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1.
Indian J Public Health ; 2020 Mar; 64(1): 72-74
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198184

ABSTRACT

Complete postexposure prophylaxis with 4 doses of anti-rabies vaccine (ARV) in a previously vaccinated (nonna飗e) individual results in administration of two extra ARV doses resulting in wastages of precious resources comprising vaccine logistics, human resources, physician, and patient time. This cross-sectional study conducted in a secondary care hospital in Delhi among 175 incident animal bite cases observed 39 (22.3%) had an animal-bite history within the previous 5 years. A total of 19 (10.8%) cases reported a history of complete ARV vaccination during a previous animal-bite exposure. However, in the absence of supportive patient medical documentation, all the animal bite cases without exception were prescribed a full course of ARV irrespective of their previous exposure status. Rabies immunoglobulins (anti rabies serum) were also re-administered in 13 (81.2%) cases. National guidelines for rabies prophylaxis should, therefore, consider the inclusion of an explicit decision-making algorithmic mechanism when the health-care provider is confronted with this situation carrying the potential for hidden vaccine wastage.

2.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Mar; 68(3): 427-432
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197857

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To assess the demographic details and distribution of ocular disorders in patients presenting to a three-tier eye care network in India using electronic medical record (EMR) systems across an 8-year period using big data analytics. Methods: An 8-year retrospective review of all the patients who presented across the three-tier eye care network of L.V. Prasad Eye Institute was performed from August 2010 to August 2018. Data were retrieved using an in-house eyeSmart EMR system. The demographic details and clinical presentation and ocular disease profile of all the patients were analyzed in detail. Results: In an 8-year period, a total of 2,270,584 patients were captured on the EMR system with 4,730,221 consultations. More than half of the patients presented at tertiary centers (n = 1,174,643, 51.73%), a quarter at the secondary centers (n = 564,251, 24.85%) followed by the vision centers (n = 531,690, 23.42%). The ratio of males and females was 1.18:1. Most common states of presentation were Andhra Pradesh (n = 1,103,733, 48.61%) and Telangana (n = 661,969, 29.15%). In total, 3,721,051 ocular diagnosis instances were documented in the patients. Most common ocular disorders were related to cornea and anterior segment (n = 1,347,754, 36.22%) followed by refractive error (n = 1,133,078, 30.45%). Conclusion: This study depicts the demographic details and distribution of various ocular disorders in a very large cohort of patients. There is a need to adopt digitization in geographies that cater to large populations to enable insightful research. The implementation of EMR systems enables structured data for research purposes and the development of real-time analytics for the same.

3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Sep; 67(9): 1455-1458
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197470

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The sub-retinal injections are not very commonly performed procedures in vitreoretina, but form a crucial step in any cell replacement therapy for retinal diseases. The purpose of this study is to describe the learning curve of a trained vitreo-retinal surgeon in sub-retinal injections in a rat model and its implications in future clinical trials. Methods: This is an in-vivo retrospective animal study using Wistar rats. All ARVO guidelines regarding animal handling were followed. After anesthetization, aspectic preparation and dilating the pupils with 1% tropicamide eye drops, subretinal injection of 10 ?l saline was done via a limbal entry. Data recorded included time taken for the procedure, success of injection, associated complications, post-operative infections and complications. The rats were followed up for 1 month post procedure. A trend analysis was done for the above factors to look for improvement in ease of procedure, reduction in procedure time and reduction in complications for the clinician using a novel objective scale. Results: About 20 eyes were studied. Mean weight of the rats was 188 ± 12.82 gram. Mean time taken for the procedure was 14.1 ± 5.07 minutes. There was a significant inverse co-relation between the serial number of the eye and time taken for the procedure (r = ?0.89, P < 0.0001). Comparative complications noted between the first ten and the last ten eyes were: conjunctival tear 30% versus 10% (P = 0.27), lens touch 50% versus 10% (P = 0.05), subretinal hemorrhage 40% versus 0% (P = 0.13), vitreous loss 30% versus 0% (P = 0.06). The successful subretinal injection without intraocular complications was achieved in 40% versus 90% (P = 0.02). There was a significant co-relation between the serial number of the eye and ease of the procedure (r = 0.87, P < 0.0001). Post operatively none of the eyes had any infection. Six eyes (12%) developed cataract and 3 eyes (6%) had non-resolving retinal detachment at the last examination visit. Conclusion: Subretinal injections in rats have a definite learning curve even for a trained vitreoretinal surgeon. This should be accounted for and resources allocated accordingly to achieve good technical comfort and negate confounding by the surgeon factor in the results of future clinical trials

4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug; 67(8): 1265-1277
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197450

ABSTRACT

Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) is an innovative limbal stem cell transplantation technique that has gained increasing popularity over the last few years. Different groups from across the world have published the clinical results of SLET in large case series with varying types and severities of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). This review attempts to place all the available knowledge on SLET together in one place for the benefit of not only cornea specialists and trainees but also for residents and general ophthalmologists. It follows a balanced approach of blending evidence with experience by providing an objective analysis of published results along with helpful insights from subject experts, starting from preoperative considerations including the role of newer imaging modalities to the technical aspects of the surgery itself and the management of possible complications. Original data and novel insights on allogeneic SLET for bilateral LSCD are included in the review to address the few remaining lacunae in the existing literature on this topic. This review intends to inform, educate, and empower all aspiring and practicing SLET surgeons to optimize their clinical outcomes and to have maximal positive impact on the lives of the individuals affected by unilateral or bilateral chronic LSCD.

5.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2019 Jun; 37(2): 289-291
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-198876

ABSTRACT

Accurate identification of infectious pathogens is essential for appropriate management of ocular infections. Routine laboratory protocols typically support bacterial growth at 37°C. We report a case, wherein we serendipitously isolated Pseudomonas fluorescens – an organism that prefers lower temperatures for optimal growth (psychrophilic) in the environment – from eviscerated contents of an eye with total corneal melt. This case highlights the need for being vigilant for organisms with different temperature sensitivities in culture media than that found in routine protocols.

6.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-205265

ABSTRACT

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome has been one of a major public health problem in India that leads to medical consequences. It causes multifactorial in etiology such as menstrual dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity which increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Prolactin has been reported as a potent lipogenic and diabetogenic factor, that affecting energy balance and fuel metabolism. The present study was designed to assess serum prolactin and insulin resistance in PCOS women and to compare them with healthy women as controls. Material and Methods: A comparative study including 50 women diagnosed as PCOS and 50 age and BMI matched healthy women as controls was conducted. The age group for the study was 18-35 years. Body Mass Index was calculated as a physical parameter. Fasting blood samples were drawn to assess serum prolactin, serum insulin, HbA1c and fasting blood sugar. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: A significant increase in fasting serum insulin (p<0.001) and HOMA – IR (p<0.001) were found in patients with PCOS in comparison with controls. Mean BMI, prolactin, HbA1c and FBS were found elevated in the PCOS women but they were not statistically significant. No significant correlations were found between BMI, serum prolactin and serum insulin. Conclusions: The current study provides further evidence that significantly higher fasting insulin and HOMA in PCOS group indicates presence of IR. IR in PCOS group may have a potential role in the prediction of dysglycemic disease in women with PCOS. This study could not find any significant correlation between serum prolactin, serum insulin and BMI.

7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 May; 67(5): 677-680
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197236

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study describes a novel surgical technique of fibrin glue-assisted retinopexy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (GuARD) without oil or gas tamponade after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Methods: This pilot clinical trial included five eyes of five patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RD). A complete PPV was done in all cases followed by fluid–air exchange, laser photocoagulation around the break/s, and application of 0.1–0.2 mL of fibrin glue. No air, long-acting gas or silicone oil was used subsequently. No specific postoperative positioning was prescribed. The primary outcome measure was efficacy of the procedure defined as successful anatomical retinal reattachment. Secondary outcome measures were postoperative improvement in best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and complications. Results: The median age of patients was 55 (range: 36–61 years) years and median duration of symptoms was 15 (range: 7–60) days. All eyes were pseudophakic, four eyes had inferior and one eye had total RD. Successful retinal reattachment was achieved in all (100%) cases and was maintained at the end of 3–8 months of follow-up. The median BCVA improved from 20/100 preoperatively to 20/80 at 1-week and 20/50 at 1-month postoperatively. None of the eyes had any postoperative complications such as elevated intraocular pressures or unexpected inflammation. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that GuARD is a promising technique for treatment of rhegmatogenous RD that may allow early visual recovery while avoiding the problems of gas or oil tamponade and obviating the need of postoperative positioning.

9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Mar; 67(3): 333-334
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197176
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jan; 67(1): 32-36
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197101

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Limbal ischemia is an important prognostic factor in the management of ocular burns. In this study, we evaluated the reliability of clinically assessing limbal ischemia among ophthalmic professionals. Methods: This study included 111 ophthalmic professionals who were shown 12 diffuse illumination color slit-lamp photographs of eyes with recent chemical injuries. Respondents were asked whether the photos were assessable and if yes, then to indicate the presence, location, and grade of limbal ischemia in each case. The responses were collected using a standard data collection sheet and the inter-observer agreement was calculated. Results: All participants responded to every question. Of the 1,332 responses, images were deemed assessable in 1,222 (91.7%) instances. The overall agreement (Fleiss' kappa) for the presence of limbal ischemia and severity of limbal ischemia was 0.106 and 0.139, respectively (P < 0.012). Among the four groups of observers, practicing cornea specialists displayed significantly (P < 0.003) higher kappa values (0.201–0.203) when compared to residents (0.131–0.185), fellows (0.086–0.127), and optometrists (0.077–0.102). All indicated a poor level of inter-rater consistency. Conclusion: The results indicate that clinical assessment of limbal ischemia is highly subjective and there is lack of reliability even among cornea specialists who regularly manage patients with ocular burns. A non-invasive, standardized, objective, accurate, and reliable modality for ocular surface angiography is desperately needed for proper assessment and prognostication of ocular burns.

13.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Oct-Dec; 33(4): 568-571
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-176515

ABSTRACT

This study is a comparative evaluation (Chi-square test) of a closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay using hydroxy naphthol blue dye (HNB-LAMP), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional PCR in the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis. Considering clinical presentation as the gold standard in 33 patients, the sensitivity of HNB-LAMP assay (75.8%) was higher (not significant, P value 0.2) than conventional PCR (57.6%) and lower than real-time PCR (90.9%). Specificity was 100% by all three methods. No amplification was observed in negative controls (n = 20) by all three methods. The cost of the HNB-LAMP assay was Rs. 500.00 and it does not require thermocycler, therefore, it can be used as an alternative to conventional PCR in resource-poor settings.

14.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 38(3): 186-194, Sep. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-766428

ABSTRACT

La tuberculosis (TB) continúa concentrada de manera desproporcionada entre los pobres, pero los determinantes conocidos de reactivación de la TB pueden no explicar las desigualdades observadas en las tasas de enfermedad según la riqueza. En el presente estudio, mediante la revisión de datos sobre desigualdades en TB en la India y la distribución de factores de riesgo de TB conocidos según riqueza, se describe cómo los patrones de mezcla social pueden estar contribuyendo a las desigualdades en TB. La mezcla social por afinidad selectiva según la riqueza, por la cual es más probable que las personas entren en contacto con otras personas de orígenes socioeconómicos similares, amplifica las pequeñas diferencias en el riesgo de TB y genera grandes desigualdades a nivel poblacional. A medida que las desigualdades y la asortatividad (o afinidad selectiva) aumentan, se hace más difícil controlar la TB; este efecto queda enmascarado cuando se examinan solamente promedios poblacionales de parámetros epidemiológicos, tales como las tasas de detección de casos. El estudio ilustra cómo los esfuerzos de control de TB pueden beneficiarse a partir de una orientación preferencial hacia los pobres. En la India, una intervención a escala equivalente podría tener un impacto sustancialmente mayor si se orientara a quienes viven por debajo de la línea de pobreza que el de una estrategia a toda la población. Además de las eficiencias potenciales de focalizar en poblaciones en más alto riesgo, los esfuerzos de control de la TB podrían llevar a una mayor reducción en el número de casos secundarios de TB por cada caso primario diagnosticado si es que tales esfuerzos fuesen preferencialmente orientados hacia los pobres. El estudio destaca la necesidad de recolectar datos programáticos sobre las desigualdades en TB e incorporar de manera explícita consideraciones de equidad en los planes de control de la TB.


Tuberculosis (TB) remains disproportionately concentrated among the poor, yet known determinants of TB reactivation may fail to explain observed disparities in disease rates according to wealth. Reviewing data on TB disparities in India and the wealth distribution of known TB risk factors, we describe how social mixing patterns could be contributing to TB disparities. Wealth-assortative mixing, whereby individuals are more likely to be in contact with others from similar socio-economic backgrounds, amplifies smaller differences in risk of TB, resulting in large population-level disparities. As disparities and assortativeness increase, TB becomes more difficult to control, an effect that is obscured by looking at population averages of epidemiological parameters, such as case detection rates. We illustrate how TB control efforts may benefit from preferential targeting toward the poor. In India, an equivalent-scale intervention could have a substantially greater impact if targeted at those living below the poverty line than with a population-wide strategy. In addition to potential efficiencies in targeting higher-risk populations, TB control efforts would lead to a greater reduction in secondary TB cases per primary case diagnosed if they were preferentially targeted at the poor. We highlight the need to collect programmatic data on TB disparities and explicitly incorporate equity considerations into TB control plans.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Population Studies in Public Health
15.
Indian J Cancer ; 2015 July-Sept; 52(3): 475-478
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-173982

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Most of the adrenal masses are discovered incidentally by imaging techniques for reasons unrelated to adrenal diseases. Treatment is based on various factors such as, nature of adrenal mass, age of presentation, size of tumor, and the functional status of tumor. We report a series of 14 consecutive cases of adrenal tumors treated in a single surgical unit in our hospital. AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome of treatment of adrenal tumors treated in a surgical unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a retrospective study data of 14 cases of adrenal tumors treated in a single surgical unit in University Hospital over 10 years have been analyzed. Various parameters such as gender, age, size of tumor, functional status, histopathology, type of management, and outcome have been reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 14 patients with adrenal masses were seen over a 10 year period (1997‑2006). All were referred cases, either from endocrinology or medicine wards. There were seven female and seven male patients. Mean age of patients was 48.6 years (range 14‑60 years). Mean size of tumor was 8.0 cm (5.9 cm for benign tumors and 9.7 cm for malignant tumors). There were six cases of adrenal carcinoma, four cases of adrenal myelolipoma, two cases of pheochromocytoma, and one each case of adrenal hyperplasia and histoplasmosis. There were only two functional tumors. All, except two malignant cases were treated operatively. A total of 5 year survival was 100% in benign cases and 27% in malignant tumors. CONCLUSION: Adrenal tumors need to be assessed for their functional status and malignant potential prior to treatment. Surgical excision is usually curative for benign lesion. Among malignant tumors the benefits of surgery depend on local extent and metastatic status of tumors.

16.
Indian Pediatr ; 2015 July; 52(7): 617-618
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-171769

ABSTRACT

We studied the morbidity pattern of inpatient adolescents over a period of 17 months. Of 32115 admissions in this period, 2742 were adolescents (39.7% females). 93.9% were partially immunized, 37.3% were malnourished, 2.8% were overweight and 56% were anemic. Dengue and dengue-like illness (528) were the most common illness.

17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-164667

ABSTRACT

Venous aneurysm is saccular or fusiform dilatation of vein, usually congenital origin. Among acquired variety post intravenous cannulation leading to venous aneurysm is extremely rare entity. Non invasive diagnostic procedure MRI and duplex scanning are very useful modality for anatomical localization of the aneurysm. Although an ascending venogram is an invasive test and should take a backseat for diagnosis of such aneurysm. Symptometic case needs surgical management. Anatomical delineation is an important pre requisite for planning surgery. Aneurysmorrhaphy preserves the affected venous segment because it does not produce luminal compromise.

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