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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921790

ABSTRACT

Cambodia is rich in medicinal plant resources. One hundred and thirty-three medicinal material samples, including the hole herb, root, stem/branch, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, and resin, were collected from the Orussey Herbal Market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and then authenticated by ITS and psbA-trnH. A total of 46 samples were identified based on ITS sequences, belonging to 24 families, 40 genera, and 42 species. A total of 100 samples were identified by psbA-trnH sequences to belong to 42 families, 77 genera, and 84 species. A total of 103 samples were identified by two DNA barcodes. According to the morphological characteristics of the medicinal materials, 120 samples classified into 50 species, 86 genera, and 86 families were identified, and the majority of them were from Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae, and Acanthaceae. Such samples have been commonly used in traditional Cambodian medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and ethnomedicine, but different medical systems focus on different functional aspects of the same medicinal material. The results of this study have demonstrated that DNA barcoding has a significant advantage in identifying herbal products, and this study has provided basic data for understanding the traditional medicinal materials used in Cambodia.


Subject(s)
Cambodia , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant/genetics , Humans , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal/genetics
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921672

ABSTRACT

Dirigent(DIR) proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of lignin, lignans, and gossypol in plants and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. Based on the full-length transcriptome of Schisandra chinensis, bioinformatics methods were used to preliminarily identify the DIR gene family and analyze the physico-chemical properties, subcellular localization, conserved motifs, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the proteins. The results showed that a total of 34 DIR genes were screened and the encoded proteins were 156-387 aa. The physico-chemical properties of the proteins were different and the secondary structure was mainly random coil. Half of the DIR proteins were located in chloroplast, while the others in extracellular region, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm, etc. Phylogenetic analysis of DIR proteins from S. chinensis and the other 8 species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Glycine max demonstrated that all DIR proteins were clustered into 5 subfamilies and that DIR proteins from S. chinensis were in 4 subfamilies. DIR-a subfamily has the unique structure of 8 β-sheets, as verified by multiple sequence alignment. Finally, through the analysis of the transcriptome of S. chinensis fruit at different development stages, the expression pattern of DIR was clarified. Combined with the accumulation of lignans in fruits at different stages, DIR might be related to the synthesis of lignans in S. chinensis. This study lays a theoretical basis for exploring the biological functions of DIR genes and elucidating the biosynthesis pathway of lignans in S. chinensis.


Subject(s)
Fruit/genetics , Lignans/analysis , Phylogeny , Schisandra , Sequence Alignment
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335756

ABSTRACT

To provide a scientific evidence for the quality control of Codonopsis Radix, a method was established for determining the content of three free carbohydrates of Codonopsis Radix. The developed method showed good linearity. The calibration curves were linear within the range of 2.312 5-18.500 0 μg for sucrose, 1.500 0-12.000 0 μg for glucose, and 2.000 0-16.000 0 μg for fructose, resgectwely. The recoveries varied between 96.31%-101.8%. The method is simple, accurate and reproducible, and can be used for determining the content of sucrose, glucose and fructose of Codonopsis Radix. The results showed that different cultivation measures had an effect on the content of three free carbohydrates of Codonopsis Radix. According to the content of sucrose, using Zhuanggenling>not using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving. According to the content of glucose and fructose, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>not pinching, shelving>pinching, not shelving. In consideration of the differences of sweetness and content of the three free carbohydrates in Codonopsis Radix, we recommend that the content of free carbohydrates could be considered as the marker to evaluate the quality of Codonopsis Radix.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304805

ABSTRACT

In order to evaluate the heavy metal potential pollution of soil and medicinal materials in main producing area of Phellodendron amurense, we collected 32 soil samples and 32 herb samples from northeast and north of China covering four provinces. In this study, the detection of heavy metal contents was conducted by ICP emission spectroscopy and atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The results showed that the soil from all areas of Ph amurense generally reached the national standard. As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb and Cu content of herb samples met the requirtment of the national standard except Hg content exceeding standard slight in a few samples. The reason of excessive Hg was the ability of Hg accumulation in Ph. amurense and atmospheric environment was polluted. So, national standard and Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) must be carried out severely in Ph. amurense resources production.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-307090

ABSTRACT

To observe the influence of different cultivation measures on the chemical constituents of Codonopsis Radix and provide reference for its reasonable cultivation, Codonopsis Radix samples cultivated by different cultivation measures were collected from the planting base in Min county,and their quality were evaluated by establishing HPLC fingerprint and determining the content of lobetyolin and Codonopsis Radix polysaccharide. The results show that different cultivation measures have an effect on the quality of Codonopsis Radix and the contents of lobetyolin and Codonopsis Radix polysaccharide are obviously different. According to the content of lobetyolin, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving>pinching, not shelving. According to the content of Codonopsis Radix polysaccharide, not using Zhuanggenling>using Zhuanggenling. While, not pinching, shelving>not pinching, not shelving>pinching, not shelving>pinching, shelving. Based on the chemical quality evaluation results, the appropriate cultivation measure of Codonopsis Radix is not using Zhuanggenling, not pinching and shelving.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250487

ABSTRACT

In the present research, 674 wild medicinal material samples of Phellodendri amurensis Cortex were collected from 31 sampling sites in the whole distribution of its original plant Phellodendron amurense. The samples were collected under the premise that the stem diameter of sampling plant, sampling position and time were controlled. And the sampling sites were set at the interval of a latitude. The content of 6 kinds of active ingredients, palmatine chloride, berberine hydrochloride, phellodendrine chloride, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, magnoflorine, chlorogenic acid, etc in the medicinal material samples were determined, and the results showed that the content of most active ingredients in the medicinal materials showed significant differences due to the difference of sampling sites. Among them, the medicinal materials from Liaoning region had the highest content of active ingredients, followed by Beijing and Jilin regions, and that from Heilongjiang region had the lowest content. The study has important directive significance to the exploration of environmental factors for the formation of active constituent and artificial planting regionalization of high quality Phellodendri amurensis Cortex.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304825

ABSTRACT

This study is to determine the content of three alkaloids and establish the HPLC fingerprint of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula. The HPLC method of content determination was as follows: Thermo C18 (4. 6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) was conducted with acetonitrile-sodium dodecyl sulfonate solution-acetic acid (56: 43: 1) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The monitoring wavelength was set at 282 nm and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. The method of HPLC fingerprint was as follows: Agilent ZORBAX SB-Aq C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) was conducted with gradient elution of methanol and water at a flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), the monitoring wavelength was set at 282 nm and the column temperature was 35 degrees C. Similarities evaluation and hierarchical clustering analysis were applied to demonstrate the variability of 12 batches of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula samples. The results demonstrated that 11 batches showed good similarity on chemical constituents. The method could well display the chemical information of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula. It was simple, reliable and could be used for the chemical quality control of "Jianlian" Nelumbinis Plumula.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Nelumbo , Chemistry , Quality Control , Seeds , Chemistry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250428

ABSTRACT

The quality of Chinese medicinal materials relates greatly to the clinical curative effect and security. In order to ensure the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials, a systematic and operable traceability system needs to be established. It can realize the whole process of quality and safety management of Chinese medicinal materials "from production to consumption" through recording and inquiring information and recalling defective products, which is an important direction for the future development of traditional Chinese medicine. But it is still at the exploration and trial stage. In this paper, a framework of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and safety traceability system was established on the basis of the domestic and international experience about the construction of food and agricultural products traceability systems. The relationship between traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and GAP, GMP, GSP was analyzed, and the possible problems and the corresponding solutions were discussed.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Quality Control
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1296-1303, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299136

ABSTRACT

To study the chemical constituents of K. oblongifolia, silica gel column chromatography, MCI and Sephadex LH-20 were used to separate the 70% acetone extract of the stems of K. oblongifolia. The structures of the isolated compounds have been established on the basis of physicochemical and NMR spectroscopic evidence as well as ESI-MS in some cases. Twenty compounds were obtained and identified as heteroclitalignan A (1), kadsulignan F (2), kadoblongifolin C (3), schizanrin F (4), heteroclitalignan C (5), kadsurarin (6), kadsulignan O (7), eburicol (8), meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (9), kadsufolin A (10), tiegusanin M (11), heteroclitin B (12), (7'S)-parabenzlactone (13), angeloylbinankadsurin B (14), propinquain H (15), quercetin (16), kadsulignan P (17), schizanrin G (18), micrandilactone C (19) and (-)-shikimic acid (20). Compouds 1, 5, 8, 11-15, 18 and 20 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Toxicity of compounds 1-10 were evaluated with zebrafish model to observe the effect on its embryonic development and heart function. The results showed that compounds 7, 9 and 10 caused edema of zebrafish embryo and decreased the heart rate of zebrafish, which exhibited interference effect on heart development of zebrafish.


Subject(s)
Animals , Embryo, Nonmammalian , Guaiacol , Toxicity , Kadsura , Chemistry , Lignans , Toxicity , Plant Extracts , Toxicity , Quercetin , Toxicity , Triterpenes , Toxicity , Zebrafish , Embryology
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-244583

ABSTRACT

The systematic position of Fritillaria hupehensis has been in dispute. Phylogentic analyses were conducted on sequences of ITS, rpl16, matK sequences for species of F. hupehensis and allies. Lilium davidii was designed as outgroup. The analyses were performed using MP and ML methods. Conclusions could be achieved as follow. The topologies of MP and ML are consistent. The samples of F. hepehensis from different places form a supported clade with a strong bootstrap. And then form a strongly supported clade with F. anhuiensis, F. monantha. The results suggests that although F. hupehensis has a closet relation with the two ones, it exists some difference.


Subject(s)
DNA, Plant , Chemistry , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Endoribonucleases , Genetics , Fritillaria , Classification , Genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Nucleotidyltransferases , Genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Genetics , Ribosomal Proteins , Genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350686

ABSTRACT

According to the process of the technical specification (TS) design for the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources (CMMR), we analyzed the assignment and objectives of the national survey and pointed out that the differences about CMMR management around China, the distribution of CMMR and their habitat, the economic and technological level, and even enthusiasm and initiative of the staff, etc. are the most difficult points for TS design. And we adopt the principle of combination of the mandatory and flexibility in TS design. We fixed the key points which would affect the quality of national survey first, then proposed the framework of TS which including 3 parts of organization and 11 parts of technique itself. The framework will serve and lead the TS preparation, which will not only provide an action standard to the national survey but will also have a profound influence to the popularization and application of the survey technology of CMMR. [Key words]


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Workforce , Methods , Reference Standards , China , Conservation of Natural Resources , Data Collection , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Materia Medica , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Quality Control
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350646

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicinal resource survey method is time-consuming, strenuous, and having great human influence, the precision is not high enough. This paper, by using spatial information technology, carries on spatial sampling survey for wild medicinal plants resource for generous species to arrange the quadrat scientifically and estimate the suitable area, reserve precisely of medicinal plants. It not only improves the survey precision, but reduces the workload of field survey and provides scientific basis for survey method of pilot work on the fourth national traditional Chinese medicinal resource census.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Spatial Analysis
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318613

ABSTRACT

The planning of the fourth national survey on Chinese materia medica resources shall follow the requirement of "carrying out the national survey on Chinese materia medica resources, strengthening the construction of Chinese materia medica resources monitoring and information network" which is according to the document issued by the State Council. Based on the responsibilities of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine which is "organizing the survey, promoting the resource-protection, keeping development and rational utilization", combined with the key problems that need to be solved in current medicinal industry, the related instructions issued by central leadership and the recommendations from NPC delegates, CPPCC members and experts, the planning shall make overall plans and top-level design for the new round of national survey on Chinese materia medica resources.


Subject(s)
China , Data Collection , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Goals , Materia Medica , Research Design , Social Control, Formal
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-314958

ABSTRACT

According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results.


Subject(s)
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , China , Data Collection , Materia Medica , Chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294072

ABSTRACT

Sixteen compounds were isolated from Conioselinum vaginatum by silica column chromatography over silica gel and Sephadex LH-20, as well as recrystallization. On the basis of their physical and chemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as ligustilide (1), 1,3-dilinolein (2), coniferaldehyde (3), myristicin (4), stigmasterol (5), beta-sitosterol (6), vanillin (7), pregnenolone (8), bergapten (9), xanthotoxin (10), methyl indole-3-carboxylate (11), ferulic acid (12), (E)-3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-cinnamic alcohol (13), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (14), 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-acetophenone (15), and alpha-(ethoxymethyl)-4-hydroxy- benzenemethanol (16). Among them, compound 15 was a new natural product, and compounds 2, 3, 10, 11, 14, and 16 were obtained from this genus for the first time.


Subject(s)
Apiaceae , Chemistry , Benzaldehydes , Chemistry , Dextrans , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Structure , Sitosterols , Chemistry
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-238648

ABSTRACT

Conducted research on new allelochemicals phellamurine extracted from deciduous of Phellodendron amurense, which worked in allelopathy effect to seed germination and growth process of P. amurense and P. chinense in order to interpret the causes of rare seedlings of wild populations of P. amurense. Extracted and separated phellamurine from P. amurense deciduous, and treated the seeds of P. amurense and P. chinense in after-ripening stage and germination stage with different concentrations of phellamurine solution, then detection of the seed germination rate, germination index, seedling height, root length and seed vigor index to evaluate the allelopathic effect of phellamurine. The results show that: phellamurine solution at 0.30 g x L(-1) produce significant inhibition to seed after-ripening of P. amurense, and also the solution at 0.15 g x L(-1) produce significant inhibition to seeds germination of P. amurense; the solution at 0.15 g x L(-1) produce significant inhibition to seeds after-ripening and seeds germination of P. chinense, inhibition intensity increased with the concentration and enhanced. For both species, the presence of phellamurine can lower the seed germination rate, extend the germination time, reduce the ability of seedlings to adapt to the environment, thus the phellamurine may be one of the causes of rare seedlings in the wild population of P. amurense.


Subject(s)
Allelopathy , Ecosystem , Environment , Germination , Phellodendron , Chemistry , Pheromones , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Seeds , Chemistry , Temperature
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295399

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the genetic diversity from ex-situ conservation population of Phellodendron amurense.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Genetic diversity in 67 individuals from ex-situ conservation population of P. amurense were assessed using AFLP technique by eight fluorescent labeled primer groups.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The eight primer combinations generated a total of 1,574 bands, of which 1,354 were polymorphic. As for P. amurense at species level, the percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) was 86.02, the effective number of alleles per locus (Ne) was 1.4275 ,the Nei's gene diversity (H) was 0.2312, and the Shannon's information index (I) was 0.3973. At the population level, the estimates PPL=41.55, H=0.1400, Ne=0.2376 and I=0.2113.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The effect of present ex-situ conservation was preliminarily assessed.</p>


Subject(s)
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis , Conservation of Natural Resources , DNA Primers , Genetics , Genetic Variation , Phellodendron , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283863

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study optimum planting density and sowing depth of Tulipa edulis.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The effects of different planting densities, sowing depth and thin plastic film cover were studied on yield, rate of increase, bulb weight increased multiples, and proliferation rate of bulb.</p><p><b>RESULT AND CONCLUSION</b>Under 30-200 bulbs per squremeter density range, the yield increased with the density increasing, and reached significance level. In 5-20 centimeter depth range, the yield and the number of harvested bulbs enhanced along with the sowing depth increasing, and the best sowing depth was 20 cm. Thin plastic film cover showed no effect on the growth.</p>


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Methods , Crops, Agricultural , Tulipa
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-283788

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the safe use of 10% difenoconazole in planting Gentiana scabra.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The degradation dynamics of 10% ifenoconazole in the stems and leaves of G. scabra collecting in different time were determined by GC with ECD detection, and the half life of difenoconazole in the plant was calculated, and then the safe use method of 10% difenoconazole was formulated.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Under the local climatic conditions, the half life of 10% difenoconazole was 6.84-6.90 days.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>In the good agricultural practice (GAP) of G. scabra, the maximal concentration of 10% difenoconazole is 400 g x ha(-1), the safety interval of using 10% difenoconazole is 40 days.</p>


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Methods , Dioxolanes , Pharmacokinetics , Gentiana , Metabolism , Half-Life , Plant Leaves , Metabolism , Plant Stems , Metabolism , Time Factors , Triazoles , Pharmacokinetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315945

ABSTRACT

The current methods to prepare and determine pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicine were summarized in this paper. In addition,the new techniques to prepare and determine pesticide residues used in recent years was reviewed, which included solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) , supercritical fluid extraction ( SFE) , accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) , immune affinity chromatography (IAC), supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), column switching high performance liquid chromatography (CSHPLC), high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) , and immune analysis (IA), etc. To sum up, these would bring a great progress in analysis of the pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicine, and make it more rapidly, accurately and normatively.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Electrophoresis, Capillary , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Pesticide Residues , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Reproducibility of Results , Solid Phase Microextraction , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods
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