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1.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 201-208, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927595

ABSTRACT

The shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis in skeletal muscles is important for maintaining body temperature in a cold environment. In addition to nervous-humoral regulation, adipose tissue was demonstrated to directly respond to cold in a cell-autonomous manner to produce heat. However, whether skeletal muscle can directly respond to low temperature in an autoregulatory manner is unknown. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPM8 and TRPA1 are two important cold sensors. In the current study, we found TRPM8 was expressed in mouse skeletal muscle tissue and C2C12 myotubes by RT-PCR. After exposure to 33 °C for 6 h, the gene expression pattern of C2C12 myotubes was significantly changed which was evidenced by RNA-sequencing. KEGG-Pathway enrichment analysis of these differentially expressed genes showed that low temperature changed several important signaling pathways, such as IL-17, TNFα, MAPK, FoxO, Hedgehog, Hippo, Toll-like receptor, Notch, and Wnt signaling pathways. Protein-protein interaction network analysis revealed that IL-6 gene was a key gene which was directly affected by low temperature in skeletal muscle cells. In addition, both mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 were increased by 33 °C exposure in C2C12 myotubes. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that skeletal muscle cells could directly respond to low temperature, characterized by upregulated expression of IL-6 in skeletal muscle cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cold Temperature , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Temperature
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901467

ABSTRACT

It has been speculated that bats serve as reservoirs of a huge variety of emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) that have been responsible for severe havoc in human health systems as well as negatively affecting human economic and social systems. A prime example is the currently active severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV2, which presumably originated from bats, demonstrating that the risk of a new outbreak of bat coronavirus is always latent. Therefore, an in-depth investigation to better comprehend bat CoVs has become an important issue within the international community, a group that aims to attenuate the consequences of future outbreaks. In this review, we present a concise introduction to CoVs found in bats and discuss their distribution in Southeast Asia. We also discuss the unique adaptation features in bats that confer the ability to be a potential coronavirus reservoir. In addition, we review the bat coronavirus-linked diseases that have emerged in the last two decades. Finally, we propose key factors helpful in the prediction of a novel coronavirus outbreak and present the most recent methods used to forecast an evolving outbreak.

3.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 414-422, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911043

ABSTRACT

Objective:To assess the efficacy and safety of 100 units of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) intradetrusor injection in patients with overactive bladder.Methods:From April 2016 to December 2018, 17 tertiary hospitals were selected to participate in this prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two phases of study were conducted: the primary phase and the extended phase. This study enrolled patients aged 18 to 75 years who had been inadequately managed by anticholinergic therapy (insufficient efficacy or intolerable side effects) and had spontaneous voiding with overactive bladder. Exclusion criteria included patients with severe cardiac, renal and hepatic disorders, patients with previous botulinum toxin treatment for 6 months or allergic to BTX-A, patients with urinary tract infections, patients with urinary stones, urinary tract tumors, diabetes mellitus, and bleeding tendency. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to BTX-A group and placebo control group in a ratio of 2∶1. Two groups of patients received 20 intradetrusor injections of BTX-A 100U or placebo at the depth of the submucosal muscle layer respectively under cystoscope, including 5 injections at the base of the bladder, 3 injections to the bladder triangle, 5 injections each to the left and right walls and 2 injections to the top, sparing the bladder neck. As a placebo control group, patients received same volume of placebo containing no BTX-A and only adjuvant freeze-dried preparations for injection with the same method. A combination of gelatin, sucrose, and dextran served as adjuvants. Average micturition times per 24 hours, urinary incontinence (UI) episodes per day, average micturition volume per day, OAB symptom score(OABSS), and quality of life (QOL) score were recorded at baseline and the 2nd, 6th and 12th week after treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in the average micturition times per 24 hours at the 6th week after treatment. The secondary efficacy endpoints included the change from baseline in the average micturition times per 24 hours at 2nd and 12th week, as well as the change from baseline in the OABSS, QOL score, average frequency of urgency and UI episodes per day, urgency score, average micturition volume per day at 2nd, 6th and 12th week after treatment. Patients were followed for 12 weeks to assess adverse events (AEs). After assessed at week 12, if the micturition times has decreased less than 50% compared to baseline and the patient is willing to receive retreatment, then patients could enter the extended trial phase. In that phase, patients in both groups were injected with 100 units BTX-A from 12th week onwards and then followed up the same indicators for 12 weeks.Results:216 patients were enrolled in this trial (144 cases in the BTX-A group and 72 cases in the placebo control group). Baseline characteristics such as age (47.75±14.20 in the BTX-A group and 46.39±15.55 in the control group), sex (25 male/117 female in the BTX-A group and 10/61 in the control group), and disease duration (0.51 years in the BTX-A group and 0.60 years in the control group) were balanced between the two groups( P>0.05). A marked reduction from baseline in average micturition times per 24 hours was observed in all treatment groups at the 6th week and the reduction of the two groups was statistically different ( P<0.001 and P=0.008 respectively). Compared with the baseline, the average micturition times per 24 hours at the 6th week decreased from baseline by 2.40(0.70, 4.60)times for the BTX-A group and 0.70(-1.00, 3.30) times for the placebo control group respectively, and the difference between the two groups was considered to be statistically significant ( P=0.003). The change rates of average micturition times per 24 hours from baseline at the 6th week of the two groups were (16±22)% and (8±25)% respectively, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( P=0.014). Compared with the baseline, the average micturition times per 24 hours at 2nd and 12th week decreased by 2.00(0.00, 4.00)and 3.30(0.60, 5.03)for the BTX-A group, 1.00(-1.00, 3.00)and 1.70(-1.45, 3.85)for the placebo control group respectively. The difference between two groups was considered to be statistically significant ( P=0.038 and P=0.012); the changes of average urgency times per day for the BTX-A group and the control group at the 2nd, 6th and 12th week were 2.00(0.00, 4.30)and 2.40(0.30, 5.00), 3.00(0.30, 5.70)and 0.70(-1.30, 2.70), 0.70(-1.30, 3.00) and 1.35(-1.15, 3.50), respectively. There were significant differences between two groups at the 2nd, 6th and 12th week, ( P=0.010, P=0.003 and P=0.025, respectively). The OABSS of the BTX-A group and the control group at the 6th week decreased by 1.00(0.00, 4.00)and 0.50(-1.00, 2.00) compared with the baseline, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( P=0.003). 47 cases of BTX-A group and 34 cases of placebo control group entered the extended trial phase, and 40 and 28 cases completed the extended trial phase, respectively. The average micturition volume per 24 hours changed by -16.60(-41.60, -0.60)ml and -6.40(-22.40, 13.30)ml, (-35.67±54.41)ml and(-1.76±48.69)ml, (-36.14±41.51)ml and (-9.28±44.59)ml, (-35.85±43.35)ml and(-10.41±40.29)ml for two groups at the 12th, 14th, 18th and 24th week, and the difference between two groups was statistically significant at each follow-up time ( P=0.01, 0.006, 0.012 and 0.016, respectively). There was no significant difference in other parameters( P>0.05). However, adverse reactions after intradetrusor injection included increased residual urine volume (27 in the BTX-A group and 3 in the control group), dysuria (21 in the BTX-A group and 6 in the control group), urinary infection (19 in the BTX-A group and 6 in the control group), bladder neck obstruction (3 in the BTX-A group and 0 in the control group), hematuria (3 in the BTX-A group and 1 in the control group), elevated alanine aminotransferase (3 in the BTX-A group and 0 in the control group), etc. During the follow-up period, there was no significant difference in the other adverse events between two groups except the increase of residual urine volume( P<0.05). In the primary trial phase, among the 27 cases with increased residual urine volume in BTA group, only 1 case (3.70%) with PVR more than 300 ml; the PVR of 3 patients in the placebo group was less than 100 ml. The increase of residual urine volume caused by the injection could be improved or disappeared with the passage of time. Conclusions:Intradetrusor injection of Chinese BTX-A improved the average micturition times per 24 hours, the average daily urgent micturition times, OABSS, and average micturition volume per time, and reduced the adverse effects in patients with overactive bladder.Chinese BTX-A at dose of 100U demonstrated durable efficacy and safety in the management of overactive bladder.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893763

ABSTRACT

It has been speculated that bats serve as reservoirs of a huge variety of emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) that have been responsible for severe havoc in human health systems as well as negatively affecting human economic and social systems. A prime example is the currently active severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV2, which presumably originated from bats, demonstrating that the risk of a new outbreak of bat coronavirus is always latent. Therefore, an in-depth investigation to better comprehend bat CoVs has become an important issue within the international community, a group that aims to attenuate the consequences of future outbreaks. In this review, we present a concise introduction to CoVs found in bats and discuss their distribution in Southeast Asia. We also discuss the unique adaptation features in bats that confer the ability to be a potential coronavirus reservoir. In addition, we review the bat coronavirus-linked diseases that have emerged in the last two decades. Finally, we propose key factors helpful in the prediction of a novel coronavirus outbreak and present the most recent methods used to forecast an evolving outbreak.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To provide data support for the study of pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 at the molecular level, and provide suitable candidate targets for vaccine, antibody and drug research and development through comparative analysis for structural characteristics and epitopes of S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV.@*METHODS@#Based on the reference sequences of S protein, physical and chemical properties, hydrophobicity, signal peptide, transmembrane region, domain, secondary structure, tertiary structure analysis and antigenic epitopes prediction were carried out. Meanwhile, the tissue expression, related pathways and reactome pathways of angiotensis Ⅰ converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and C-type lectin domain family 4 member M (CLEC4M) receptors were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The amino acid sequence of S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV has a 75.80% consistency. The structural characteristics of the two coronaviruses are highly consistent, but the secondary structure and tertiary structure of SARS-CoV-2 is not as obvious as SARS-CoV. ACE2 and CLEC4M are expressed in alimentary system, heart, kidney, lung and placenta. The main related the pathways of renin-angiotensin system, protein digestion and absorption pathway, and the reactome pathways of metabolism of angiotensinogen to angiotensins, GPCR ligand binding, are related to typical symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 induced by SARS-CoV-2. Three pairs of highly or completely homologous epitopes of S protein were obtained. The 600-605, 695-703 and 888-896 amino acid residues in SARS-CoV-2 were highly homologous with 586-591, 677-685 and 870-878 amino acid residues in SARS-CoV, respectively.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The similarity of S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV determines that they have similar infection patterns and clinical manifestations. The candidate epitopes with high reliability can provide reference for virus diagnosis and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cell Adhesion Molecules , Coronavirus Infections , Epitopes , Humans , Lectins, C-Type , Ligands , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Pneumonia, Viral , Receptors, Cell Surface , Receptors, Virus , Reproducibility of Results , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771899

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Bmi-1 gene silence on the proliferation ability of K562 cells in vitro and in vivo, and to explore the relation of molecular mechanism between proliferation ability of K562 cells in vitro and in vivo with PTEN/pAKT signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#The Bmi-1 small interference RNA (siRNA) sequences were transfected into K562 cells for decreasing Bmi-1 expression. The effect of Bmi-1 siRNA on the proliferation of K562 cells in vitro and in vivo was detected by MTT method and colony-forming test, the effect of Bmi-1 siRNA on the tumorogenicity of K562 cells was observed by subcutaneous inoculation of K562 cells, LY294002 and Bpv treated K562 cells in nude mice, the expression of Bmi-1, PTEN and pAKT proteins were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The Bmi-1 siRNA could inhibit the proliferation activity, colony-forming and tumor-forming abilities of K562 cells. After the silence of Bmi-1 gene, the PTEN expression in Bmi-1 gene-silenced group was significantly enhanced. While the pAKT expression in Bmi-1 gene-silenced group was significantly reduced; after the K562 cells were treated with LY294002 (an inhibitor of pAKT), the pAKT expression colony-forming and tumor forming abilities were reduced in comparison with untreated K562 cells; after the K562-S1 cells were treated with Bpv (an inhibitor of PTEN), the PTEN expression decreased, while the pAKT expression, colony forming and tumor-forming abilities were restored.@*CONCLUSION@#The Bmi-1 gene possibly involves in regulation of K562 proliferation in vivo and in vitro, the effect of PTEN/pAKT signaling pathway maybe one of molecular mechanisms mediating this regulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Cell Proliferation , Humans , K562 Cells , Leukemia , Mice , Mice, Nude , PTEN Phosphohydrolase , Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , RNA, Small Interfering , Signal Transduction
7.
Chinese Journal of Dermatology ; (12): 138-142, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710348

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate extracted from the Chinese traditional medicine licorice root on the growth of human hair follicles cultured in vitro,and to detect the expression of wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway-related molecules.Methods Isolated hair follicles were cultured with diammonium glycyrrhizinate at different concentrations of 0.1,0.01,0.001 and 0.000 1 μmol/L for 10 days,and the hair follicles cultured in Williams' E medium without diammonium glycyrrhizinate served as a control group.The length of hair follicles was measured under a microscope every day,the morphologic changes of hair follicles were observed,and photos were taken.Immunofluorescence assay was performed to assess the proliferation of hair matrix cells,as well as to determine the expression of β-catenin,glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β),phosphorylated GSK3β (p-GSK3β) and lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (Lef1) in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.Statistical analysis was carried out by repeated-measures analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance.Results As repeated-measures analysis of variance showed,only 0.01 μmol/L diammonium glycyrrhetate showed significantly promotive effect on the growth of hair follicles compared with the medium alone (P < 0.05),and there were no significant differences in the length of hair follicles between the other concentration groups and the control group.Compared with the control group,the transition to the catagen phase of human hair cycle was delayed in the 0.01-μmol/L diammonium glycyrrhetate group,while it did not change in the other diammonium glycyrrhetate groups and control group.Immunofluorescence assay showed that the number of ki67-positive hair matrix cells was obviously increased in the 0.1-,0.01-,0.001-μmol/L diammonium glycyrrhizinate groups compared with the control group,while there was no difference between the 0.000 1-μmol/L diammonium glycyrrhizinate group and the control group.One-way analysis of variance revealed that the expression of β-catenin,p-GSK3β and Lef1 significantly differed among all the groups (F =12.604,16.65,15.266 respectively,P < 0.05),while no significant difference in the expression of GSK3β was found among these groups (F =1.472,P > 0.05).Least significant difference (LSD)-t test revealed that the expre-ssion of β-catenin,p-GSK3β and Lef1 in the hair matrix cells was significantly higher in the 0.1-,0.01-,0.001-μmol/L diammonium glycyrrhizinate groups than in the control group (all P < 0.05),but there was no significant difference between the 0.000 1-μmol/L diammonium glycyrrhizinate group and the control group (P > 0.05).Conclusion Diammonium glycyrrhetate at the concentration of 0.01 μmol/L shows markedly promotive effect on the in vitro growth of hair follicles,and can increase the proliferative activity of hair matrix cells and delay the transition to the catagen phase,which may be associated with the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

8.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 757-760, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709594

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the clinical and pathological features of patients with prostate cancer who were diagnosed by single positive core biopsy and treated by radical prostatectomy (RP).Methods Between July 2012 and June 2016,164 patients with prostate cancer diagnosed by single positive core biopsy underwent RP.The mean age was 66.3 years old (ranged 41-82 years old),and the mean PSA level was 12.3 ng/ml (ranged 0.6-59.5 ng/ml).The biopsy Gleason score showed 6 scores in 113 cases,3 + 4 =7 scores in 21 cases,4 + 3 =7 scores in 18 cases,≥8 scores in 12 cases.Clinical stage was cT1 in 71 cases,cT2 in 92 cases,and cT3 in 1 case.The patients were divided into subgroups according to age,preoperative PSA level,biopsy Gleason score and clinical stage,and the pathological results were compared among these subgroups.Results Of the 164 patients,67 cases had Gleason score ≤ 6,52 cases Gleason score 3 + 4 =7,24 case Gleason score 4 + 3 =7,and 11 cases Gleason score ≥ 8.Ten patients had pT0 disease according to the RP specimen,3 had extraprostatic extensions,5 had seminal vesicle invasions,and 24 had positive surgical margins.Compared to the biopsy,the Gleason score of RP specimens was higher in 53 cases,concordant in 77 cases,and lower in 24 cases.There was no significant difference in the postoperative pathological features between the age group < 70 years and the group ≥ 70 years.Compared with PSA < 10 ng/ml,the likelihood of postoperative Gleason score > 7 was significantly increased in PSA ≥10 ng/ml group [41.4% (36/87) vs.66.2% (51/77),P<0.05].When the biopsy Gleason score was divided into four groups (6,3 + 4 =7,4 + 3 =7,≥ 8),there were significant differences in postoperative pathological stages among the four groups (P < 0.05),and the patients with biopsy Gleason score 6 were more likely to have no residual cancer (stage T0) when compared with other Gleason scores [8.8% (10/113) vs.0,P =0.09].The probability of no residual cancer in clinical T1 stage patients was significantly higher than that in T2 stage [11.3% (8/71) vs.2.8% (2/92),P =0.02],while the probability of Gleason score upgrading was significantly lower [23.9% (17/71) vs.39.1% (36/92),P < 0.05].Conclusions Most single core prostate cancer have clinically significant disease.The treatment plan must be evaluated individually for patients with single core prostate cancer.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-706874

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transurethral enucleation of bladder tumor(TUEBT) in the treatment of non muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Methods: The clinical and pathological data of 82 NMIBC patients treated between No-vember 2015 and January 2018 in the First Affiliated Hospital of the Jinzhou Medical University were retrospectively analyzed. The 82 NMIBC patients were divided into a TUEBT group (38 cases) and a transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) group (44 cases). The differences in intraoperative indices, postoperative indices, and pathological staging between the two groups were compared. Re-sults: The bladder irrigation, indwelling catheter, and postoperative hospitalization times in the TUEBT group were (21.00 ± 3.55) h, (4.34±0.81) d, and (5.29±0.96) d, respectively, compared with (27.57±3.87) h, (5.32±0.83) d, and (6.32±0.86) d in the TURBT group, and the differences between groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The operative time in the TUEBT group [(29.55±4.13) min] was longer than in the TURBT group [(25.30±4.01) min]. The hemoglobin decrease in the TUEBT group [(2.00±0.38) g/dL] was less than that in the TURBT group [(2.30±0.32) g/dL]. The incidence of obturator nerve reflex in the TUEBT group was 13.16% (5/38), compared to 34.09% (15/44) in the TURBT group. The recurrence rate in the TUEBT group was 10.53% (4/38), compared to 29.55% (13/44) in the TURBT group. The detrusor deletion rate in the TUEBT group was 0 (0/38), compared to 31.82% (14/44) in the TURBT group. The re-peat transurethral resection (ReTUR) standard was met in 22 cases in the TUEBT group and 33 in the TURBT group. ReTUR due to lack of a detrusor was required in 0 cases in the TUEBT group and 14 in the TURBT group. The differences in the above clinical characteris-tics were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: TUEBT can remove a tumor completely, while preserving the detrusor, improv-ing the accuracy of pathological staging, and reducing the probability of ReTUR. For NMIBC, TUEBT can obtain satisfactory clinical effi-cacy, with surgical safety and long-term efficacy superior to those of TURBT.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-665566

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI ) in patients with progressive muscular dystrophy .Methods We enrolled 7 patients with known progressive muscular dystrophy (4 Becker muscle dystrophy ,BMD;3 limb-girdle muscle dystrophy ,LGMD) in this study .Both IVIM ,T1 WI and T2 STIR sequences were performed on both thighs of all the subjects .Slow ADC ,fast ADC and fraction of fast ADC (Ff ) were measured .Tl weighted images were used to assess the fat infiltration of their thigh muscles using a 0-5 modified version of Mercuri's scale .Slow ADC ,fast ADC and fraction of fast ADC (Ff) were compared among the fatty infiltration ,edematous muscle and unaffected muscle (neither edematous nor fatty infiltration muscles in patients ) .One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analyses with a significance of P < 0 .05 . Results The mean slow ADC value of fatty infiltration . edematous muscle . and unaffected muscle was 0 .75+0.39,1 .14±0 .19,and 1.00±0 .11 (10 -3 mm2/s ) , respectively ( P < 0 .05 ) .The mean fast ADC value in the three groups was 7 .14±6 .51,13 .56±9 .67,and 4 .02±1.89 (10-3 mm2 /s ) , respectively (P< 0 .05 ) . There was no significant difference in the Ff values among the three groups ( P > 0 .05 ) .The mean slow ADC value in different grades of steatosis was 1 .00±0 .11, 0.98±0 .17, and 0 .50±0 .29 (10-3 mm2/s) , respectively ; the slow ADC value in heavy fat infiltration group differed significantly from that in the other two groups( P<0.05 ).Conclusion IVIM-DWI can be used to quantitatively evaluate the thigh diffusion and microcirculation characteristics of muscles in patients with PMD , make a quantitative analysis of edema and steatosis of the muscle .and reflect the degree of muscle steatosis .

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-507516

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the homology of methicillin-resistant Stphylococcusaureus(MRSA)from the neonatal intensive care unit(NICU)of a children's hospital,and evaluate routes and preventive strategies of MRSA healthcare-associated infection(HAI). Methods MRSA strains from neonates and environment of NICU between October and December 2014 were collected,and strains were identified by VITEK-2 microbial analysis system and cefoxitin Kirby-Bauer method,homology of MRSA was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE ). Results A total of 6 MRSA strains were isolated from NICU between October and December 2014,3 of which (bed-58,70,and 100)were detected MRSA from specimens,MRSA were isolated from neonatal incubator and nurse (nasal swabs and hands)who cared for neonate at bed 58. 5 of 6 MRSA strains were homology,antimicrobial susceptibility testing result showed that No. 1-5 strains were resistant to clindamycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid,No. 6 strain was slightly different from No. 1-5 strains,No. 6 strain was susceptible to both clindamycin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. PFGE results showed that No. 1-5 strains were of the same type,No. 6 strain was a different type. Conclusion The main route of this MRSA transmission is contact transmission,especially through the hands of health care workers,identification and analysis of epidemic strains by PFGE technique is an effective measures to prevent HAI outbreak and perform epidemiological study.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-667184

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the influence of sputum specimens pre-processing on the detection result and its clinical sig-nificance .Methods The sputum samples of 124 inpatients in this hospital from February 2016 to April 2016 were selected .The sputum color ,character ,Gram staining microcopic examinationof sputum smear were observed by adopting the naked-eye observa-tion .Its influence on the sputum specimen isolation results was analyzed .Results Among 124 sputum specimens ,90 cases were qualified ,while 34cases were unqualified ;the qualification rate of colorlesssputum specimens was 30% ,which was lower than 94 .7% of yellow sputum specimens ,100% of rusty sputum specimens ,100% of red sputum specimens and 87 .5% of white sputum specimens ;the qualification rate of frothy or watery sputum specimens was 22 .2% ,which was lower than that of other character sputum specimens ,such as purulent sputum specimens (96 .2% ) ,bloody sputum specimens (100% )and mucous sputum specimens (83 .3% );the cultured results of 34 unqualified specimens were the oral and throat normal flora ,which all had the contaminating bacterial growth ;among 90 qualified specimens ,58 specimens showed pure culture or advantage growth ,and 32 specimens showed contaminating bacterial growth .Conclusion The pre-processing of sputum specimens is an efficient solution for improving the accu-racy of sputum specimens detection results ,and has the important clinical significance .

13.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1092-1096, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-663110

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the comparation of national early warning score (NEWS), rapid emergency medicine score (REMS) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅱ(APACHE Ⅱ) score in predicting prognosis of critically ill patients in emergency department (ED). Methods A retrospective study was conducted. Critically ill patients, aged > 16 years, hospitalized > 24 hours, and admitted to the ED of Nanhua Hospital Affiliated to South China University from January 2016 to June 2017 were enrolled. NEWS, REMS and APACHE Ⅱ score were calculated based on the worst value of each index within 24 hours after emergency admission. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. The relationship between the three scoring systems and the prognosis of patients was analyzed. The predictive value of three scoring systems for the prognosis of critically ill patients in ED was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results A total of 119 emergency severe patients were enrolled in the study, and the 28-day mortality was 21.0%. The scores of NEWS, REMS and APACHE Ⅱ in the death group were significantly higher than those in the survival group (NEWS score: 9.40±3.19 vs. 5.72±2.35, REMS score: 12.64±4.46 vs. 7.97±3.28, APACHE Ⅱscore: 26.64±6.92 vs. 16.19±5.48, all P < 0.01). With the increase of NEWS, REMS and APACHE Ⅱ score, the 28-day mortality of patients gradually increased [28-day mortality of NEWS < 5, 5-6, ≥ 7 was 3.03% (1/34), 13.33% (4/34), 64.25% (20/51); 28-day mortality of REMS < 12, 12-16, ≥ 17 was 10.99% (10/91), 50.00% (11/22), 66.67% (4/6); 28-day mortality of APACHE Ⅱ < 15, 15-24, ≥ 25 was 2.33% (1/43), 15.09% (8/59), 69.57% (16/23), respectively, all P < 0.01]. The ROC curve analysis showed that the areas under the ROC curve (AUC)of NEWS, REMS and APACHE Ⅱ score for predicting the prognosis of emergency critically ill patients were 0.830 [95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.737-0.923], 0.782 (95%CI = 0.671-0.892) and 0.878 (95%CI = 0.800-0.956), respectively (all P = 0.000), and the accuracy of prediction was 57.4%, 48.6%, 65.4%, respectively. Conclusions The scores of NEWS, REMS and APACHE Ⅱ were useful in predicting prognosis of critically ill patients, with the highest accuracy of APACHE Ⅱ forecast, followed by NEWS, and the lowest of REMS. After comprehensive consideration of cost-effectiveness, NEWS is more reliable in ED.

14.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1141-1145, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-506866

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the cerebral protective effect of mild hypothermia by semiconductor cooling device on the liver surface in rabbits after cardiac arrest (CA). Methods Eighteen healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into CA control group, ice saline group and semiconductor group. CA was induced by rapid intravenous injection of potassium chloride. Five minutes after onset of CA, CPR was initiated. Compared to the control group, which was not treated by hypothermia intervention after CPR, the ice saline group was treated by 4 ℃ ice saline infusion and the semiconductor group was treated by the semiconductor refrigeration piece device cooling on the liver surface for hypothermia intervention after CPR. We recorded the changes of temperature (tympanic temperature and anus temperature), heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) of rabbits in each group, neurological deficit scores (NDS) at 24, 48, 72 hours after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and the changes of serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Pathological changes of the hippocampus tissue, liver tissue and skin tissue were obtained by HE staining. Results There was no significant difference in ROSC time in each group. Two rabbits died at 55 hours and 67 hours after ROSC respectively in the control group. The remaining rabbits survived to 72 hours after challenge. There was no significant difference in the overall survival time in groups. Two hypothermia intervention groups had significantly lower level of serum NSE at 24 hours after ROSC and lower DNS scores at 24, 48, 72 hours after ROSC than control group. And the level of serum NSE after 24 hours of ROSC in the semiconductor group were significantly lower than the ice saline group (μg/L: 6.916±1.161 vs. 8.615±1.430, P < 0.05). DNS scores at 24, 48, 72 hours after ROSC in the semiconductor group were all significantly lower than the ice saline group (scores: 1.33±0.52 vs. 2.00±0.01, 1.01±0.41 vs. 2.00±0.01, 0.92±0.40 vs. 2.10±0.52 respectively, all P < 0.05). Two hypothermia intervention groups had more minor damage of neuronal cell in hippocampus than the control group. And the semiconductor group had more minor damage than the ice saline group. There were no obvious hepatic and subcutaneous tissue injury through which the semiconductor induced hypothermia was performed at corresponding liver surface skin. Conclusion The hypothermia by semiconductor cooling device on the liver surface is a new safe way of protecting brain tissue after CA, which has better cerebral protective effect than ice saline infusion.

15.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 822-825, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-479861

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the application of artificial neural network analysis on computerized transrectal ultrasound (ANNAcTRUS) in early detection of prostate cancer.Methods Sixty men with or without prior biopsies, either due to elevated PSA or abnormal digital rectal findings, were included in this study from January 2014 to July 2015.Patient's mean age was (65.6 ± 8.9) years (51-89 years).Their PSA level was (9.8 ± 4.9)μg/L.The patients received the ANNAcTRUS targeted 6-core biopsy.Each patient received six targeted biopsies of suspicious regions, which was identified by ANNAcTRUS online system.Histopathologic examination was further carried out to confirm the result of the targeted biopsies.Results According to the results of ANNAcTRUS,52 of 60 patients received biopsy in ANNAcTRUS group.ANNAcTRUS targeted 6-core biopsy was able to detect prostate cancer in 24 (46.2%) of 52 patients.The distribution of Gleason Score was as follows : 3 + 3 (n =9), 3 + 4 (n =8), 4 + 3 (n =4), 4 +4 (n =2) and 5 +4 (n =1).For patients without prior negative biopsy,ANNAcTRUS targeted 6-core biopsy was able to detect prostate cancer in 17 (51.5%) of 33 patients.Conclusions ANNAcTRUS targeted 6-core biopsy illustrates a higher detection rate of prostate cancer.Furthermore, ANNAcTRUS targeted 6-core biopsy tends to detect low-grade prostate cancer.

16.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 615-619, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-479856

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the outcomes of standard laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (SLRP) and retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) via meta-analysis.Methods A systematic literature search of articles from January 1992 to April 2015 was conducted via Pubmed,Web of Science,Cochrane Library,and EMBASE databases,and the references of the retrieved articles.Fixed-or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates to evaluate operation time,blood loss,transfusion,catheterization time,hospital stay,surgical margin status,perioperative complications,postoperative erectile dysfunction,and postoperative urinary incontinence in these two approaches.Results A total of 17 articles were included in this study.Compared with RRP group,the operation time was longer in SLRP group (SMD =1.20,95% CI 0.83,1.58).On the contrary,the SLRP group held advantages in blood loss (SMD =-2.02,95% CI -2.67,-1.37),transfusion (RR =0.22,95% CI 0.16,0.30),catheterization time (SMD =-1.44,95 % CI-2.34,-0.54),hospital stay (SMD =-0.97,95 % CI-1.29,-0.66) (P < 0.05).Moreover,these two approaches showed no difference in surgical margin status (RR =0.94,95 % CI 0.84,1.05),perioperative complications (RR =0.78,95% CI 0.60,1.02),postoperative erectile dysfunction (RR =1.13,95 % CI 0.97,1.31),and postoperative urinary incontinence (RR =0.85,95 % CI 0.57,1.28) (P >0.05).Conclusions Compared with RRP,SLRP could be a more suitable approach to treat localized prostate cancer.Random clinical trials are needed in the future to better evaluate these two approaches.

17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2638-2645, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315280

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Pyroptosis is the term for caspase-1-dependent cell death associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines. The role of alveolar macrophage (AM) pyroptosis in the pathogenesis of the acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) remains unclear.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>C57BL/6 wild-type mice were assigned to sham, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) + vehicle, LPS + acetyl-tyrosyl-valyl- alanyl-aspartyl-chloromethylketone (Ac-YVAD-CMK) and LPS + Z-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone groups. Mice were given intraperitoneal (IP) injections of LPS. Drugs were IP injected 1 h before LPS administration. Mice were sacrificed 16 h after LPS administration, and AMs were isolated. Western blot analysis for active caspase-1 and cleaved caspase-3, evaluation of lung injury and a cytokine release analysis were performed. AMs were treated with LPS and adenosine triphosphate (ATP); caspase-1-dependent cell death was evaluated using flow cytometry; the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) pyroptosomes were examined by immunofluorescence.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The expression of activated caspase-1 in AMs was enhanced following LPS challenge compared with the sham group. In the ex vivo study, the caspase-1/propidium iodide-positive cells, caspase-1 specks and ASC pyroptosomes were up-regulated in AMs following LPS/ATP stimulation. The specific caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK inhibited the activation of caspase-1 and pyroptotic cell death. Ac-YVAD-CMK also reduced the lung injury, pulmonary edema and total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In addition, Ac-YVAD-CMK significantly inhibited interleukin-α2 (IL-1α2) release both in serum and BALF and reduced the levels of IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α± (TNF-α±), High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) in BALF during LPS-induced ALI/ARDS.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study reported AM pyroptosis during LPS-induced ALI/ARDS in mice and has demonstrated that Ac-YVAD-CMK can prevent AM-induced pyroptosis and lung injury. These preliminary findings may form the basis for further studies to evaluate this pathway as a target for prevention or reduction of ALI/ARDS.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones , Pharmacology , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides , Toxicity , Macrophages, Alveolar , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oligopeptides , Pharmacology , Pyroptosis
18.
China Oncology ; (12): 333-341, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-447513

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose:The human oncogene B-cell-speciifc moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1) is an important member of the polycomb group family, and it regulates cell proliferation and senescence via INK4a/ARF locus. This study investigated the effects of Bmi-1-siRNA on the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A1 cells with INK4a/ARF locus and clarify the mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated effect on proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Methods:In this study, we chose the most efifcient siRNA chain the pGeneshl-2-Bmi-1 sense-1 and inserted into a pSUPER-retro-neo retroviral vector. The packaged si-Bmi-1 pSUPERret-ro-neo retroviral vector was stably transfected into lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cell line. The stably transfected cells were cultured and passed. After transfection, the levels of Bmi-1 mRNA and protein expression of SPC-A1 cells were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Trypan blue, MTT and plate colony forming assay were performed to observe the proliferation capibility of SPC-A1 cells and evaluate the cloning forming ability in vitro. The potency of tumorigenesis was observed in nude mouse through hypodermic inoculation of SPC-A1 cells. Cell cycle distribu-tion was analyzed by lfow cytometry (FCM) in SPC-A1 cells. The expression levels of proliferation proteins including p16INK4a, p53, Cyclin D1, PTEN, Akt and Ser473p-Akt were analyzed by Western blot. Results:The mRNA and protein expression levels of Bmi-1 were signiifcantly reduced in SPC-A1-Bmi-1-siRNA cells transfected with pSUPER-retro-neo retroviral vector. Knockdown of Bmi-1 could inhibit the growth, colony formation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo of SPC-A1 cells (P0.05), while Cyclin D1 and Ser473p-Akt were downregulated (P<0.01) and PTEN was up-regulated (P<0.01) in the SPC-A1-Bmi-1-siRNA cells. SPC-A1-Bmi-1-siRNA cells were treated with various concentrations of PTEN inhibitor to determine expression levels of PTEN, Bmi-1 and Ser473p-Akt protein. Ablation of PTEN rescued Bmi-1 and Ser473p-Akt expression in SPC-A1-Bmi-1-siRNA cells. Conclusion:Knockdown of Bmi-1 gene can arrest the proliferation of SPC-A1 cells through G0/G1 phase arrest by inhibiting Cyclin D1 expression indirectly, which may be not associated with p16INK4a signaling pathway.

19.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 245-248, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-446784

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of cystic renal cell carcinoma.Methods The clinical data of 67 cases of cystic renal cell carcinoma treated from January 2005 to April 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Preoperative imaging procedures indicated masses of renal cysts in 67 cases,including malignant tumors in 59 cases.Intraoperative pathological examination was performed in 59 cases and the pathological results showed malignant tumors in 56 cases,renal cyst in 2 cases and multilocular cyst of kidney in 1 case.The surgical procedures included radical nephrectomy (n=19),partial nephrectomy (n =12),retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (n =9),retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (n =20),retroperitoneal laparoscopic cyst unroofed then transferred to radical nephrectomy (n =6),and retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy transferred to radical nephrectomy (n =1).Results The 67 cases were diagnosed as renal carcinoma,including clear renal cell carcinoma with cystic changes in 31 cases and multilocular renal cell carcinoma in 36 cases.Sixty-two cases were followed up for 10-110 months (median 56 months),and there was no recurrence or metastasis,among which 7 cases diagnosed as benign pre-operation or intra-operation but malignant by pathological examination after surgery were followed up for 61-103 months (median 82 months).Conclusions Imaging plays an important role in the early diagnosis of cystic renal cell carcinoma.Intraoperative pathological examination should be performed in suspected cases.Nephron-sparing surgery is preferred with good outcome.

20.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 833-835, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-469862

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical features of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma under 50 years.Methods Between January 2008 and April 2014,we reviewed 21 cases with prostate cancer under 50 years old.The mean age in those patients was 48 years old (ranged 42-49 years old).Their tPSA level was elevated,including>10 μg/L in 17 cases,4-10 μg/L in 4 cases.21 cases were all confirmed by pathology.The results Gleason score showed 6 scores in 3 cases,7 scores in 6 cases (3+4 scores in 5 cases and 4+3 scores in one case),8 scores in 7 cases and 9 scores in 5 cases.In the study,clinical stage was for T2N0M0 in 16 cases,T3N0M0 in 1 case,T4NxM0 in 1 case and T3-4N1M1 in 3 cases.The treatments were hormonal therapy was chosen in 5 cases and radical prostatectomy was performed in 16 cases,including 16 cases with T2N0M0 stage and one case with T3N0M0.Results In those patients who accepted the radical prostatectomy,the duration of follow-up ranged from 3 to 65 months (mean 23 months).During the follow-up,14 patients had a lower incidence of biochemical recurrence.1 patient (T2,PSA 82.8 μg/L,GS 9) had external beam radiotherapy one month after the radical prostatectomy because of tumor invasion into the prostatic capsule.Then his PSA level returned to the 0.2 μg/L.1 patient (T3,PSA 38.9 μg/L,GS 8) had external beam radiotherapy 18 months after the radical prostatectomy because of biochemical recurrence and the tPSA level returned to the 4.0 μg/L.All patients who underwent radical prostatectomy had favourable recovery of urinary continence.In 5 patients who had androgen deprivation therapy,2 patients died after 63 or 65 months and one patient was lost to follow-up.The PSA level in one patient decreased from 71.8 μg/L to 2 μg/L after four months treatment.One patient had castration resistant prostate cancer and the adjuvant external beam radiotherapy was considered,subsequently.Conclusions Men under the 50 years old,who are diagnosed with localised prostate cancer,usually demonstrated the early clinic stage and high Gleason scores.It should not be discouraged from RP.Young men with metastatic prostate cancer have a poor prognosis.

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