choice of area of residence, while for 53 (41.4%) of them, AML helped to exclude the area for residence. It is also noted that 117 (91.4%) of those who participated in AML found the experience valid for academic education. Conclusions: thus, most students currently participate in leagues; There is tremendous interest in attending AML board and extracurricular internships; AML contribute to the choice of future specialty; Students needs AML regulation; The overall assessment is that experience is valid for medical education. The academic leagues theme is of enormous relevance today because of the extensive participation of students in these activities. Health education aims to understand the importance of these entities to ensure the greatest possible success in teaching, research, and extension.


Subject(s)
Humans , Specialization , Students, Medical , Education, Medical
6.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(3): 423-426, July-Sept. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040256

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Vascular access and renal biopsy are common procedures in nephrology. In this study, two artisanal simulators of very low cost and excelent image quality are (prented) presented to guide, by ultrasound, the venous access and renal biopsy. Methods: The simulators are constructed using chicken breast slices, Penrose drain, plastic milk shake straw and pig kidney. Results: Both simulators enable immediate identification of the anatomical structures of interest, vessels and kidney, and enable spatial orientation and hand-eye coordination, essential for the development of the necessary skills to safely carry out invasive procedures. Conclusion: The simulators described, were extremely useful for simulating venous access and renal biopsy guided by ultrasonography, enabling training to reduce the failure rate in punctures and the potential complications associated with the described procedures.


RESUMO Introdução: O acesso vascular e a biópsia renal são procedimentos comuns na prática nefrológica. Neste estudo, são apresentados dois simuladores artesanais de baixo custo e excelente qualidade de imagem para guiar, ultrassonograficamente, o acesso venoso e a biópsia renal. Métodos: Os simuladores são construídos utilizando fatias de peito de frango, dreno de Penrose, canudo plástico milk shake e rim de porco. Resultados: Ambos os simuladores permitem a identificação imediata das estruturas anatômicas de interesse, vasos e rim, e possibilitam a orientação espacial e coordenação olho-mão, essenciais para o desenvolvimento das habilidades necessárias para realizar seguramente procedimentos invasivos. Conclusão: Os simuladores descritos, extremamente úteis para as simulações do acesso venoso e a biópsia renal guiados por ultrassonografia, possibilitam o treinamento objetivando a redução do insucesso das punções e das complicações potenciais associadas aos procedimentos descritos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ultrasonography/methods , Simulation Training/methods , Nephrologists/education , Kidney/pathology , Nephrology/education , Swine , Blood Vessels , Punctures , Chickens , Clinical Competence , Muscle, Skeletal , Image-Guided Biopsy
7.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(1): 65-73, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002423

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Evaluate the association between the thumb adductor muscle thickness and the patient's nutritional status, and propose cutoff points for muscle mass depletion in elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) under conservative treatment. Epidemiological and cross-sectional study, including patients with CKD stages 3 to 5, older than 60 years. Socioeconomic, clinical, physical activity and anthropometric data was obtained. TAMT was described and compared according to CKD stage, socioeconomic data, physical activity, nutritional status and correlated with age, glomerular filtration rate and anthropometric variables. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were produced, considering the lean tissue index classification as reference. The cut-off point was defined by the Youden index. Results: We evaluated 137 individuals. The TAMT was lower in malnourished and/or depleted muscle mass individuals; among males it was higher among those who practiced physical activities (p <0.05). This measure was moderately correlated with BMI, calf and brachial circumferences, lean body tissue, lean tissue index and body cell mass (r <0.7); negatively with age (r = -0.34). The ROC curve analysis determined cut points of 15.33 mm for females and 20.33 mm for males, with 72.22% and 62.50% accuracy, respectively. Conclusion: TAMT is used to estimate muscle mass and we suggest the cutoff point is useful to rule out the likelihood of muscle mass depletion. It is recommended that it be used in a complementary way in nutritional assessment.


Resumo Introdução: Avaliar a associação da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar (EMAP) com o estado nutricional e propor pontos de corte para depleção de massa muscular em idosos portadores da doença renal crônica (DRC) em tratamento conservador. Metodologia: Estudo epidemiológico, delineamento transversal, incluindo portadores de DRC estágios 3 a 5, acima de 60 anos. Obteve-se dados socioeconômicos, clínicos, prática de atividade física e antropométricos. A EMAP foi descrita e comparada de acordo com o estágio da DRC, dados socioeconômicos, atividade física e estado nutricional e correlacionada com idade, taxa de filtração glomerular e variáveis antropométricas. Foram produzidas curvas Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), considerando como padrão de referência a classificação do índice de tecido magro. O ponto de corte foi definido pelo índice Youden. Resultados: Avaliou-se 137 indivíduos. A EMAP foi inferior nos desnutridos e/ou com depleção de massa muscular; no sexo masculino foi superior nos praticantes de atividade física (p<0,05). A medida se correlacionou moderadamente com IMC, circunferência da panturrilha e braquial, tecido de massa magra, índice de tecido magro e massa celular corporal (r<0,7), e negativamente com a idade (r=-0,34). A análise da curva ROC determinou pontos de corte de 15,33 mm para o sexo feminino e 20,33 mm para o masculino, com acurácia de 72,22% e 62,50%, respectivamente. Conclusão: A EMAP serve para estimar a massa muscular, e o ponto de corte sugerido é útil para afastar a probabilidade de depleção de massa muscular. Recomenda-se que seja utilizada de forma complementar na avaliação nutricional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Thumb/pathology , Aging/physiology , Nutrition Assessment , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Conservative Treatment , Body Composition , Muscular Atrophy/diagnosis , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Nutritional Status/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , ROC Curve , Age Factors , Glomerular Filtration Rate
8.
HU rev ; 45(3): 341-351, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049336

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O modelo tradicional de referenciamento ao radiologista para a realização de ultrassonografia ou ecografia tem se modificado nos últimos 25 anos. Com a diminuição do tamanho e do custo dos aparelhos de ultrassom (hoje já existem mais de 10 unidades "handheld" no mercado), cada vez mais médicos de diferentes especialidades estão utilizando a ultrassonografia a beira do leito, como extensão do exame físico. Objetivo: Destacar a importância do uso da ultrassonografia a beira do leito na avaliação objetiva e ampliada dos pacientes renais. Materiais e Métodos:Revisão narrativa com seleção dos estudos e a interpretação das informações baseados na escolha arbitrária dos autores. Resultados: Na nefrologia, a ecografia ainda tem sido pouco utilizada, sendo o seu maior uso na identificação renal e venosa quando da realização da biópsia renal e do acesso vascular, respectivamente. Contudo, o papel fundamental dos rins no controle da volemia e da pressão arterial, eventualmente quando se tornam disfuncionais, demanda avaliações multiorgânicas. Assim, a utilização da ultrassonografia na nefrologia não deveria se restringir aos procedimentos mencionados ou a avaliação da retenção urinária. As ecografias "focadas" dos pulmões, do coração e da veia cava inferior permite o diagnóstico de complicações frequentes observadas nas doenças renais, como por exemplo, congestão pulmonar, derrame pleural, pneumotórax, disfunção sistólica, diastólica, derrame pericárdico e, assim, incorporadas como extensão do exame físico em nefrologia. Conclusão: A multifuncionalidade renal implica em grande número de complicações renais e extra-renais quando os rins são funcionalmente acometidos, o que justifica o uso da POCUS não somente na avaliação do trato urinário, mas também dos pulmões, coração, veia cava inferior, entre outros.


Introduction: The traditional model of reference ultrasound to radiologist has changed over the past 25 years. With the reductions in size and cost of ultrasound devices (today there are more than 10 handheld units on the market), medical specialists are increasingly using bedside ultrasound as an extension of the physical examination. Objective:To highlight the importance of using bedside ultrasound in the objective and expanded evaluation of renal patients. Material and Methods: Narrative review with study selection and interpretation of information based on arbitrary choice of authors. Results: In nephrology, ultrasound has not been widely used, and its major uses are in renal and venous identifications in renal biopsy and vascular access, respectively. However, the fundamental role of the kidneys in controlling body volume and blood pressure, eventually when they become dysfunctional, requires multiorgan evaluations. Thus, the use of ultrasound in nephrology should not be restricted to the procedures mentioned or the assessment of urinary retention. "Focused" ultrasound of the lungs, heart, and inferior vena cava allows the diagnosis of frequent complications observed in renal diseases, such as pulmonary congestion, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, pericardial effusion, and thus be incorporated as extension of physical examination in nephrology. In the present review, the authors highlight the importance of using bedside ultrasound in the objective and expanded evaluation of renal patients. Conclusion: Renal multifunctionality implies a large number of renal and extrarenal complications when the kidneys are functionally affected, which justifies the use of POCUS not only in the evaluation of the urinary tract, but also in the lungs, heart, inferior vena cava, among others.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Physical Examination , Urinary Tract , Urinary Retention , Ultrasonography , Equipment and Supplies , Radiologists , Kidney , Kidney Diseases , Methods , Nephrology
9.
HU rev ; 45(1): 13-21, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048137

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O baixo letramento em saúde (BLS) é comum entre pacientes com doenças crônicas. Os estudos sobre a associação entre o BLS e a pressão arterial não controlada estão limitados aos níveis primário e terciário de atenção à saúde. Objetivo: Avaliamos a prevalência e a associação entre BLS e pressão arterial não controlada em pacientes hipertensos em um centro de atenção secundária à saúde no Brasil. Material e métodos: Nosso estudo teve delineamento transversal e incluiu 485 pacientes, no período de Agosto/2014 a Março/2016. Avaliamos letramento em saúde, pelo Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults (SAHLPA-18), e controle pressórico. Indivíduos com um escore ≤14 em SAHLPA-18 foram considerados com BLS, e indivíduos com pressão arterial ≥140/90 (ou ≥130/80 em pacientes diabéticos) foram considerados como tendo pressão arterial não controlada. Resultados:Um total de 56,0% eram mulheres, com média de idade de 62,0±12,6 anos. Os participantes analfabetos eram 61,6% e 65,4% recebiam até um salário mínimo. Tanto a pressão arterial não controlada quanto o BLS foram muito prevalentes (75,1% e 70,9%, respectivamente), entretanto não houve associação entre esses dois parâmetros. Na análise multivariada, a pressão arterial não controlada foi associada à idade (OR:0,96, IC:0,94-0,98, p<0,001), diabetes mellitus (OR:4,36, IC:2,54-7,51; p<0,001) e número de comprimidos (OR:1,16, Cl:1,08-1,25, p<0,001). Conclusão: Mesmo encontrando alta prevalência de BLS, a falta de associação entre BLS e pressão arterial não controlada pode ser devido às características demográficas da amostra, ou seja, idosos com baixa renda e baixa escolaridade. A avaliação do letramento em saúde fornece informações importantes que apoiam ações para melhorar o controle e o tratamento da hipertensão.


Background: Low health literacy (LHL) is common among patients with chronic diseases. Studies on the association between LHL and uncontrolled blood pressure are limited to primary and tertiary levels of healthcare. Objective:We evaluated the prevalence and association between LHL and uncontrolled blood pressure in hypertensive patients in a secondary healthcare in Brazil. Material and methods: Our study had a cross-sectional design and included 485 patients, between August/2014 to March/2016. We evaluated health literacy, by Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Portuguese-Speaking Adults (SAHLPA-18), and the blood pressure control. Individuals with a score ≤14 in SAHLPA-18 were considered as LHL, and individuals with blood pressure ≥140/90 (or ≥130/80 in diabetic patients) were considered as having uncontrolled blood pressure. Results: A total of 56.0% female, with mean age 62.0±12.6 years. Illiterate participants were 61.6%, and 65.4% earned up to one reference wage. Both uncontrolled blood pressure and LHL were highly prevalent (75.1% and 70.9%, respectively), but there was no association between these two parameters. In multivariate analysis, uncontrolled blood pressure was associated with age (OR:0.96, CI:0.94-0.98, p<0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR:4.36, CI:2.54-7.51; p<0.001) and number of pills (OR:1.16, CI:1.08-1.25, p<0.001). Conclusion: Even we found a high prevalence of LHL, the lack of association between LHL and uncontrolled blood pressure may be due to demographic characteristics of the sample, i.e., elderly people with low income and low schooling. HL assessment provides important information that supports actions to improve hypertension control and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Therapeutics , Secondary Care , Aged , Logistic Models , Chronic Disease , Statistics, Nonparametric , Educational Status , Health Literacy , Hypertension
10.
HU rev ; 45(1): 98-103, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048672

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O termo ultrassonografia a beira do leito ou point of care (POCUS) tem sido utilizado para descrever o uso de ultrassons portáteis pelo médico quando do atendimento ao paciente. A POCUS está cada vez mais sendo integrada a prática médica como extensão do exame físico tradicional. Objetivo: Apresentar a experiência da implementação do ensino da POCUS no currículo de graduação da Faculdade de Medicina da UFJF. Relato de experiência: São descritos o processo e as condições de implementação da disciplina Ecografia Clínica (EC) I com os alunos do quarto período do curso de medicina da UFJF. Resultados: Na avaliação cognitiva (AC) com opções de múltipla escolha, 88% dos estudantes obtiveram notas iguais ou superiores 80 pontos. Na AC de associação de imagens, o resultado foi ainda melhor, com 96% dos discentes obtendo notas iguais ou superiores a 80 pontos (nenhum aluno obteve nota inferior a 60 pontos). No OSCE, o aproveitamento igual ou superior a 80 pontos foi alcançado por 92% dos alunos. A avaliação de satisfação com a disciplina EC I (escala do tipo Likert) pelos estudantes revelou que a maioria absoluta deles considera que a ultrassonografia melhorou a sua educação médica, melhorou a qualidade do seu exame físico e deveria ser mais inserida no currículo médico. Conclusão: A inserção da ultrassonografia no ensino de graduação em medicina é pedagogicamente adequada e aprovada pelos estudantes.


Introduction: The term bedside ultrasound (POCUS) has been used to describe the use of portable ultrasounds by the physician when providing patient care. POCUS is increasingly being integrated in medical practice as an extension of the traditional physical examination. Objective: To report the experience of the implementation of the teaching POCUS in the undergraduate curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine of UFJF. Experience report: The process and the conditions for the implementation of the discipline Clinical Ultrasound I with the students of the fourth period of the UFJF medical course are described. Results and discussion: In the cognitive assessment (CA) with multiple choice options, 88% of students scored 80 points or higher. In the CA using image association, the result was even better, reaching 96% of students with grades equal to or greater than 80 points (no student scored below 60 points). In the OSCE, achievement equal to or greater than 80 points was achieved by 92% of the students. Satisfaction assessment with the discipline clinical ultrasound I (Likert scale) by medical students revealed that the absolute majority of them consider that ultrasound has improved their medical education, improved the quality of their physical examination and should be more inserted in the medical curriculum doctor. Conclusion: The insertion of the ultrasonography in the teaching of graduation in medicine is pedagogically adequate and approved by the students.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patients , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical , Ultrasonography , Point-of-Care Systems , Research Report , Point-of-Care Testing , Academic Performance
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e055, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019595

ABSTRACT

Abstract Serum hepcidin levels may increase in response to infection and inflammation. The present study investigated the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) on levels of serum hepcidin, inflammatory markers, and iron markers. An interventional study was conducted on 67 patients (age 30-65 years) without other diseases, except for chronic periodontitis (CP). Patients were allocated to either CP or control groups. The CP group received supragingival and subgingival scaling and root planing procedures, whereas the control group received supragingival scaling. Probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level (CAL), visible plaque index (VPI), serum hepcidin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hematological markers, and iron markers were measured at baseline and at 90 days after NSPT. The CP group had statistically significant lower mean values for mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) (p ≤ 0.05). The control group had statistically significant reductions in hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and MCH (p ≤ 0.05). Serum hepcidin, IL-6, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) levels were significantly decreased in both groups after NSPT. Periodontal markers were more markedly reduced in the CP group compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that NSPT may reduce the serum levels of IL-6, hepcidin, and periodontal parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chronic Periodontitis/blood , Hepcidins/blood , Iron/blood , Reference Values , Time Factors , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Dental Plaque Index , Interleukin-6/blood , Treatment Outcome , Root Planing/methods , Periodontal Attachment Loss/pathology , Periodontal Attachment Loss/blood , Statistics, Nonparametric , Chronic Periodontitis/pathology , Chronic Periodontitis/therapy , Gingiva/pathology , Middle Aged
12.
HU rev ; 45(4): 421-425, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177324

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As ligas acadêmicas de medicina (LAM) surgiram no Brasil no início do século XX como reuniões de alunos, na necessidade de combate à alta prevalência dos agravos de saúde pela tuberculose e pela hanseníase. Na década de 90, a criação de novas LAMs permitiu um ambiente de discussão e prática de atividades em área de saúde de interesse de um conjunto de alunos e foi, assim, ganhando cada vez mais espaço na formação médica. Todavia, ainda são poucas as evidências científicas que discutem as finalidades e contribuições das LAMs durante a graduação, seja do ponto de vista do aluno ou do orientador. Objetivo: Estudar o perfil das ligas acadêmicas do curso de medicina de uma instituição de ensino da cidade de Juiz de Fora ­ MG. Material e Métodos: Trabalho de natureza descritiva e transversal que teve como instrumento de pesquisa questionário estruturado com 12 perguntas fechadas, previamente definidas, que foi respondido pelos orientadores das LAMs. Resultados: Em 2018, havia na instituição 36 ligas oficialmente constituídas com 37 orientadores. Quanto a frequência de encontros, os mesmos são majoritariamente mensais (78,4%) e 78,4% contam com a participação dos orientadores. Quanto à participação científica, 70,3% fazem discussão de artigos científicos, 62,2% possuem práticas extra-curriculares, 10,8% realizaram projetos de extensão e 13,5% têm trabalhos vinculados ao Programa de Iniciação Científica. Ressalta-se que a percepção dos orientadores é que 56,8% dos alunos participam para pontuação em programas de residência médica. Finalmente, 89,2% consideram o modelo de gestão adequado. Conclusão: A percepção dos orientadores é importante para a análise das ligas de forma a garantir melhorias principalmente para a educação e extensão. Somente com a descrição e estudo da situação atual será possível imprimir sugestões e avanços nessa questão, que já é tema central dentro da educação médica.


Introduction: The academic leagues of medicine (LAM) emerged in Brazil at the beginning of the twentieth century as student meetings, in order to combat the high prevalence of health problems caused by tuberculosis and leprosy. In the 1990s, the creation of new LAMs allowed for an environment of discussion and practice of health activities of interest to a group of students and was thus gaining more and more space in medical education. However, there is still little scientific evidence to discuss the purposes and contributions of LAMs during undergraduate studies, either from the student's or the advisor's point of view. Objective: To investigate the profile of academic leagues by the medical course of an educational institution in the city of Juiz de Fora - MG. Material and Methods: This study has a descriptive and cross-sectional nature and had as its instrument a structured questionnaire with 12 previously defined closed questions, which was answered by the LAM advisors. Results: In 2018 there were 36 officially constituted leagues in the institution with 37 mentors. As for the frequency of meetings, they are mostly monthly (78.4%), and 78.4% have the participation of counselors. As for scientific participation, 70.3% discuss scientific articles, 62.2% have extra-curricular practices, 10.8% have Extension Projects and 13.5% have papers linked to the Scientific Initiation Program. It is noteworthy that the perception of counselors is that 56.8% participate for scoring in medical residency programs. Finally, 89.2% consider the management model appropriate. Conclusion: Guidance perception is important for league analysis in order to ensure improvements especially for education and extension. Only with the description and study of the current situation will it be possible to print suggestions and advances in this issue, which is already a central theme within medical education.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical , Teaching , Catchment Area, Health , Organizations , Health Sciences
13.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 71(6): 3093-3102, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-977603

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to systematically review the scientific findings about the efficacy of the measure of the Adductor Pollicis Muscle Thickness for nutritional assessment of individuals in various clinical conditions. Method: Systematic review study performed according to the methodology Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Results: 13 original articles published between 2004 and 2016 were included. The measure was associated/correlated to parameters of nutritional status (such as weight, body mass index and Global Subjective Assessment) and muscle mass markers (such as circumference brachial muscle circumference, brachial muscle area, calf circumference, and muscle mass). All these correlations were weak or moderate. Conclusion: The measurement can be used in different populations, being able to estimate nutritional status and muscle mass. However, it is suggested that it be used in a complementary way to the nutritional evaluation, not constituting a single diagnostic/monitoring parameter.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Revisar de forma sistemática las constataciones científicas acerca de la eficacia de la medida de la Espesura del Músculo Aductor del Pulgar para evaluación nutricional de los individuos bajo diversas condiciones clínicas. Método: Estudio de revisión sistemática, realizado conforme la metodología Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Resultados: Se incluyeron 13 artículos originales publicados entre 2004 y 2016. La medida se presentó asociada/correlacionada a los parámetros de evaluación del estado nutricional (peso, índice de masa corporal y Evaluación Subjetiva Global) y a los marcadores de masa muscular (como circunferencia braquial, circunferencia muscular braquial, área muscular braquial, circunferencia de la pantorrilla y masa muscular). Todas estas correlaciones fueron débiles o moderadas. Conclusión: La medida puede ser utilizada en diferentes poblaciones, siendo capaz de estimar el estado nutricional y la masa muscular. Sin embargo, se sugiere que se emplee de forma complementaria la evaluación nutricional, no constituyendo un parámetro único de diagnóstico/monitoreo.


RESUMO Objetivo: Revisar de forma sistemática as constatações científicas acerca da eficácia da medida da Espessura do Músculo Adutor do Polegar para avaliação nutricional de indivíduos em diversas condições clínicas. Método: Estudo de revisão sistemática, realizado conforme a metodologia PreferredReportingItems for SystematicReviewsand Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Resultados: Foram incluídos 13 artigos originais publicados entre 2004 e 2016. A medida apresentou-se associada/correlacionada aos parâmetros de avaliação do estado nutricional (como peso, índice de massa corporal e Avaliação Subjetiva Global) e aos marcadores da massa muscular (como circunferência braquial, circunferência muscular braquial, área muscular braquial, circunferência da panturrilha e massa muscular). Todas essas correlações foram fracas ou moderadas. Conclusão: A medida pode ser utilizada em diferentes populações, sendo capaz de estimar o estado nutricional e a massa muscular. No entanto, sugere-se que seja empregada de modo complementar à avaliação nutricional, não constituindo um parâmetro único de diagnóstico/monitoramento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thumb/anatomy & histology , Body Weights and Measures/methods , Body Weights and Measures/standards , Nutrition Assessment , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Thumb/pathology , Anthropometry
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(4): 326-332, Out.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984584

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered the gold standard vascular access for chronic hemodialysis, and its failure predicts higher morbidity and mortality rates. Objective: 1) To evaluate the success rate of AVF created by a nephrologist and 2) to identify clinical, laboratory, and demographic variables that influence AVF patency. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 101 patients with chronic kidney disease for a total of 159 AVF created by a nephrologist between June 2010 and June 2013. Results: Of the AVFs created, 124 (78%) displayed immediate patency and 110 (62.9%) displayed late patency. Hemoglobin (10-12 g/dL) was the only variable related to late AVF patency (p = 0.05). An elevated blood pressure at time of surgery was associated with a lower number of procedures per patient (p = 0.001). Proximal AVF occurred more frequently in patients with dual access (p = 0.03). The AVF success rate was similar to those previously reported in the literature. Conclusion: Hemoglobin level in the recommended range has a favorable impact on late AVF patency and elevated blood pressure during surgery on the lower number of vascular accesses per patient. The high success rate indicates that it can be placed by trained nephrologists.


RESUMO Introdução: A fístula arteriovenosa (FAV) é considerada o acesso vascular padrão ouro para hemodiálise crônica, e sua falha prediz taxas mais altas de morbimortalidade. Objetivos: 1) Avaliar a taxa de sucesso da FAV criada por um nefrologista e 2) identificar variáveis clínicas, laboratoriais e demográficas que influenciam a patência da FAV. Métodos: Estudo de coorte retrospectivo de 101 pacientes com doença renal crônica, totalizando 159 FAVs criados por um nefrologista entre junho de 2010 e junho de 2013. Resultados: Das FAVs criadas, 124 (78%) apresentaram patência imediata e 110 (62,9%) apresentaram patência tardia. A hemoglobina (10-12 g/dL) foi a única variável relacionada à patência tardia da FAV (p = 0,05). A pressão arterial elevada no momento da cirurgia foi associada a um menor número de procedimentos por paciente (p = 0,001). A FAV proximal ocorreu com maior frequência em pacientes com dois acessos confeccionados (p = 0,03). A taxa de sucesso da FAV foi semelhante à relatada anteriormente na literatura. Conclusão: O nível de hemoglobina no intervalo recomendado tem um impacto favorável na perviedade tardia da FAV e pressão arterial elevada durante a cirurgia no menor número de acessos vasculares por paciente. A alta taxa de sucesso indica que ela pode ser feita por nefrologistas treinados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Vascular Patency , Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Nephrology/methods
15.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(2): 112-121, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954533

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Chronic diseases account for the majority of deaths in Brazil. These include hypertension (SAH) and diabetes mellitus (DM), which are the main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objective: This study aimed to validate the data of an electronic health record and to point out characteristics of the profile of these users in relation to clinical quality indicators for a pre-dialytic CKD. Methods: Retrospective cohort, August/2010 to December/2014. Included users > 18 years, with at least two queries. Variables analyzed: sociodemographic, underlying disease, main medications and main clinical indicators of control. A descriptive analysis was performed and the percentage of users was evaluated in the goals at admission and at the end of the study. Results: Exported, converted and validated data of 1,977 users with average follow-up time of 21 months. Of these, 51.4% were men, 58% were > 64 years of age and 81.6% were overweight. The main medications in use were diuretics (82.9%), BRAT (62%), Statin (60.7%) and ACE inhibitors (49.9%). The percentage of users with a decline in the glomerular filtration rate was 33.7%. Regarding glycated hemoglobin, users with CKD and DM, 36% were within the initial goal and 52.1% of the final. Blood pressure was at the target for admission at 34.3% and 49.8% at the end of follow-up. Conclusion: Validated data are of vital importance for health managers to monitor users. The population of this study is predominantly elderly, obese, requiring multi-professional care to slow the progression of the disease and decrease morbidity and mortality.


RESUMO Introdução: As doenças crônicas são responsáveis pela maioria dos óbitos no Brasil. Estas incluem hipertensão (HAS) e diabetes mellitus (DM), que figuram como as principais causas de doença renal crônica (DRC). Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo validar os dados de um sistema de prontuário eletrônico e apontar características do perfil dos usuários em relação aos indicadores clínicos de qualidade para DRC pré-dialítica. Métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo cobrindo o período de agosto de 2010 a dezembro de 2014. Foram incluídos indivíduos maiores de 18 anos, com pelo menos duas buscas. Variáveis analisadas: sociodemográficas, doença de base, principais medicamentos e principais indicadores clínicos de controle. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva e avaliado o percentual de usuários dentro das metas na internação e ao final do estudo. Resultados: Foram exportados, convertidos e validados os dados de 1.977 usuários com tempo médio de seguimento de 21 meses. Destes, 51,4% eram homens, 58% tinham idade superior a 64 anos e 81,6% apresentavam sobrepeso. Os principais medicamentos em uso foram diuréticos (82,9%), BRAT (62%), estatina (60,7%) e inibidores da ECA (49,9%). O percentual de usuários com queda da taxa de filtração glomerular foi de 33,7%. Em relação à hemoglobina glicada, dos usuários com DRC e DM, 36% estavam dentro da meta inicial e 52,1% da final. A pressão arterial estava dentro do alvo em 34,3% dos pacientes na internação e em 49,8% ao final do seguimento. Conclusão: Dados validados são de vital importância para os gestores da saúde monitorarem os usuários. A população deste estudo é predominantemente idosa, obesa, e com necessidade de cuidados multiprofissionais para retardar a progressão da doença e diminuir a morbimortalidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Registries , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
16.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(2): 206-208, Apr.-June 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954534

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this article, we describe the development of a simple and inexpensive simulation phantom as a surrogate of human hydronephrosis for the identification of urinary tract obstruction at bedside to be used in undergraduate training of medical students.


Resumo Neste artigo, descrevemos o desenvolvimento de um phantom de simulação, simples e barato, como modelo de hidronefrose humana para capacitar estudantes de graduação em medicina na identificação da obstrução do trato urinário à beira do leito.


Subject(s)
Animals , Models, Educational , Simulation Training , Hydronephrosis/diagnostic imaging , Urology/education , Ultrasonography
17.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(5): 474-480, May 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-956469

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Point-of-care ultrasonography, which is performed at the bedside by physicians who are not specialists in imaging, has become possible thanks to recent technological advances that have allowed for a device with greater portability while maintaining image quality. The increasing use of point-of-care ultrasonography in different specialties has made it possible to expand physical examinations, make timely decisions about the patients and allows the performance of safer medical procedures. In this review, three cases from our experience are presented that highlight the use of point-of-care ultrasonography by clinicians. Bedside ultrasonography is a convenient modality used in a clinical setting to aid in early diagnosis of several common conditions. It is suggested that a hybrid approach of physical examination and point-of-care ultrasonography in the everyday clinical practice is an inevitable change of paradigm that is improving quality of care in a variety of clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Physical Examination/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Emergency Medical Services , Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
18.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(1): 26-34, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893826

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: The diagnosis and treatment of mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) is a challenge for nephrologists and health managers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, biochemical profile, and drugs associated with CKD-MBD. Methods: Cross-sectional study between July and November 2013, with 1134 patients on dialysis. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between groups based on levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (< 150, 150-300, 301-600, 601-1000, and > 1001 pg/mL). Results: The mean age was 57.3 ± 14.4 years. The prevalence of iPTH < 150 pg/mL was 23.4% and iPTH > 601 pg/mL was 27.1%. The comparison between the groups showed that the level of iPTH decreased with increasing age. Diabetic patients had a higher prevalence of iPTH < 150 pg/mL (27.6%). Hyperphosphatemia (> 5.5 mg/dL) was observed in 35.8%. Calcium carbonate was used by 50.5%, sevelamer by 14.7%, 40% of patients had used some form of vitamin D and 3.5% used cinacalcet. Linear regression analysis showed a significant negative association between iPTH, age, and diabetes mellitus and a significant positive association between iPTH and dialysis time. Conclusion: The prevalence of patients outside the target for iPTH was 50.5%. There was a high prevalence of hyperphosphatemia (35.8%), and the minority of patients were using active vitamin D, vitamin D analogs, selective vitamin D receptor activators, and cinacalcet. These data indicate the need for better compliance with clinical guidelines and public policies on the supply of drugs associated with CKD-MBD.


RESUMO Introdução: O diagnóstico e tratamento do distúrbio mineral ósseo-doença renal crônica (DMO-DRC) é um desafio para os nefrologistas e gestores de saúde. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência, perfil bioquímico, e drogas associadas a DMO-DRC. Métodos: Estudo transversal entre julho e novembro de 2013, em 11 centros com 1134 pacientes em diálise. Dados sociodemográficos, clínicos, e laboratoriais foram comparados entre os grupos, com base em níveis do paratormônio intacto (PTHi) (< 150,151-300, 301-600,601-1000, e > 1001 pg/mL). Resultados: A idade média foi de 57,3 ± 14,4 anos, 1071 pacientes estavam em hemodiálise, e 63 em diálise peritoneal. A prevalência de PTHi < 150 pg/mL foi 23,4% e PTHi > 601 pg/mL foi de 27,1%. A comparação dos grupos mostrou que o nível de PTHi diminuiu com o aumento da idade. Pacientes diabéticos apresentaram uma maior prevalência de PTHi < 150 pg/mL (27,6%). Carbonato de cálcio foi usado por 50,5%, Sevelamer por 14,7%, 40% dos pacientes utilizaram alguma forma de vitamina D, e 3,5% utilizaram cinacalcet. A hiperfosfatemia (> 5,5mg/dL) foi observada em 35,8%. A análise de regressão linear mostrou uma associação negativa significativa entre PTHi, idade, e diabetes mellitus e uma associação positiva significativa com o tempo em diálise. Conclusão: A prevalência de pacientes fora do alvo para PTHi foi de 50,5%. Houve uma alta prevalência de hiperfosfatemia e um baixo uso de vitamina D ativa, análogos da vitamina D, ativadores seletivos da vitamina D, e cinacalcet. Estes dados chamam a atenção para a necessidade de uma maior conformidade com as diretrizes e políticas públicas sobre o fornecimento de medicamentos associados à DMO-DRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/drug therapy , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/blood , Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder/epidemiology , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Dialysis
19.
Clinics ; 73: e392, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974937

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the validity and reliability of ultrasonography measurement of rectus femoris cross-sectional area compared to computed tomography in patients in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease and analyzed the association between these measurements and the diagnosis of sarcopenia. METHODS: One hundred patients with nondialysis chronic kidney disease were evaluated. Sarcopenia was defined using the criteria of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project (FNIH). The rectus femoris cross-sectional area was evaluated using ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 29% according to the FNIH criteria. The difference in mean rectus femoris cross-sectional area by ultrasonography and computed tomography was 3.97 mm, with a strong correlation between the two methods (p<0.001). Bland-Altman plot analysis showed good agreement between computed tomography and ultrasonography. Rectus femoris cross-sectional area was significantly correlated with muscle strength (r=0.300, p=0.002), lean body mass in the upper limbs (r=0.286, p=0.004), and lean body mass in the lower limbs (r=0.271, p=0.006). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 12% (n=12) based on the definition of low muscle mass according to ultrasonography of the rectus femoris cross-sectional area. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was demonstrated to be a valid and reliable method for evaluating the rectus femoris cross-sectional area in patients in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Quadriceps Muscle/diagnostic imaging , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography , Sarcopenia/complications
20.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043314

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Chronic kidney disease has high morbidity and mortality. In order to track the disease, we conducted a population-based study in a medium-sized city in Southeastern Brazil. Based on instrument SCreening for Occult REnal Disease (SCORED), we evaluated 1,016 individuals with mean age of 44 (SD = 13.2) years. High blood pressure and diabetes mellitus, major causes of chronic kidney disease, were reported by 34.7% and 10.5% of the individuals, respectively. In addition, 31.3% of the sample presented increased risk for the disease, thus leading to a prevalence estimate of 5.4%. A simple screening method allowed the early detection of a population at risk for chronic kidney disease.


RESUMO A doença renal crônica apresenta elevada morbimortalidade. Com o objetivo de rastrear a doença, realizou-se estudo de base populacional em cidade de porte médio do sudeste brasileiro. Com base no instrumento SCreening for Occult REnal Disease (SCORED) foram avaliados 1.016 indivíduos com média de idade 44 (DP = 13,2) anos. Hipertensão arterial e diabetes mellitus, principais causas de doença renal crônica, foram relatados por 34,7% e 10,5%, respectivamente. Além disso, 31,3% da amostra apresentou risco aumentado para a doença, levando a uma estimativa de prevalência de 5,4%. Um método simples para rastreio permitiu a detecção precoce de população de risco para doença renal crônica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Self Report , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Early Diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Middle Aged
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