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1.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10285, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153507

ABSTRACT

The increasing number of cesarean sections worldwide has encouraged research on the long-term effects of this birth type on the offspring's mental health. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between birth by cesarean section and the development of mood disorders (depression and bipolar disorders) in adolescents. A cohort study was carried out with 1603 adolescents from 18 to 19 years old who participated in the third phase of a birth cohort study in São Luís, MA, in 2016. Information on birth type and weight, prematurity, mother's age and schooling, parity, marital status, and smoking behavior during pregnancy, were collected at birth. The study outcomes were depression, bipolar disorder, and "mood disorder" construct. A Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) was developed to select the variables for minimal adjustment for confounding and collision bias. Associations were estimated through propensity score weighting using a two-step estimation model, and confounders for cesarean birth were used in the predictive model. There was no significant association in the relationship between birth type and depression (95%CI: -0.037 to 0.017; P=0.47), bipolar disorder (95%CI: -0.019 to 0.045; P=0.43), and mood disorder (95%CI: -0.033 to 0.042; P=0.80) in adolescents of both sexes. Birth by cesarean section was not associated with the development of mood disorders in adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Young Adult , Cesarean Section , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10235, 2021. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142572

ABSTRACT

A prospective cohort study was conducted on a convenience sample of 1370 pregnant women with a gestational age of 20 to 25 weeks in the city of Ribeirão Preto. Data on obstetrical history, maternal age, parity, smoking habit, and a history of preterm delivery was collected with the application of a sociodemographic questionnaire. Cervical length was determined by endovaginal ultrasound, and urine and vaginal content samples were obtained to determine urinary tract infection (UTI) and bacterial vaginosis (BV), respectively. The aim of this study was to verify the association of cervical length and genitourinary infections with preterm birth (PTB). Ultrasound showed no association of UTI or BV with short cervical length. PTB rate was 9.63%. Among the women with PTB, 15 showed UTI (RR: 1.55, 95%CI: 0.93-2.58), 19 had BV (RR: 1.22, 95%CI: 0.77-1.94), and one had both UTI and BV (RR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.13-5.62). Nineteen (14.4%) PTB occurred in women with a cervical length ≤2.5 cm (RR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.89-4.43). Among the 75 patients with PTB stratified as spontaneous, 10 showed UTI (RR: 2.02, 95%CI: 1.05-3.86) and 14 had a diagnosis of BV (RR: 1.72, 95%CI: 0.97-3.04). A short cervical length between 20 and 25 weeks of pregnancy was associated with PTB, whereas UTI and BV determined at this age were not associated with short cervical length or with PTB, although UTI, even if asymptomatic, was related to spontaneous PTB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Cervix Uteri/anatomy & histology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Female Urogenital Diseases/microbiology , Vagina/microbiology , Brazil , Cervix Uteri/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography , Gestational Age
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10253, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142570

ABSTRACT

During pregnancy, metabolic changes that develop in women may increase the risk of diseases and conditions that may also harm the life of the growing fetus. The aim of the present study was to identify and compare the metabolic profile (MP) during pregnancy in two birth cohorts in 2010 in the cities of Ribeirão Preto (RP) and São Luís (SL), Brazil. Pregnant women (1393 in RP and 1413 in SL) were studied; information was obtained through questionnaires in addition to anthropometric, biochemical, and blood pressure measurements. Data are presented as means and proportions. To compare the characteristics of pregnant women in both cities, chi-squared and Student's t-tests were applied, with 5% significance level. Ribeirão Preto presented higher mean values than SL for pre-gestational body mass index (24.5 vs 23 kg/m2, P<0.001), systolic (108.4 vs 102.8 mmHg, P<0.001) and diastolic (65.9 vs 61.8 mmHg, P<0.001) blood pressure, total cholesterol (226.3 vs 213.7 mg/dL, P<0.001) and fractions, and glycemia (84.5 vs 80.2 mg/dL, P<0.001), except for triglycerides (P=0.135). Women from RP also showed higher rates of pre-gestational overweight and obesity compared with SL (40.1 vs 25.8%). In the present study, pregnant women in RP had a worse gestational metabolic profile than those in SL, with higher pre-gestational excess weight, indicating that nutritional transition was more advanced in the more developed city.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy/metabolism , Metabolome , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , Cities
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10037, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142569

ABSTRACT

Given the increase of women with excess weight or obesity and its possible effects on birth weight, the present study aimed to investigate the association between pregestational maternal body mass index (BMI) and birth weight in a birth cohort from Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. This was a prospective study conducted on 1362 mother-child pairs involving singleton births. The women were evaluated using standardized questionnaires during the second trimester of pregnancy and at the time of childbirth. Information about the newborns was obtained from their medical records. The dependent variable was birth weight, categorized as low, adequate, or high. The independent variable was pregestational maternal BMI, categorized as malnutrition, adequate weight, overweight, and obesity. A multinomial regression model was used to estimate the crude and adjusted relative risk (RR) of low and high birth weight. A high frequency of pregestational excess weight (39.6%) was detected and found to be independently associated with high birth weight (RR=2.13, 95%CI: 1.19-3.80 for overweight and RR=3.34, 95%CI: 1.80-6.19 for obese pregnant women). There was no association between pregestational malnutrition and low birth weight (RR=1.70; 95%CI: 0.81-3.55). The present data showed a high rate of women with excess pregestational weight, supporting the hypothesis that pregestational BMI may contribute to high birth weight babies and indicating the need for actions aiming to prevent excessive weight in women at reproductive age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adult , Young Adult , Birth Weight , Body Mass Index , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Overweight/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
5.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): e10397, 2021. tab
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142568

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of body image dissatisfaction on symptoms of depressive disorder in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study that included 2,162 adolescents ages 18-19 born in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, which was part of the joint RPS cohort (Brazilian birth cohorts of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Pelotas-RS, and São Luís-MA). Socioeconomic characteristics, nutritional status, mental health, and body image characteristics were evaluated. Body image was assessed by Stunkard's silhouettes scale. The presence of symptoms indicative of depressive disorder was investigated through a diagnostic interview MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). A theoretical model was built in a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) in order to investigate the relationship between the variables of the study. The relationship was estimated weighting the inverse probability of selection for the variables of adjustment: sex and nutritional status. Among the dissatisfied adolescents due to overweight, 66.54% were girls, 32.85% were overweight, and 11.99% were obese (P<0.01). There was a significant association between dissatisfaction due to overweight and symptoms of depressive disorder (P=0.01), and there was no evidence of the same association with dissatisfaction due to thinness. Therefore, only dissatisfaction due to overweight was associated with the symptoms of depressive disorder in the evaluated adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Depression/epidemiology , Body Dissatisfaction , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(1): 10252-0, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1142565

ABSTRACT

Fetuses exposed to alcohol and/or tobacco are at risk for perinatal adversities. However, little is currently known about the association of the separate or concomitant use of alcohol and tobacco with infant motor and cognitive development. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal consumption of alcohol and/or tobacco during pregnancy and the motor and cognitive development of children starting from the second year of life. The study included 1006 children of a cohort started during the prenatal period (22-25 weeks of pregnancy), evaluated at birth and reevaluated during the second year of life in 2011/2013. The children were divided into four groups according to the alcohol and/or tobacco consumption reported by their mothers at childbirth: no consumption (NC), separate alcohol consumption (AC), separate tobacco consumption (TC), and concomitant use of both (ACTC). The Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition screening tool was used for the assessment of motor and cognitive development. Adjusted Poisson regression models were used to determine the association between groups and delayed development. The results indicated that only the ACTC group showed a higher risk of motor delay, specifically regarding fine motor skills, compared to the NC group (RR=2.81; 95%CI: 1.65; 4.77). Separate alcohol or tobacco consumption was not associated with delayed gross motor or cognitive development. However, the concomitant use of the two substances increased the risk of delayed acquisition of fine motor skills.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Child Development , Tobacco Use , Cohort Studies
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1211-1220, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460893

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to investigate factors associated with cesarean sections in two cities located in different regions of Brazil and to determine factors that explain the higher cesarean section rate in the more developed city, Ribeirão Preto, compared to the less developed one, São Luís. Data from two cohort studies comprising 2846 women in Ribeirão Preto in 1994, and 2443 women in São Luís in 1997/1998 were used. Adjusted and non-adjusted risk estimates were calculated using a Poisson regression model. The cesarean section rate was 33.7 percent in São Luís and 50.8 percent in Ribeirão Preto. Adjusted analysis in a joint sequential model revealed a 51 percent higher risk of cesarean section in Ribeirão Preto compared to São Luís (prevalence rate ratio (PRR) = 1.51). Adjustment for category of hospital admission reduced the PRR to 1.09, i.e., this variable explained 82 percent of the difference in the cesarean section rate between the two cities. Adjustment for the variable "the same physician for prenatal care and delivery" reduced the PRR to 1.07, with the "physician" factor explaining 86 percent of the difference between rates. When simultaneously adjusted for the two variables, the PRR decreased to 1.05, with these two variables explaining 90 percent of the difference in the cesarean section rate between the two cities, and the difference was no longer significant. The difference in the cesarean section rate between the two Brazilian cities, one more and one less developed, was mainly explained by the physician factor and, to a lesser extent, by the category of hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Cities/statistics & numerical data , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 40(9): 1267-1276, Sept. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-460903

ABSTRACT

The association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and serum lipids has been little studied and the results have been controversial. A total of 2063 young adults born in 1978/79 were evaluated at 23-25 years of age in the fourth follow-up of a cohort study carried out in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, corresponding to 31.8 percent of the original sample. Total serum cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high-density cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) and low-density cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) were analyzed according to SEP at birth and during young adulthood. SEP was classified into tertiles of family income and a cumulative score of socioeconomic disadvantage was created. TC was 11.85 mg/100 mL lower among men of lower SEP in childhood (P < 0.01) but no difference was found in women, whereas it was 8.46 lower among men (P < 0.01) and 8.21 lower among women of lower SEP in adulthood (P < 0.05). Individuals of lower SEP had lower LDL and HDL cholesterol, with small differences between sexes and between the two times in life. There was no association between SEP and triglyceride levels. After adjustment of income at one time point in relation to the other, some associations lost significance. The greater the socioeconomic disadvantage accumulated along life, the lower the levels of TC, LDL and HDL cholesterol (P < 0.05). The socioeconomic gradient of TC and LDL cholesterol was inverse, representing a lower cardiovascular risk for individuals of lower SEP, while the socioeconomic gradient of HDL cholesterol indicated a lower cardiovascular risk for individuals of higher SEP.


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Cholesterol/blood , Social Class , Triglycerides/blood , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Epidemiologic Methods
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